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J(ntroiittrti0n an i^t Origin of Jangnage, 





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It requires only a superficial acqaamtance ^th the priadpal languages of 
Europe to recognise tbdr divisioD into four or five main classes, each compriung 
a nnmber of subordinate dialects, which have so much in common in their stock 
of wordsand in their grammatical structure, as irre«stibty to impress ui with the 
conviction that the peoples by whom they are spoken, are the progeny, with 
more or less mixture of fordgn elements, of a common ancestry. If we compare 
German and Dutch, for instance, or Danish and Swedish, it is impossible in either 
case to doubt that the people speaking the pair of languages are a cognate race; 
that there was a time more or less remote when the ancestors of the Swabians 
and the Hollanders, or of the Danes and Swedes, were comprised among a people 
q)eaking a common language. The relation between Danish and Swedish is of 
the closest kind, that between Dutch and German a more distant one, and we 
cannot (aH to recognise a umilar relationship, though of more remote an origin, 
between thft Scandinavian dialects, on the one hand, and the Teutonic, on the 
other, — the two together Kanung what a called the Germanic <dass of Languages. 
A like gradation of resemblance is found in the other classes. The Welsh, 
Cornish, and Breton, like the Danish and Swedish, have the appearance of descent 
from a common parentage at no very distant period, and the same is true of 
OaeUc and Manx. On the' other hand, there is a greater difieience between 
Gaelic and Welsh than there is between any of the branches of the Germanic 
class; while, at the same time, there are peculiarities of grammatical structure 
common to both, and so much identity traceable in the roots of the language, as 
to leave no bentation in classing them as branches of a common Celticstock. And 
so in the Slavonic class, Polish and Czech or Bohemian, as Bussian and Servian, 
are sister languages, while the. difference between Russian and Polish is so great 
ai to argne a much longer separation of the national life. 

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In tbe case of the Romaace languages we know hiitorically that the coontriet 
where Italian, Proven9al, French, Spanish, &c., are ipoken, were thorough col- 
onised by the Romans, and were for ceDtnries under nibjection to the empire. 
We accordingly regard the foregoing class of langoages as descended ftom Latin, 
the language of the Imperial Government, and we account for th^ divergences, 
not so much from the comparative length of their separate duration, as from 
mixture with the speech of the sut^ect nations who formed the Ixxfy of the 
people io the diAerent provinces. 

With Latin and the other Italic languages, Umbrian and Oscan, of which 
gUght remains have come down to us, most be reckoned Greek and Albanian, 
as members of a femUy ranking with the Germanic, the Celtic, and Slavonic 
stocks, although there has not been occasion to designate the group by a collect- 
ive' name. When we entend our mxrrey to Sanscrit and Zend, the ancient 
' languages of India and Persia, we find the same evidences of relationship in the 
fondamental part of the words, as well as the grammatical structure of the 
language, which led us to legard ^x great femilies of European speech as de- 
scendants of a common stock. 

Throughout the whole of this vast circle the names of the numerals nnmis- 
takeably graduate into each odter, however starding the dissimilaritf tnaj be in 
particular cases, where die name of a number in one language is compared with 
the corresponding form in another, as when we compare Jwe and ^um^w, /our 
and tessera, seven and hepta. The names of the umplest blood relations, atjalker, 
mother, brvther, sUler, are equally miivereal. Many of the pronouns, the pref>o- 
sitions and particles of abstract signification, as well as words destgnating the 
most ^miliar objects and actions v( ordinary hfe, are part of the coounon 

Thus step by step has been attained the conviction that the principal races of- 
Europe and of India are all d«cei>ded from a single people, who had already 
attained a considerabledegreeof civilisation, and q>s&««languigeof grammatical 
structure similar to that of their deacendmts. Prom tlus primeval tribe it is 
supposed that colonies branched off in difierent direction, and becoming isolated 
in their new settlements, grew up into separate peoples, speaking dialects assum- 
ing more and more distinctly tlieir own peculiar foatures, tmtil they gradually 
developed in the form of Zend and Sanscrit and the diderent dasses of European 

The light which is thus thrown on the pedigree and relation^up of tacea be- 
yond the reach of history u however only an inddetital reaolt of lii^uiatic study. 
For language, the machinery and vefaide of thought, and iiklispeiaaUe con- 
dition of all mental progress, holds out to the rational inquirer a si^eot of as 
high an intrinsic interest as that which Geology finds m the structure of the 
Globe, or Astronomy in the movements of the heavenly bodies. 

Etymology embraces every question concerning the structure of words. It 
resolves them into thrar constituent elements, traces their growth and relation- 
ships, examines the changes they undergo in thriruse by successive generations of 



men, or in the miitore of if)ee<^ broog^t about by the ^doritudes of war or of 
peicdul intercourK, and leeki in mery way to eloodate the couns by which the 
word* of a knguage have come to signify the meaning vhich tbey niggest to & 
Batire ear. 

The first itep that must be taken in the analjusof aword,istodiitingniahthe 
part which contwns the fundamental ugnificance, from the gramnutictil ele* 
Boents nsed to modify tiiat Hgoificance in a r^nlar waj, such « the inflections of 
verbs and of noung, the terminationi which give an abstract or an adjectival oc 
diminatival fenae to the word, or any similar contrivancea in habitaal use in the 
hagnage. It will be coaveoient to lay aside for separate conaid«^li<xi these 
grammatical adjuncts, and to confine our attention, in the first place, to the radical 
portion of the word. If ve take the word Enmity, for example, we recognise 
the termination <y as die tigs of an abstract noun, and we undentaqd the wwd 
as signifying the state or condition of an enemy, which is felt as the immediate 
parent of the English wtmL Now we know diatouMjr comes to us through the 
FicDch ennemi from Latin tnimiciu, which may itself be r^ularly leaolved into 
the prefix in (equivalent to our iw), impljing negation or oppontion, and amats, 
a fiiend. In amats, again, we distinguish the syllable -tu m the ugn of a noun in 
the nominative case ; -t^aa an elemmt equivalent to the German-^ or English -y 
in wkmiy, hairy, &c, as an adjective termination indicatiDg possession or connec- 
tion with j and finally the radical element am, ligiufying love, which is presented 
in the simpleat form in the vert> onus I love. 

Here our power of analjsia b brought to a close, Bor would tt advance our 
knowledge of the structure of language by a single step, if it could be shown that 
the syllable am was a Sanscrit root as well as a Latin one. It would merely ba 
one more proof of a primitive connection between the Latin and the Indian 
race^ but the same problem would remain in either cue, how the pliable am 
could be connected with the thought c^ love. Thus sooner or later the Etymol- 
ofpst is brought to the qneslion of the origin of Language. The sdentific ac- 
count c€ any particular word will only be complete when it is understood how 
the root to which the word has been traced could have acquired its proper signi- 
ficance among tlie founders of Language. The q>eech of man in his mother 
toogue is not, amraig children of the present day, a spontaneous growth of nature. 
The expression itielf of wiolherUoHgue shows the immediate source fit»n whence 
the language of each (tf us is derived. The child learns to speak from the inter- 
course of those ia whose care he is placed. If an English in&nt were removed 
from its parents and committed to the qh^E* °f ^ Cheek or a Turkish home, he 
would be troubled by no instinctive smatterings of English, but would grow up iq 
the same command of Greek or of Turkish as his foster brotben. 

Thus langnage, like writing, is an tut handed down from one generation to 
aaother, and when we would trace upwards to its origin the pedigree of this grand 
distinction between man and the brute creation, we must either suppose that the 
line of tradition has been absolutely endless, that there never was a period at 
which the family of man was not to be found on earth, speaking a language be- 



queathed to him t^ his aooeaton, or we mtuc at last arrive at a geoeratioD which 
was not taught their language by their parents. The question then arises, how 
did the generation, in which language was originally developed, attain so valuable 
an art i Must we suppose that our first parents were sapematorally endowed 
with the power of speaking and understanding a definite language, which was 
transmitted in natural course to their descendants, and was variousty modified in 
different lines of descent through countless ages, during which the race of map 
spread over the earth in separate femiliea of people, until languages were pro- 
duced between which, as at present, no cognisable relation can be traced i 

Or is it possible, among the principles recognised as having contributed ele- 
ments more or less abundant in every known language, to indicate a suffident 
cause for the entire origination of language in a generation of men who had not 
jet acquired the command of that great instrument of thought, though in 
every natural capacity the same as ourselves ? 

When the question is brought to this definite stage, the same step will be 
gained in the science of language which was made in geology, when it was re- 
cognLied that the phenomena of the science must be explained by the action of 
powers, such as are known to be active at the present day in waking changes oti 
the structnre of the earth. The investigator of speech must accept as his start- 
ing-ground the existence of man as yet without knowledge of language, but en- 
dowed with intellectual powers and command of his bodily fiame, such as we 
ourselves are conscious of possessing, in the same way that the geologist takes his 
stand on the (act of a globe composed of lands and seas subjected, as at the pre- 
sent day, to the influence of rains and tides, tempests, frosts, earthquakes, and sub- 
terranean fires. 

A preliminary objection to the supposition of any natural origin of language 
has been raised by the modern German school of philosophen, whose theory 
leads them to deny the possibility of man having ever existed in a state of mutism. 
* Man is only man by speech,' says W. v. Humboldt, ' but in order to discover 
speech he must already be man.' And Professor Max Miiller, who cites the 
epigram, adopts the opinion it expresses. 'Philosophers,' he says (Lectures on 
the Science of Language, p. 34?), ' who imagine that (be fint man, though left 
to himself, would gradually have emerged from a state of mutism, and have in- 
vented words for every new conception that arose in his mind, foi^ that man 
could not by his own power have acquired the feculQr of speech, which is (be 
distinctive character of mankind, unattuned and unattunable by the mute crea- 
tion.' The supposed difficulty is altogether a fallacy arising from a confiioon 
between the faculty of speech and the actual knowledge of language. 

The possession of the facul^ of speech means only that man is rendered ca- 
pable of speech by the original constitution of bis mind and physical frame, as a 
bird of flying by the possession of wings ; but inasmuch as man does not learn to 
speak, as a bird to fly, by the instinctive exercise of the proper organ, it becomes 
a legitimate object of inquiry how the skilled use of the tongue was originally 



It is nupririi^ that nay one ihould have stock at the German parados, in the 
face of the patent fact that we all are bora in a state of mutiam, and gradually 
acquire the use of language from intercourse with those around us, while those 
who are cut t^ by congenital dea&ess from all opportunity of hearing the speech 
of others, remain permanently dumb, unless th^ have the good fortune to meet 
with instructors, by whom they may be taught not only to express tlteirthoughti 
by manual signs, but also to speak intelligibly notwithstanding the disadrantaga 
of not hearing tbdr own voice. 

Since then it is matter of feet that in(UviduaIs are found by no means wanting 
in intelligence who only attain the use of speech in matore life, and otheis who 
never attain it at all, it is plain tliat there can be do metaphysical objection to the 
supposition that the family of man was in existence at a period when the use of 
language was wholly unknown. How man in so imperfect a state could manage 
to support himself, and maintain his ground against the wild beasts, is a question 
which need not concern us. 

The high reputation of Professor Max Miiller as a linguist, and the great 
popularity of his Lectures on Language, have given to the doctrine which 
he there expounds, an importance not deserved either by the clearness of 
the doctrine itself, or by any light which it ttirows on the fimdamental problems 
of Langua^. He asserts (p. 369) that the 400 or 500 roots to which the 
languages of dii&reni famiUes may be reduced, are neither interjections nor 
imitations, but 'phonetic types produced by a power inherent in human 
nature. Man in bis primitive and perfect state had instincts of which no traces 
remain at the present day, the instinct being lost when the purpose for vbich it 
was required was Ailfilled, as the senses become weaker when, as in the case of 
scent, they become useless.' By such an instinct the primitive Man was en- 
dowed with the faculty of giving articulate expression to the rational conceptions 
of his mind. He was * irresistibly impelled to accompany every conception of 
his mind by an exertion of the voice, articulately modulated in correspondence 
with the thought which called it forth, in a manner analogous to that in which a 
body, struck by a hammer, answen with a diflerent ring according as it is com- 
posed of metal, stone, or wood-t 

At the same time it must be supposed that the instinct which gave rise to the 
expresnon of thoi^ht by articulate sound, would enable those who beard such 
sounds to undentand what was passing in the mind of the person who uttered 
them. At the beginning the number of these phonetic types must have been 
almost infinite, and it would only be by a process of natural elimination that 
clusten of roots, more or less f^nonymous, would gradually be reduced to one 
definite type (p. 371). IIiub a stock of significant sounds would be produced 
from whence all the languages on earth were devdoped, and when ' the creative 
&cally, which gave to each conception as it thrilled the first time through the 

* Itm* an instinct, ui insdnct of tbe mind as iireristible as any other instinct. — p. 37a 
i' Tbe bcnlty peculiar to man in his primitive state b; which every impression from without 
received its vocal enpressioD from wiltun most be accepted as a &ct— p. 370^ o. 



brain a phonetic expression,' had its object fulfilled in the estabUthment of lan- 
guage, the instinct fiided awi^, leaving the inftnts of nbseqneQt generations tolearn 
th«r language of their parents, and those who should be bom deaf to do as wdl 
as tbey could without any oral meaoi of communicating their thoughts or 

By other writerB of the same philosophical school the instinct Is retained ia 
permanence, in order to account for the vitahty of words during the vast period 
of time, from the £ret branching off of the pristiue Ariaa stxxi into different 
families, down to the present day. It is practically such an instinct which 
Curtius demands as the bans of any theory of language, in the very valuable in- 
troduction to his GruuEiige der Griech. Etym^ p. 91. 

Id all the languages of the Indo-Europeao family, he says 'from tbe Ganges m 
the Atlantic the tame combination sla designates the phenomenon of standing, 
while the (^inception of flowing is as widely associated with the utterance plv 
or slighdy modified forms. This cannot be accidentaL The same conception 
caa only have been miited with the same vocal utterance for so many thousand 
years, because in the consciousness (geflihl) of the people there was an inward 
bond between the two, that it, because there was for them a penistent tendemy 
to express that conception by precisely those sounds. The Philo80[^y t^ Speech 
must lay down the postulate of a physiologic potenq' of sounds (einer physiolo- 
gischen gdtong der laute), and it can no otherwise elucidate the origin of words, 
than by the assumption of a relation of their sounds to the impression which the 
things ngnified by them produce on the soul of the speaker. The tignificatioa 
thus dwells like a soul in the vocal utterance : the conception, says W. v. Hum* 
boldt, is as little able to cast itself loose irom the word as man can divest himself 
of his personal aspect.' 

It is a ^tal objection to speculations like the foregoing that they appeal to 
principles of which we have no distitict experience. If it were true that there ii 
in the constitution of man a physiologic connection between the sounds sla and 
ptu and the notion of standing and flowing respectively, it must be felt by all 
mankind alike, and it should have led to the umversal use of those roots for the 
expression of the same ideas in other languages as well as those of the Indo- 
European stock. But in my own case I have no consciousness of any such con- 
nection. I do not find that the sound sla of itself calls up any idea in my mind, 
and to an unlearned English ear it is as closely connected with the ideas of 
stohbmg, of stamping, and of starting, as it is with that of standing. We know 
that our children do not speak instinctively at the present day, and to say that 
speech came in that way to primitive Man is simj^y to avow onr inability to 
give a rational account of its acquisition. A rational theory of language should 
indicate a process supported at every step by the evidence of actual experience, 
by which a being, in every other respect like ourselves, might have been led fiom 
a state of mutism to the use of Speech, Nor are the elements of a rational answer 
to the problem far to seek, if we are content to look for small beginnings, and do 
not regard the invention of language as the work of some mute genius of the 



ancient world, forecastiag the benefib of oral commniiicalioD and daborating of 
himself a tyntia of vocal signs. 

' If in the present >tate of the worid,' layt Channa, ' some philosopher were to 
wonder bow man ever began these houses, palaces, and vessels which we see 
around us, we should answer that these were not the things that man began with. 
The savage who first tied the branches of shrubs to make himself a shelter was 
not an architect, and he who first floated on the trunk of a tree was not the 
creator of navigation.' A like allowance must be made for the rudeness of the 
first steps in the process when we are required to explain the origin of the com- 
plicated languages of civilised life. 

If language was the work of human intelligence we may be sure that it wat 
accomplished by exceedingly slow degrees, and when the true mode of procedure 
Is finally pdnted out, we must not be surprised if we meet with the same a^>a- 
rent dis[«t>portion between the graodeur of the structure and the homeliness of 
the mechanism by which it was reared, which was found so great a stumbling- 
Uock in geology when the modem doctrines of that sdence began to prevail. 

The fint step is the great difficulty in the i»oblein. If once we can imagine 
a man like ourselves, only altc^ether ignorant of language, placed in circnm- 
■tances under which he will be instinctively led to make use of bis vcnce, for the 
purpose of leading others to think of something beyond the reach of actual 
apprehension, we shall have an adequate explanation of the fint act of speech. 

Now if man in hw pristine c(»ulition had the same instincts with ourselves he 
would doubtless, before he attained the command of language, hare ejfnned 
his needs by means of gestures or ngns addressed to the eye, as a traveller at the 
present day, thrown among people whose language was altogether strange to him, 
would ugnify his hunger by pointing to his moutb and making semblance of eat- 
ing. Nor is there, in all probability, a tribe of savages so stupid as not to under- 
stand gestures of such a nature^ ' Tell me,' says Socrates in the Cratylus, ' if 
we bad ndther tongue nor voice and wished to call attention to something, 
should we not imitate it as well as we could with gestures i Thus if we wanted 
to descritte anything either lofty or li^t, we should indicate it by raising the 
hands to heaven; if we wished to describe a horse or other animal, we should 
represent it by as near an approach as we could make to an imitation in our own 

The instinctive tendency to make use of significant gestures was clearly shown 
in the case <^ Laura Bridgman, who being bom blind and deaf afforded a singu- 
lar opportunitf for studying the qiontaneous promptings of Nature. Now after 
Laura bad learned to speak on her fingers she would accompany this artifidal 
mode of communicatiDg ber thoughts with the imitative or ^mbolical gestures 
which were taught her by Nature. ' When Laura onc« spoke to me of her own 
crying when a little child,' says Lieber (Smithsonian contributions to Knowledge^ 
ToL a), 'she accompanied her words with a long face, drawing her fingers down 
the &ce, indicating the copious flow of tears.' She would also accompany her 
yes and no with the ordinaiy nod and shake of the head which are the natural 



expreMion of acceptance and averaion,* and which in her case were certainlj not 
learned irom observation of others. 

To anppoie then that primitive Man would spontaneonsljr make use of gestures 
to signify whatever it was orgentlj needfiil for him to make known to othen, is 
merely to give him credit for the same instinctive tendencies of which we are 
conscious in ounelves. But strong emotion nanrally exhales itself in vocal 
utterance as well as in muscular action. Man shouts as he jampa for joy. And 
this tendency is felt equally by the deaf and dumb, whose utterances are com- 
monly harsh and disagreeable in consequence of not bearing their own voice. It 
was accordingly necessary to check poor Laura when incUned to indulge in this 
mode of giving vent to her feelings. She pleaded that ' God bad given her much 
voice,' and would occasionally retire to enjoy the gift in her own way in private. 
Man then is a vocal animal, and when an occasion arose on which the sign- 
making instinct was called forth by the necesnties of the case, he would as readily 
be led to imitate sound by the voice as shape and action by bodily gestures. 
When it happened in the inlancy of communication, that some sound formed 
a prominent feature of the matter which it was important to make known, the 
same instinct which prompted the use of significant gestures, where the matter 
admitted of being so represented, would give rise to the use of the vwce in ind- 
tation of the sound by which the subject of communication was now characterised. 

A penoD terrified by a bull would find it convenient to make known the 
object of bis alarm by imitating at once the movements of the animal with bis head, 
and the bellowing with his voice. A cock would be represented by an attempt 
at the sound of crowing, while the arms were beat against the sides in imitation 
of the flapping of the bird's wings. It is by ugns like these that Hood describes 
his raw Englishman as making known his wants in France. 

Moo ! I cried for milk— 

If I wanted bread 

My jam I set igoing. 

And asked for new-laid eggi 

By dapping hands and crowing. 

Hood's Own. 

There would be neither sense nor fon in the caricature if it had not a basis of 
truth in human nature, cognisable by the large and unspeculative class for whom 
the author wrote. 

A jest most be addressed to the most superficial capacities of spprebeunon, and 
therefore may ofien a&rd iietter evidence of a fact of constdousness than a train 
of abstruse reasoning. It is on that account that so apt an illustration of the 
only comprehenuble origin of language has been found in the old stoij of the 
Englishman at a Chinese banquet, who bdng curious as to the compositi<ai of a 
dish he was eating, turned ronnd to his native servant with an interrogative 
Quack, quack ? The servalit answered. Bowwow I intimating as clearly as if be 



^>oke in English that it was dog and not dock that hb master was eatii^. The 
.commimicatioD that passed between them was euentiallj language, comprehea- 
ubie to ereiy one who was acqnainted with the animals in queMion, language 
therefore which might have been used hj the fiist fiunily of man as well as by 
penons of different tongtxa at the present day. 

Hie imitations of sound made by primitive Man, in aid of his endeavoun to 
rignify his needs hy bodily gestures, wonld be very umilar to those which are 
heard in our nuneriea at the present day, when we represent to our children 
the lowing of the cow, the baaing of the aheep, or the crowing of the 
cock. The peculiar diaracter of the imitation is given at fint by the tone of 
.voice and more or leas abrupt mode of utterance, without the aid of distinct con- 
Bonantal articulation, and in such a manner we have no difficulty in making Imita- 
tions that are easily recognised by any child acquainted with the cry of the animal. 
"Tht lowing of the cow is imitated t^ the prolonged utterance of the vowel sound 
oo-ooh I or, with an initial m or b, which are naturally produced by the opening 
lips, mooA/ or booh I In the same way the cry of the sbeep is sounded in our nur- 
aeries by a broken baor^ia-ak I in Scotland bat I or mm I By degrees the imitative 
colouring is dropped, and the syllables moo or baa pronounced in an ordinary 
.tone of noice are understood by the child as signifying the cry of the cow or the 
■beep, and, thus being assodated with the animals in question in the mind of the 
child, might be emplc^d to lead his tbongbts to the animal itself insiead of the 
ay which it ntten, or, in other words, might be used as the name of the animal. 
It so happens that the EngUsh nurse adds the names com and lamb, by which 
■he herself knows the animals, to the syllables wliich are ngnificant to the child, 
who thus leams to designate the animala as moo-cow and baa-Utmh, but nothing 
of this kind could take place at the commencement of langnage, when udther 
party was as yet in possession of a name for the object to be designated, and in 
•ome cases the same syllables by which the nurse imitates the ay are used with- 
out addition as the name of the animal itself. The t>ark of a dog is represented 
in our nurseries by the syllables bmo-wow, and the child is first taught to know 
the dog as a howwow. The syllables moo (mu, miiA) and mat (mi, mSk) in the 
South of Germany represent the voice of the cow and the sheep or goat, and with 
Swabian children muh and mah are the names of the cow and sheep or goat 
(Schmid). In parts of England the inutative moo is lengthened out into mttUy, 
in the sense of lowing or suppressed bellowing ^ and muUy or mully cow is the 
children's name of the cow. Ihe Northamptonshire dwiymaid calls her cows to 
milking, come Moolls, come Moolls ! (Mrs Baker). On the same principle among 
Swabian children the name of MoUe, Molli, or MoUnn, is given to a cow or calf. 

It is trae that the names we have cited are appropriated to the use of children, 
but it makes no difierence in the essential nature of the contrivance, by whom the 
ugn b to be understood ; and where we are seeing, in language of the present 
day, for analogies with the first instinctive endeavours to induce thought in others 
by the exerdse of the voice, the more undeveloped the understanding of the per- 
son to whom the communication is addressed, the closer we shall approach to the 

,.,.d.:, Google 


coDditkms under which language must hare spnuig up in the infancy of Mm. 
Where then can the principle whkb fint gave it significance be sought for with 
■o much reason, as in the forms of speech xiapted to the dawning intellect of our 
own children, and in the procev t^ which it it made comprehensible to them ? 
Dr Ueber, in his paper on the rocal sonnds of Laura Bridgman alwve cited, gives 
an instructive account of the Urth of a word under his own eyes. 

' A member of my own &nily,' he says, ' showed in early infancy a pecu- 
liar tendency to form new words, partly from sounds which the child cai^bt, 
as to uwA for to stop, from the interjectioD uxA/ used by wagoneis when 
they wish to stop their bones; partly from symphenomenal emisuon of sounds^ 
Thus when the boy was a little above a year old he had made and established in 
the nursery the word mm for eveiything fit to eat. I had watched the ^tiwtfa 
of this word. First, be expressed his satisfiction at seeing bis meat, when hungry, 
by the natural humming sound, which all of us are apt to produce when approving 
or pleased with things of a common character, and which we might express thus, 
1^, Gradually, as his organs of speech became more skilfiil and repetition made 
the sound more familiar and clearer, it changed to the more articulate wn and 
int. Finally an n was placed before it, nim being much easier to pronounce than 
im when the mouth has been closed. But soon the growing mind began to 
generalise, and nim came to signify everything edible j so that the boy would 
add the words good or bad which he learned in the mean time. He would now 
say good Mm, lad nim, bit nurse adopting the word with him. On one occa^on 
he said^ nim, for bad, repulsive to eat. There it do doubt that a verb to nim 
for to eat would have developed itself, had not the ripening mind adopted the 
vemacnkr language which was offered to it ready made. We have, then, here 
the origin and history of a word which commenced in a symphenomenal sound, 
and gradually became articulate in sound and general in its meaning, as the organs 
of speech, as well at the mind of the utterer, became more perfect. And is not 
the history of this word a representation of many thousands in every language 
now settled and acknowledged as a legitimate tongue ? ' 

Dr Lieher does not seem to have been aware how frequent a phenomenon it 
b which he describes, nor bow numerous the forms in actual speech connected 
with the notion of eating wiiich may be traced to this particular imitation. A 
near relation of my own in early cliildhood habitually used mum or mummum for 
food or eating, analogous to Magyar mammagni, Gr- /in/i/iav (Hesych.), in chil- 
dren's language, to eat. Heinicke, an eminent teacher of the deaf-and-dumb 
cited by Tylor (Early Hist., p. ya), says : 'All mutes discover words for them- 
selves for different things. Among over fifty whom I have partially instnicted 
or been acquainted with, there was not one who had not uttered at least a few 
spokm names whidi be had discovered for himself, and some were very clear and 
distinct. I had under my instructioD a bom deaf-mute, nineteen years old, who 
had previously invented many writeable words forthings. For instance, he called 
to eat, mumm, to drink, achipp. Sec' In ordinary speech we have the verb to 
wmmp, to move the Hps with the mouth closed, to work over with the mouth, 



as to mump food (Wdster) ; to mamble, to chew with lootblen gums ; Swedish 
MHMmni, to mamp, mumble, chew with difficnltf (OehrUnder) -, Bavariaa mtm- 
mein, mtmrnexen, mnmpfen, mnaqb/e/n, to move the ]ipe in continued chewingj 
wampfen, to cat with a Adl mouth j on. tnumpa, to fill the mouth, to eat 
greedily (Hsldonen). With a diSerent developmcDt of the initial toaoA we have 
Golla ^^offi djeda, Jjan^amgoda (to taj i^am, make ^amt^am), to amack in eat- 
ing; South Jutland Atanui, voradoua, greedy; at kiamsieisig, to eat ia a greedy 
nriimh manner (Molbech) ; Swedish dialect gamta, jamsa (yanua), janmla, 
jmmia, to chew laboriondy, to mumble, leading to the Yorkslure yam, to eat; 
yamnmg, eating, or more particulariy the audibility of the masdcatiDg proccsi 
(Wlutby GL). Toyam a a sUng tenn Ibr eating among uilon. In the Negro 
Dutch of Surinam nyom ii to eat ; nyam nyawt, food (Tyior, Primitive Culture, i. 
18^. The Chinese child uses nam for eat, agredng with Flo. noma (in chil- 
dren's laogoage), Sw. namruim, Wolof nalenahe, dehcadei, tidbits ; Zooloo nam- 
JiCa, to smack the lips after eating or tasting, and thence to be tastefid, to beplea- 
(Mit to the mind j Sooaoo (W. Afiica) nvmnim, to taste ; Vei (W. Afiica) nimi, 
palatably savoiy, sweet (Koelle). And as picking forbidden food would adbrd 
the earUest and most natural type of appropriating or stealing, it is probable that 
we have here the origin of the slang word nm, to take or steal (indicated in the 
name of Corporal Nym), as well as the Sw. dial, nimma, Gothic ttinum, to take, 
Nimm'd up, taken up hastily <hi the sly, stolen, snatched (Whitby Gl.). ' Mother- 
well, the Scotch poet,' says the author of Modem Slang, ' thought the old word 
idm (to snatch or pick up) was derived trom nam, nam, the tiny words or cries 
of an in&nt when eating anything which pleases its little palate. A negro pro- 
verb hat the word : Bodra mad nam crab, crab n<»n but^ra man. Or, in the 
bockra man's language 1 White man eat [or steal] the oab, and the crab eati 
the white mfto.' — p. 180. 

The traoes of imitation as a living principle giving significance to words have 
been recognised trom the earliest period, and aa it was the only prindple on 
which the powbility of coining words came home to the compreheoBion of every 
one, it was called Onomatopaia, or word-making, while the remaining stock of 
language was vaguely regarded at having come by inheritance ftom the fint 
eatablishen of speech. ' 'OropirwrotJa qntdem,' says Quintilian, ' id est, fictio no- 
minis, Gnecis inter maximas habitavirtutes, nobis vixpermittitur. Etsuntplurima 
ita pQsita sb iis qui sennonem primi fecenmt, aptaiUes adiecUbui vocem. Nam 
natgitus et tibilus et murmur inde venerunL' And Diomedes; ' 'Ofo^roroda est 
dictio configurata ad imitandam Tocis confusse «gnificationem, ut Hnmlus sris, 
clangon\ae tubarum. Item quum dicimus valvos stridere, oves balare, aves tin- 
nin.' — Lerach, Sprach-philosophie der Alten, iii. i^-i. Quintilian instances the 
wtjrfis used by Homer for the twanging of the bow {Xiyb ^c), and the fizdng 
of the fiery stake (iaUc) in the eye of Polyphemus. 

The prindple is admitted in a grudging w^ by Max MiiUer (and Series, p. 
998) ; 'Hiere are In many languages words, if we can call them so, consisting of 
mere ImitatiDns of die cries of animab or the sounds of nature, and some of them 



have beeo carried along by the stream of language into tbe cunent of noniu and 
verbt.' And elsewhere (p. 89) with leas hesitation, * That sounds can be rendered 
in language by sounds, and that each language possesses a large stock of words 
imitating the sounds given out hj certain things, who would deny ? ' 

We could not have a clearer admission of the imitative principle as a vera 
causa in the origination of language. Yet in general he revolts against to Btmple 
a solutioD of the problem. 

'I doubt,' he says, speaking of words formed on the bowwow principle, 
' whether it deserves the name 1^ language.* - ' If the principle of onomatopcBta 
b applicable anywhere it would be in the formation of the names o( animals. 
Yet we listen in vain for any similarity between goose and cackling, ken and cludt- 
ing, duck and qtiaciuig, sparrow and chirping, dove and cooing, hog and gruntiag, 
cat and mewing, between dog and barking, yelping, snarling, and growling. We 
do not speak ofa iiKtwow, but of ac/o^. We apeak of a rotf, not of a moo ; of 
a lamb, not of a toa.'— Lect. p. 363. 

We shall answer the objection by showing that the name of the animal in 
the greater part of the instances specified by Mtiller is a plain onomatopceia in 
one language or another ; that we do speak of a Moo and of a Baa in some other 
language if not in English, and that this plan of designation is widely spread over 
every region of the world, and applied to every kind of animal which ntteis a 
notable sound. As &r as the cry itself is concerned it would hardly occur to 
any one to doubt that the word used to designate the utterance t^ a particular 
animal would be taken from imitation of the sound. When once it is admitted 
that there is an instinctive tendency to imitation in Man, it seems self-evident 
that he would make use of that means of representing any particular sound that 
he was desirous of bringing to the notice of his fellow. And it is only on this 
principle that we can account for the great varied of the terms by which tbe 
cries of diiferent animab are expressed. Indeed, we still for tbe most part recog- 
nise the imitative intent of such words as tbe clucking of hens, cackling or 
gaggling of geese, gobbUng of a turkey-cock, quacking of ducks or Srogt, cawing 
or quawking of rooks, croaking of frogs or ravens, cooing or crooing of doves, 
hooting of owls, bumping of I»ttems, chirping of sparrows or crickets, twittering 
of swallows, chattering of pies or monkey, neighing or whinnying of horses, 
purring or memng of cats, yelping, howling, barking, snarling of dogs, grunting 
or squealing of hogs, bellowing of bulls, lowing of oxen, bleating of sheep, baaing 
or maeing of lambs. 

While eirei shall bleat and little lambkins mat. — Ramsay. 

But the cry of an animal can hardly be brought to mind witbout drawing with it 
tbe thoughts of the animal itself. Thus the imitative utterance, intended in the 
first instance to represent the cry, might be used, when rircumstances required, 
for the purpose of bringing the animal, or anything connected with it, before the 
thoughts of our hearer, or, in other words, might be used as the deagnation of 
the animal or of anything associated with it. If I take refuge in an African 



village and imitate the roaring of a lion while I anxiously p<nnt to a ndghbour- 
ing thicket, I iball intimate pretty cleariy to the nativefl that a lion is lurking in 
that direction. Here the imitation of the roar will be practically nsed aa the 
name of a lion. The gestures with which I point will signify that an object of 
terror is in-the thicket, and the sound of my voice will spedfy that object as a 

Tlie signification is carried on from the cow to the milk which it produces, when 
Hood makes his Englishman ask for milk by an imitative moo. In the same way 
the representation of the clacking of a hen by the syllables cock I cock I gad I 
gad t (preserved in IL eoecolare, Bav. gaciem, to cluck) gives rise to the forms 
oKO, huki, and gaggele or gagieltm, which are used as the dengnation of an egg 
in the nursery language of France, HuDgaiy, and Bavaria respectively. In 
■ Basque, iakoratx, represents the clucking of a hen, and ioio (in children's speech) 
'the egg which it aimounces (Salaberry). It u among Inrds that the imitative 
nature of the name b seen with the clearest evidence, and is most nnivenally ad- 
mitted. We all are familiar with the voice of the cnckoo, which we hail as the 
harUnger of spring. We imitate the sound with a modulated hoo-hoo, harden- 
ing into a more conventional eod-ooo, and we call the bird cuckoo with a contmued 
consciousness of the intrinsic significance of the name. The wtiwx of the bird is 
so singularly dbtinct that there is hardly any variation in the syllables used to re- 
^present the sound in difierent languages. In Lat. it is cuailus (ctM-coo-l-as), in 
Cr. njmi£, in o. hiduck (cook-cooi) or guckguck. In Sanscrit tbeciyis written 
kuM, and the bird is called iuhUta, kuh^-rava {rava, sound), whose sound is 
JbtM — (Kctet, Origines Indo-Eun>p4eimes). We represent the cry of birds of 
the crow kind by the syllable caw or fuawk, which is immistakeably the source 
of the name in the most distant dialects, as Du. kauwe, kae, YicarA am, a daw, 
Sanscr. Mia, Arabic idi, gh&k, Georgian qualn, Malay g&gak, Barabra koka, 
Mancha kaka, a crow (Fictet). British Columbia kahkak, a crow. Long- 
fellow in his Hiawatha gives kahkaJtgee as the Algonquin name of the raven. 
The imitative nature of such names as these have J>een recognised fi«m the 
eariiest times, and a Sanscrit writer of at least the 4tb centniy before Christ is 
quoted by Miiller (Lect. i, 380, 4th ed.). ' K&ka, crow, b an imitation of the 
sound {k&ku Mku, according to Durga), and this is very common among birds.* 
But already Philosophy was beginning to get the better of common sense, and 
tlie author continues : * Aupamanyava however maintains that imitation of the 
aoond does never take place. He therefore derives k&ka, crow, from ^>aii- 
tagifavya j L e. a bird that » to be driven away.' Another Sanscrit name ibr 
the crow u k6raua (whose voice is kd), obviously formed on the same plan with 
^kuraua (whose voi(% b kuh£) for the cuckoo. Yet the word b died by Mtil- 
ler as an example of the fallacious derivations of the onomatoptsists. K&raoa, be 
lays, u supposed to show some dmilarity to the ay of the raven. But as soon as 
ve analyse the word we find that it is of a di&rent structure from cuckoo or 
txxA. It is derived fiom a root m or kru, having a general predicative power, 
and. means a shooter, a caller, a crier (p. 349, ist ed.}. Sometimes the hoarse 



sound of tl)e P7 of tbi; kmi of bird iotroduces w r it^ tlie ^iu%ie x^Jisble, 
and we vwe t,lie v^b .fp grooi lo de^igtutfe thor 07, vbi)^ a-DV)i> to th£ Hqrfh qf 
England, is die nafne for ^ qrow. So we have PoJisJi ArwM, to .ffo^, itrat a 
crow ; JJxh- irauiH, to croak, kranMys, a crow ; Du. ira^pt, to c^f qr firoftllt> 
traei/e, o. kroke, a ciow. The porresponding verbal fapw in g^ein^p agd ^#%- 
lisb krahen, to crow, have been appropriated by arbitrary custom to the 07 of y^p 
cook, but the word is not less truly imitative becaose it is adaptod ,to fepqesent 
different cries of somewh^ simile sound. In South Ajqeric^ a ;q^:wlii(9 \^ ^ 
called caracara. 

The crowing of a cpcfc is represented by the fiyiUhles Hkeriii io ^.,a>gif^ 
cot in Fr., foearaai in Languedoc, leaving qo donbt of the in^it^ve oiigi;D ^f 
lUyrian kukurSkati, jyialay kuitk, to crow, as well as of San^CT. ijfUfila, Fin. 
htkko, Eslhonian kUt^as, Yoruba koklo, Ibo akoka, Zulu hiku, and k. cock. 

The comng or crtmng (as it was formerly called) of a dove is sfgfu&^ in ft. 
by the verbs gurren or girrm. Da. iurre, girre, Du. iorrea, itirrtn, iofrsf. f9 # 
Latin ear it must have sounded fur, fur, giving turUir (and thence It tSrtv^, 
torlAla, $p. t^tola, and b. furlie) as the Lat. name of the bicd, (he imitative 
nature of which has been universally recognised from its redupUcate form. Alba- 
nian tmrre, Yieb, tSr, a dove. In Peru turtuli ig one kind q( dovei fiVCVti 
another. Hinc^, ghighu, Peis. iukit, gugv, wood-pigeon. 

The plaintive cry erf' the peewit is with no less cst^nty repiesented ia tb^ 
names by wbich the turd is known in diSisrent European dialects, in wlucb we 
recognise a iundamental reseoiblance in sound, with a great varied in the pw 
ticular consonants used in the construction of tltf word : E^glist) peoffii, Scotch 
peewap, teewhoop, iuquhe'U, Dutch kievit, German Meiitx, Wtisb He^ti, M^gf- 
biliits, libuti, Swedish kowipa, French iHskuit, Arabic tdtwit, Th^ coosonai^ (• 
p, k, produce a nearly similar effect in the imitation of inarticulate Wwnds, and 
when an interchange of these consonants is found in parall^ fiww (that V/ 
anonymous forms of similar structure), eUhec in the same or in relat^ dijll^l^ 
it may commonly be ukeg as evidence that the imitative ioax of the word h4> 
been felt at no distant period. 

The hooting of the owl is a note that peculiarly invites imitation, pud accord- 
ingly it has given rise to a great variety of names the imitative character of which 
cannot be mistaken. Thus Latin ulula may be compared with ubtlare, or Gi; 
oKoKv^Hv, to cry loudly. In French we have kuhtle fropo kuller, to howl or 
yell, as Welsh kwan from hiea, to hoot. Lat. buho, Fr. hibou. It. gufri Genooa 
bubu, uka, Mod.Gr. coucmiva, coccovaec, Walachian caucaavake, jVlgon^oiit ^ftf 
kos-koo-o, are all direct imitations of the rq)eated cry. 

'The cry of the owl,' says Stier in Kuhn's Zeitschdft, ji. p. 319, ' ka-iu- 
ktt-va-i is in the south (of Albania) the frequent origin of the name, in which 
sometimes the firet, sometimes the second part, and sometime^ bgth togethera 
are represented.' 

Mr Farrar in his Chapters on Language (p. 34) observes that if the vocabu- 
lary of almost any savage nation is examined, the name pf an anii^al uriU gp^ 



tniiy be ftiind to be SQ unomatopceia, and be dtes from Threlkeld's Amtralian 
Gntamot itng-io-nmg, die emu ) p^3-fn-ta, a small hawk j kmg-km^, frogs f 
«D ct^mmiy meotioned by the author as taking tbdr names from thar try. No 
Met mil doubt that the name of the pelican karong-kartmg ii fonned in the same 
JBamcr. Mr Batei gives us several examples from the Amaions. ' Sometimes 
tme of these little batidi {of Toucans] b seen perched for hours together among 
ithe topmost branches of high trees giving vent to their remarkabty loud, shrill, 
and Telping ny. These cries have a vague Ksemblanoe to the ^llables loeano, 
tocano, and hence the Indian name of this genus of birds.' — Naturalist on the 
AnuKoB, i. 937, Speddng of a crictet he taya, "The aattves call it tmand, in 
^uBon to its music, which is a sharp reeoiunt stridolatioD resembling the s^Ub- 
Ues la-na-ni, ta-na-nd, sncceeding each other vith little Intermission.' — i. 350, 
We m^ compare the Parmesan laumm, loud ooise, rumoar; Arabic timlanat, 
■oond, resounding of musical instruments.— Catafbgo. 

The name of the cricket indeed, of which there are infinite varieties, m^ 
coaaaottlf be traced to representations of the sharp chirp of the tusect. Thus 
a. crideet is fcota crick, representing a short sharp sound, as ' o. sekrecke, 
(heuxhrtcie), schrickel, fmai ichnd, a sharp sound as of a glass cracking 
(Schmeller). a. xHrke, Fio. sirkka, may be compared with o. xirten, oi. ekirk, 
tscbirpj Litfa. jwirp/yf with o. fcAuvren, to chirp J iM.gryllus, a. grille, ■with 
Fr. griilen, to creak ; Bret, skrii with ir. skrylt, Sc. skirl, to shrill or sound 
riiarp. The Arabic sarsor, Corean sirtor, Albanian taentsir, Basque fuir^ufrm 
oarcy their imitative character on their &ce. 

The designation of insects fi:om the bumming, booming, buzsing, droning 
Bttses which they make in tb^ flight is very common. We may cite Or. 
0afij3tfXin£, the humblt- or bumble-tee, or a gnatj Sanscr. bamlikara, bee, bamba, 
iky, 'words imitative of humming ' — Pictet ; Australian iu-mberoa, a fly (TyIor)j 
Galla bambi, a beetle ; German hummel, the drone or oon-worhing bee j Sanscr. 
dnma, a be^ Lithuanian tranas, German drohne, a drone, to be compared with 
Sanscr, Mrtui, to sound, German dr^m, to hum, resound, Danish drSn, din, 
peal, hollow noise, Gaelic dranndan, bumming, buzzing, growling. Tbe dront 
of a bagpipe is the open pipe which keeps up a monotonous humming while the 
tune is playing. The cockchafer is known by the name oi the buvsard in the 
North of England. 

•And I eer'd un a hmit/iuig't.vvf 

Like a iuttarii-cloci o'er m; eead.' — Tenn^u, Noithem Fanner. 

Bpsqiie tm-ntmba, a muttering noise as of distant thunder j' a cockchafinr 
f Salaberri). The Welsh chun/ntu, to buzz (corresponding to Swedish Kurm and. 
a. v/Jiirr), gives rise to chwyrnvres, a hornet, and probably indicates that a, 
kamua and e. homtt are fi^m the buzzing flight of the animal, and not from its 
atiog considered as a horn. The name of the .gnat may be ezphuned from 
Norse gneUa, katita, to rustle, give a faint sound, Danish gnaddre, to grumble. 

Camii^ to the names of domestic animals we have seen that tbe lowing of 
thft OS is represented by tbe syllables hoe and moo. In the N. of England it is 




called booing, and a Spanbb proverb dted by lyior (Prim. Cult. i88) shows 
that the same mode of representing the sound is familiar in Spain. 'Habld el 
baej. e dijd bu / ' The ox spoke and said boo t From this mode of representiDg the 
sound are formed Lith. bubauH (to boo-boo), to bellow lilce a bull, Zulu buhula, 
to low, and - (as we apply the term bellowiag to the load shouting of men) Gr« 
/3o^, to shout, Lat boo, to shout, to make a loud deep sound. From the same 
imitative syllable are Lith. bubenti, to grumble as distant thunder ; bUhnaa, a 
drum ; btiblsti, to bump as a bittern j lUyr. bubati, to beat hard, to make a noise; 
Galla boa, to booboo, to weep. 

In barbarous languages the notion of action b frequently expressed, and a 
verbal form given to the word by the addition of elements signifying make or 
say. Thus from mamook, make, the traders' jaigon of Columbia has 
mamook-poo, to make poo, to shoot ; mamook-heehee, to make laugh, to 
amuse. — ^Tylor. The Galla uses goda, to make, and djeda, to iXf, in the 
same way, and from bUbil, imitation of a ringing sound, it has bWnlgoda, 
to ling, to sound. The same office is performed in an advanced stage of language 
in a more .compendious way by the addition of an l,&k org, or a z to the im- 
itative syllable. Thus from miau, representing the mew of a cat, the Fr. forms 
miau-l^r, as the Illyr. (with a subsidiary k), maukati, to mew. From baa, or 
bae, are formed Lat. ba-l-are, Fr. bi-l-er, to baa or bleat ; from hau, represent- 
ing the bark of a dog, Piedmontese Ji bau, or btat-l^, to make bom, to bow- 
wow or bark. The Piedm. verb is evidently identical with our own bawl, to 
shout, or with ON. haula, to low or bellow, whence baula, a cow, baali, boti, 
w. butla, a bull. In Swiss the verb takes the form of bulleit, agreeii^ exactly 
with Ijth. bullus and e. bull. On the same principle, from the imitative moo 
instead of boo, the Northampton dairymaid calls ber cows moolls. 

The formation of the verb by a subsidiary i or ^ gives Gr. fivt&oiiat, Illyr. 
mukati, bjtioH, Lat. mugire, OFr. mugler, bugler. Da. i^, to low ; and tbence 
I^t. buculus, a bullock, bucula, a heifer, Fr. bugle, a buffalo, bullock, a name 
preserved in our bugle-ham. With these analogies, and those which will presently 
be found in the designations (^ the sheep or goat and thdr cries, it is truly sur- 
prising to meet with linguistic Bcholart whp deny tbat the imitative boo can be 
the origin of farms like Gr. /Soiic, Lat. bos, bovis, IL bue, ox, Norse bu, cattle, w. 
bu, Gael, bo, Manx booa, Hottentot bou (Dapper), Cochin Chinese bo (Tylor), a 
cow. Yet Geiger, in his Ursprung der menschlichen Sprache [1868], p. 167,- 
plainly asserts that the supposition of such an origin .is inadmissible. His analysis 
leads him to the conclusion that the words /Jove and coto may be traced to a 
common origin in the rootguav, and therefore cannot be taken from the cry of 
the animal. But when I find that the ox is widely called Boo among dililereat 
&milies of men from Connemara to Cochin China, it seems to me far more cer- 
tain that the name is taken fr^im the booing of the animal than any dogmas can 
be that are laid down concerning such abstractions as the Sanscrit roots. 

The cry of the sheep or goat is universally imitated by the syllables baa, hae, 
mah, mae, as that of the cow by boo, or moo, a^d in flottentot i^a wat the- 

,,;. Google 


name of a sheep, as (on of an ox. In the Vd of W. Africa baa, m Wdof 
6ae, a goat. 

With a snb^diary li or^ the imitative sjrilable* produces Swiss haggen, hS^. 
gen, Magy. bek-eg-ni, beg-et-ni, Illyr. bekauH, to bleat, and thus expIaiDs the origin 
of fonAs like Sw. bdgge (Rietz), a sheep or ewe, Gr. f3qn], jSijKov (Hesych.), a 
sheep or goat, Illyr. beiavica, a sheep. It. becco, a goat. From the imitative mat, 
we have Sanscr. men&da (nSda, sound, ciy), a goat; and with the subudiarj i or 
g, Gr. ftiiK&ofuu, fiifA^t*, Illyr. meietaii, mecati, a. nuckem, Magy. mekegni, Gael. 
mageal, Vorarlbei^ maggila (corresponding to Fr. meagUr, for the voice of the 
ox), to bleat ; Gr. fa)taite, goats, lambs. 

Ute same radical with a snbsidiaiy / gives Gael, meil, Manx meilee, to bleat, 
■bowing the origin of Scotch Mailie, as the proper name of a tame sheep, and of 
Gr. pjlhtp (maelon), a sheep or a goat, and Circassian mayUey, a sheep (Lowe). 

The name of the hog is another instance where MuUer implicitly denies all 
lesemblance with the characteristic noises of the animal. And it is true there is 
no similarity betweet hog and gnml, but the snorting sounds emitted by a pig 
may be imitated at least as well by the syllables koc'h, hoc'h (^viug to c'k the 
guttural sound of Welsh and Breton), as by grunt. In evidence of the aptness of 
this imitation, we may citfc the ciy used in Suffolk in driving pigs, remembering 
that the criea addressed to animals are commonly taken from noises made by 
dieraselves. 'In driving, or in any way persuading, thb obstinate race, we have 
no other imperative than hooe ! hooe ! in a deep nasal, guttural tone, appropri- 
ately compounded of a groan and a grunt.' — Moor's Suffolk words, in v. sus-sus. 
Hence Breton hoc'ka, to grunt, and hoc'h, houc'h, w. hwch, a hog, leaving little 
doubt as to the imitative origin of the s. name. In like manner we find Lap- 
pish snorkeset, to grunt, undoubtedly imitative, and snorke, a pig; Pin. naskia, to 
smack like a [ng in eating, and naski, a pig. If Curtius had been aware of the 
Sc. grumfif, a grunt, and grumphU, a sow, he would hardly have connected 
Hesychius' yp6fi^at, a sow, with the root ypiipu, applied to the rooting of the ani- 
mal with its snout. Moreover, although the imitation embodied in Lat. gnm- 
mre, Fr. grogner, and e. grunt, does not produce a name of the animal itself^ 
it gives rise to It. grugno, Fr. grmn, s. granny, the snout of a pig, and thence 
^roiR, the snoiit-shaped projections running out into the sea, by which the shingle 
of our southern coast is protected. And obvioosly it is equally damaging to 
MiiUer's line of argument whether the onomatopceia supplies a name of the ani- 
mal or only of his snout. 

Among the designations ai a dog the term cur, signifying a snarling, ill-bred 
dog, may with tolerable certainty be traced to an imitative source in on. kurra, 
to snaH, growl, grumble, o. kurren, to nimble, grumble. Kurrm und murren, 
iU-natnred jai^ling; Sc. curnuirring, grumbling, rumbling. The o. htrre, ob. 
atrre^h (as Da, hiurjisk, from krmrre, to growl, mutter, purr), is applied to 
the gurnard on account of the grumbling sounds which that fish is said to utter. 
It is probable also that a. hound, o. hund, a dog, m^ be identical with Esthon. 
hunt (gen. ,Aiifu&), a wolf, fi^un hmndama, to howlj corresponding to osa. ktmon, ' 



to >el^ Sc. ktme, to whioe. So Sanwr. hUrava (whove cry, ia, M), a jftfllul 

The Dunery names of a hone are commonly taken from the dies used hi the 
management of the animal, which serve the purpose as well as the aues of the 
animal iUelf, since all that is wanted is tbe representation of a souod agaoctatBd in 
a lively manner with the thought of the creature to be named. 

Id England the cry to make a bone go on is gee, and the ourseiy namti for a 
horse is geegee. In Germany hott is the cry to make a horse turn to the right; 
ho, to the left, and the horse is with children called hoUt^Td (fiaanal), httttir 
jenho-peerd (Holstein Idiot.). In Switzerland the DUiaeiy name b hot^huh, aa 
ip Tcnkshire fughty (Craven Gloss.), from the cry hmt, to tuni a booe bo the 
light. In Fmland, humma, the cry to stop or back a horse, is used in ouiMaTi 
language as the name of the animal. The cry to back a horse in 'Westecwiddiis 
kuf/ whence kmfe, to go backwards. The aame cry in Devonshire t^kes the 
ionaoihaap! haapbaek/ Provindal Da. Ao^ fi|^ / back ! FromtbeciyUMW 
used in stopping a horse the aninaal in nmseiy language is culled hoppt in Eritian 
(Outzen), houjn/ in Craven, while h^^-peerdim in Holstein is a hoihif harse or 
child's wooden horse. Thia we are led to the Fr. hoUn, a. hobby, a, little am> 
bliog horse, o. hoppe, a mare, Esthonjan hobbo, kobben,-A. horse. 

In the Ciceof so many examples it is in vain for Miiller to qieak of oaomab^ 
pceia as an exceptional principle giving rise' to a few insignificant nam^, but ^- 
ercising no appreciable influence in the formation of real language. 'The onor 
matopceic theory goes very smoothly as long as it deals with cackling bens aod. 
quacking ducks, but round that poultry-yard there is a dead wall, aad we sooa 
find that it b behind that wall that language really begins.'— ^nd Series, p. 91. 
'There are of course some names, such as cuckoo, which are dearly fiumed by an 
imitation of sound. But words of this kind are, like artifidal flowers, without a 
root. They are sterile and unfit to express anything beyond theonQobject which 
they imitate.' 'As the word cvcico predicates nothing but the sound of a par-. 
ticular bird, it cpuld never be applied for expressing any general quality in which 
other animab might share, and the only derivations to which it might give t\»., 
are words expressive of a metaphorical likeness with the bird.' — ist Series, p. ^j. 
The author has been run away with by his own metf^ihorical language. An 
onomatopoeia can only be said to have no root because it b itself a living root, a>> 
well adapted to send forth a train of derivations as if it was an oAboot from. 
some anterior stock. If a certain character is strongly marked in an animals thai 
name of the animal i^ equally likely to be used in the mietapborical deaignation 
of the character in question, whether it was taken from the cry ctf the anjaul or 
from some other peculiarity. The ground of the met^hor lies in the natuce of' 
the animal, and can. in no degree be affected by the principle on which the DameoC- 
the qwcies is formed. Thus the comparison with artificial flowers become s 
transparent fallacy which the author ought at once to have erased, when he iband 
himself in the same page indicating derivatives like cucjioldt atqaetU, cockade, 
cogiielicot, as springing from hu.i^'pBs of a. UfidsM.atock, If onouMtaponft cm . 



bcuedin gHingnitnie^ to ASngs thatbeap a ihetaphorical likenen to the ori- 
ginal object, what is there to limit their efiidencj in the fbrmatiaa of language? 
Aad ba^ cni the tndic^od of such derivatives A the foregoing, be reconciled 
4lth the istatJon that there is a sharp line of demarcation between the region of 
obom3tb|Keiii and the 'real' commencement of language ? The important ques- 
tion is not what nranber of wordi can be traced to an imitative source, but 
irhetbA there is any difierence in kind between tbem and other words, 

Tbt imItadVb paliiciple will in no d^ree be impngned by brtnging forwanb 
any munber of names which cannot be shown to have sprung Irom direct imita- 
AoD, for no rational onomdtopoEist ever supposed that aO names were formed on 
that prindpte. It is onl^ at the v^ beginning of language that the name would 
iKtjeasarily be taken from representations of sounds connected with the animal. 
As soon as a little' cominand of language was attained, a more obvious means of 
dengnation would JTequendjr be found in something connected with the appear* 
ance or habits of the animal, and it is d self-evident feet th^ many of the animals 
with which we are familiar are named on this principle. The redtreast, while- 
ikroal, redpoU, lapuAng, wagtail, goatsucker, woodpecker, swift, diver, creeper, 
^leak fer themselves, and a little research enables us to explain the name in in- 
numerable other cases on a similar plan. Nor will there be any presumption 
a^iott ad imitative origin even in cases where the meaning of the name remains 
wholly unknown. When once the name is fiilly conventionalised all consdous- 
itesa of resemblance with sound is easily lost, and it will depend upon acddent 
ithether extrinsic evidence of such a connection is preserved. Tliere is nothing 
in the s. name of the turtle or ttutle-dove to put us in mind of the cooing of the 
animal, and if all knowledge of the Lat. lUrtur and its derivatives had l>een lost, 
diere would have been no grotmds for suspicion of the imitative origin of the 
word. It is not unlikely that the on. hross, s. horse, may have sprung from a 
Ibrai corresponding to Sanscr. kresh, to neigh, but as we are ignorant of any 
Indian name corresponding to hoTse, or any Western equivalent of the Sanscr. 
hresk, it would be rash to regard the connection of the two as more than a pos- 
dbitily. £ven in case of de»gnations appropriated to the cries of particular 
aidmals or certain kinds of sound, it is commonly more from the consciousness of 
a mtmid tendency to represent sound in this manner, and indeed from the con- 
vicdoD that it is the only possible way of doing so, that we r^ard the words as 
intentionally imitative, than from discerning in them any intrinsic resemblance 
to the sounds represented. The neighing of a horse is signified by words strik- 
ingly unlike even in closely related tongnes ; Fr. hennir, It. mtrire, Sp. rinckar, 
Ttlinchar, Sw. wrena, wrenska, a. frenschen, wiekem, Du. runmken, ginnHen, 
brieichtn, Sanscr. hresh, Bohem. feklati, Lettish' sweegt. Yet we cannot doubt 
that tbey aD take thdr rise in vocal imitations of the sound of neighing or whin- 

'With the diesigdations of animal cries may be classed those of various inar- 
tioilate nbisesofonr own, as^A, soh, vttxm, groan, cough, ItuigA \otigiBsl\f pro- 
I with a guttural), ^ler,^g^, hickup (Saoscr. AiUd, PI J), hti^p. 



snuihip), snore, snorl, whttxe, shriek, tcream, the imitative nature of which will 
be generally admitted. 

Ute souDd of a sneeze b peculiarly open to imitatitxi. It ii represented in a. 
by Ute ionsa a^hoo t or oroUkal of which the iint is nearly identical with the 
Sanger, root kshu, or the w. tisio {tisho), to sneeze. From the other mode of 
representing the sound a child of my acquaintance gave to his sister the name of 
Atchoo, on account of her sneezing; aod among American tribes it gives rise to 
several striking onomatoposias dted by lyior; kaitsKu, atchini, atcliiaa, 
aritischaae, &c. 

It is certain that where in the infancy of Speech the need was felt of bringing 
a sound of any kind to the thoughts of another, an attempt would be made to 
imitate it by the voice. And even at the present day it is extremely common to 
give life to a narration by the introduction of intentionally imitative words, whose 
only office it i* to bring before the mind of the hearer certain sounds which 
accompany the action described, and bring it home to the imagination with the 
nearest approach to actual experience. 

'Bang, bang, bang! went the cannon, and the smoke rolled over the 
trenches.* ' Hoo, hoo, boo ! ping ping, ping ! came the bullets about their ears.' 
' Haw, haw, haw ! roared a soldier from the other side of the valley.' ' And at 
it both udes weut, ding, dong ! till the guos were too hot to be worked.' — Read, 
White lies, 1865. 

To fall plump into the water is to fall so suddenly as to make the sound 
'plump.' 'Flompl da fiel he in das wasser.' SoMiaciirepissents thesoundof a 
sharp blow, and to cut a thing smack oS a to cut it off at a blow, ^ii^- 
dong, for the sound of a large bell, Hng-luig, for a small one; tick-lack, 
for the beat of a clock ; pU-a^pat, for the beating of the heart or the 
light step of a child ; tkwick-tkwack, for the sound of blows, are &miliar 
to every one. The words used in such a manner in German are especially 
numerous. Klapp, klaisch, for the sound of a blow. ' He kreeg enen an de 
area : kU^ I s^e dat ' : he caught it on the ear, tlap I it cried — firem. Wtb. 
A smack on the chops is represented also by proAi, pHtsch-plaisch. — Sandns. 
Pifff', pump, humm, for the sound of a fall; knack, for that of breaking; 
kiusrr, for the creaking of s wheel, fitsehe-fatscke, for blows with a rod, stripp- 
ttrappstroll, for the sound of milking. 

When once a syllable is recognised as representing sound of a certain kind it 
may be used to wgnify anything that produces such a sound, or that b accom- 
panied by it Few words are more expressive than the x. btmg, familiarly used 
to represent the sound of a gun and other loud toneless noises. Of a like forma- 
tion are Lettish imnga, a drum ; debbes-bungotmt {debbes, heaven), the God of 
thunder; Zulu- bongo, for the report of a musket (Colenso) ; Australian bung- 
(w^wwn, thunder (Tylor); Vei^e^^ien, a kindof drum. To (o^^isthento 
do anything that makes a ocnse of the above description, to beat, to throw 
violent^ down, &c Let bongos, the dashing of the sea ; Vd ^an^jo, to ham- 
mCTf to drive in a nail ; ok. £a'i£'a,to hammer; Da. £an<iej to knock, beat, throb. 



Tbe iharp ay of a chicken or a young child a represented by the sjllabla 

We call gar diekinnis chdp and gaislingi* pew. — Ljrndsajr. 
In Austria pi/ pi/ ia wed as a call to chickens (Tylor). Fr. piou, pioa, 
peep, peep, the voice of chickens (Cot.) ; jAailler, piauler, a. pule, to ciy like 
a chick, a whelp, or a young child; Gr. Ttn-Ijfw, Lat. pipilo, pipio, Mantoan 
Jitt- pipi, to ciy pt, pi, to cheep like a bird or a young child. It pipiare, 
fipart, to pip like a chicken or pule like a hawk ; pigolare, pi^olare, to sc|ueak, 
pip as a chicken. — Florio. Magyar Jnp, cry of young birds ; pipegni, pipelni, 
to peep or cheep; Jnpe, a chicken or goslings I^t. pipio, a young bird; 
It. p^ijnone, pi^ne, piccione, a (young) pigeon. The syllable representing a 
sharp sound is then used to designate a pipe, a^ the simplest implement for pro- 
ducing the sound. Fr. pipe, a fowler's bird call ; G. pjeife, a fife or mn^cal pipe. 
At last all reference to sound ia lost, and the term ia generalised in thesenseofany 
hollow trunk or cylinder. 

In cases such as these, where we have clear imitations of sound to rest on, it is 
easy to follow out the secondary appUcations, but where without such a clue we 
take the problem up at the other end and seek to divine the imitative origin of a 
wordjwe must beware of fandfiil speculations like those of De Broffies, who finds 
a power of expressing fixity and firmness in an initial si; excavation and hollow 
in w; mobility and fluid in Jl, and so forth. It seems to hitn that the teeth 
b^g the most fixed element of the oigan of voice, the dental letter, t, has been un- 
consdousiy (macbinalement) employed to designate fixity, as k, the letter proceed- 
ing from the hollow of the throat, to designate cavity and hollow. S, which he 
calls the nasal articulation, is added to intensify the expression. Here he abandons 
tbe vera causa of the imitation of sound, and assumes a wholly imaginary principle 
of expression. What consciousness has the child, or the uneducated man, of the 
part of the mouth by which the Afferent consonants are formed ? 

But even the question as to the adaptation of certain articulations to represent 
particular sounds will be judged very difierently by different ears. To one the 
imitative intention of a word will appear self-evident, while another will be 
wholly unable to discern in the word any resemblance to the sound which it id 
tnpposed to represent. The writer of a critique on Wilson's Prehistoric Man 
can find no adaptation to sound in the words laugh, scream, bleat, cry, and 
lelnmper. He asks, 'What is there in whimper which is mimetic ? and if simper 
bad been used instead, would there have been less onomatopceia 7 Is rire lik6 
Itaigh? Yet to a Frenchman, doubtless, rire seems the moro expressive of tlie 

In language, as in other subjects of study, the judgment must be educated by a 
vide survey of the phenomena, and thdr relations, and few who ore so prepared 
will donbt the imitative nature of the word in any of the instances above dted 
from Wilson. 

£videDce of an imitatiTe origin may be found in various circunutances, no^ 



My- in whot ii called a reduplicate form' of the *flrd, tfibem tli» t^prifibant 
syllable is repeated with or without some small variadon, either in the rowol it 
coDsonaDtal sound, as in Lat. murmur (by the side of a. murrm, to gnunble), 
iurtur, susums {for sur-sitr-tis) ; tintinno, tinlino, along with tinnio, to ring j 
pipio, to cry pi, pi ; It, lontonare, Imare, to thunder, rattle, rumble (Fl.) ; 
iorgogliare (to make ^wx>w), to gurgle j Mod.Gr. yapyapiiv (to make gargar), 
to gargle ; Pop(ibpiiu, It, iorif^liare (to make borbor), to rattle, rumble, bubble, 
along with Du. iorrelen, to bubble; Zulu ramxa, to fizz like &t in frying; 
Hindoo tomtom, a drum ; W. Indian chack-chack, a rattle made of hard seeds in 
a tight-blowD bladder (Kingsley), to be compared with So. ckack, to cbcb, to 
make a clinking noise, or with Mancbu klakseme (seme, sound), sound of Arj 
wood breaking. 

If loiigk were written as it b pronounced, lai^, there would be nothing in 
the Word itself to put us in mind of the thing signified. The imitation begioi 
to be felt iu the guttural ach of o. lachen, and is clearly indicated in the redupli- 
cate form of the Du. lachachen, to hawhaw or laugh loud, preserved by Kilian. 
The same principle of expression is carried still fiuther in the Dayak kakakkaJia, 
to go on laughing loud ; Manchu kaia-kiii, or kaka-foka. Pacific dia-oka., loud 
laughter. Mr Tylor illustrates the Australian tcttfi, to lau^, by quoting from 
the 'Tournament of Tottenham,' 

WiUhel qnoth Tyb, and li^ 
In other cases the imitative intention is witnessed by a rariation of the rowel 
corresponding to changes in the character of the sound represented. Thtis crack 
signifies a loud hard noise j crick, a diarp riiort one, like the nrdse of a glass 
breaking; (Trait,a prolonged sharp sound. Clack espresses such a sound as that 
of two hard pieces of wood striking against each other; click, a short sharp 
sound, IB the click of a latch or a tri^er ; cluck, a dosed or obscure sound. 
Hindustani iarai is rendered, crash, crack, thunder ; kuruk, the clucking of « 
hen ; htrkarHaS, to crackle like oil in boiUng ; MrMrOnS, to gnash the teeth j 
hirhtnina, to duck, to grumble. To ertmnch implies the exertion of greater 
force than when we speak of crunching such a substance 'as frozen snow or a 
Uscnit. The change through the three vowels, t, a, u, in German, is very com- 
mcm. The Bremisch Dictionary describes knakt, kniis, kmis, as represeotingf 
the sound made when something breaks; knaks, of a loud strong sound ;.^t^, 
of something fine and thin, like a glass or the chain in a watch ; knnks, when it 
gives a dull sound like a joint dislocated or springing back. In the same way 
we have knarren, to creak j knirren, to grate the teeth ; knurren, to growl, 
gnimble; garreii.girren, gurren, to jar, coo, rumble, &c. Sometimes the ex^ 
piession is modified by a change of the consonant instead of the vowel Thus 
in Zulu the sonants l> and g are exchanged for the lighter sound of the spirantr 
p and k in order to strengthen the force of a word. Pefitxela, to pant j bejii' 
%tla, to pant violently (Colenso). But perhaps the expressive power of a word 
is brought home to us in the most striking manner when tfaesarae sigaifica- 

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tiea U raadtrad b^ identical or tdoteljr umikr &rnu io widsly diatant laoguages. 

The noise of pieoes of metal atiiking together, or of bells rin^i^, is lepraiMitetk 
in Manchii by the syllables kUing-kiling, ^ling-kaUmg, to be compared witfi g. 
kling-kl^, the tingling sound of a httle bell (Ludwig) ; kUng-kUmg, the sound of 
a stringed instrument, the clink of glaasea; Lat. elango, b. dimk, oUnk. Manchu- 
kalar-Wir, for the Hlnhing of keyt or tinkling of IwUs, is identical with o. klirren, 
the gingliog of glaMee, chinking of coin, clath of amu. Mancha tang-img, 
Ghioese iHatig-laang, for the ringing of belb, oorrespozid to a. ding-dong, and 
illustrate the imitative nature of tingle, jingle, jtaigl». Mancfau tptar-quar, for the 
croakingoffrogi, agrees with a. ^aorrvR, to croak; Maochu Aoit forthe soandof 
coughii^ or clearing the throat, with our expraKion of kawkmg or of a kasking 
cough. Manchupwr-^ourrepreaentatbesouad of boiling water, or the bubbling 
up of a firing, correspondiDg in £. to the pitrHag of a brook, or to Du, liorrelen, 
to babble up. Manchu JtaJu, as Fr. coca and Famish Mk/tdj are applied to the 
^crainenis of children, while coed / is naed in s. nuis^es as an exclamation of 
d^ust w reprobation, indicating the origin of Gi^ Ktutit, bad. Maooba Ichout' 
c^tM-tchtUcha, for. the sound of privy whiBpenring, brings us to Fr. chcckoter, for 
chut-ehut'tr, to say cJtui, chul, to whisper. The whispering of the wind is repre- 
sented in Chinese by the syllables siaosiao (Miiller, L 3(58), answering to the 
Scotch sough or soock. The imitative syllable which represent* the purling of a 
spring of water in the name of the Arabian well Zemiem, es^resees the soond of 
water banning to Ixnl in s. nntmer. The s^labtes bil-bil, which represent a 
ringing sound in Oalla hilbil-goda (to make bUbit), to ring or jingle, and bilHla, 
a. bell, are qiplied to the notes of a unging bird or a pipe in Albanian HlHt, a 
nighlingale, a boy's whistle, Turlc bulHil, a nigbtiDgale, Tits sound of champ* 
ing with the ja»« in eating b imitated hy nearly the same syllables in Galla 
djam^amgoda {to italae djamdjam),'iAag^ csamTn-<^i,cian-cs':^i,aaAi. champs 
TheTurcoimin kala&diac'h, l^>roa^, disturl)ance (F, Newman), has its analogues in 
B. huUalMloo and Sonscr. kaia-hiM'fatda (faida, sound), shout, tumult, noise. 
The B. pitapat may be compared with Australian pilapllala, to knock, to pelt as' 
rwn, Mantcbu patapata, Hindustani bhadikad for the sound of fhiits pallering 
down from trees, Fr. palatras for the clash of tklling things, Maori paUt, drops of 
rain (Tylor, Prim. Calt. i. 192). The Galla gigiteka, to giggle, is based on the 
same imitation as the k, word, and the same may be sud of Zulu kola, cry, wail, 
sing as a bird, sound, compared with Gr. KoXiu, and b. call; as of Tamil muro- 
mura and b. nturauir. The AustraUan represents the thud of a spear ora bullet strik- 
ing the object by the syllable' loop, corresponding to which we have Galla tub- 
dfeda (to say lui), for a bos on the ear ; Sansci. tup, tubh, and Gr. rvr (in rmrrw, 
ixi/rov), to strike. The imitation of the same kind of sound by a nasal intonation 
gives the name of the Indian ianttmn, and Gr. Tviaravov, a drum ; Galla luma, to 
beat, tumiu, a workman, especially one who beats, a smith. The Chinook jar^ 
gpn uses the same imitative syllable in tamtum,* the heart ; tumwata, a water- 

* ' Hnte P. bal hei baad, and her hout want tiitm^ Uumf, at an accdersicd rate.' 

Uenbei tar Puis, 1S71.. 

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£d], and it i* alio fcnad io Lat tum-ultus, -w. tyittmestl, distmbaooe, in k. thta^, 
AM. tumdian (to beat the groand), to dance, and Fr. ttymitr, to &1L 

The lilt of mch agreemoits might be lengthened to any extenL But although 
the resemblance of spioaytnow wordt in nnielated languages afibrds a strong pre- 
mmption in lavoor of an imitative origin, it must not be lupposed that the most 
■trikiog diwimilarity is any a^ument whaterer to the contraiy. The beating of 
a drum is represented in s. byrudadui, answering too. hittiiderum, Fr. raiapUat 
or nmUmplan, It. tart^mttm, parapatapan. We represent the soond of knocking^ 
at a door by nU-lal-tat-tai, for which the Germans hare poch-poch or pui-puJt 
(Sanden). We use 6ang, the Germans pifff', and the French pouf, for the 
report of a gun. Mr lyior indeed denies that the syllable piiff' here imitates the 
actual sound or bang of the gnn, but he has perhaps overlooked the constant 
teudencr of language to signify the sound of a suddeti puff of wind and of th« 
collision of solid bodies by the same syllables. Ilie It. difffetto signifies as well a 
bufibt or cuff, as a poff with the mouth or a pair of bellows. So in Fr. we have 
soifffler, to blow, and sonffiet, a box on the ear or a pair of bellows, while x. 
blow is appUed as well to the force of the wind as to a stroke with a solid body. 
The use of o. paff, to represent the sound of a blow or of an explosion is uni- 
versally recognised by the dictionaries. ' Der puff^, the sound of a blow or shock ; 
bang, blow, thomp.' — Nohden. 

No doubt the comparison of vocal utterances with natural sounds is shppeiy 
ground, and too many cases may be adduced where an imitative origin has been 
maintained on such ^ncifiil grounds as to throw ridicule on the general theory, 
or has been claimed for words which can historically l)e traced to antecedent ele- 
ments. Nevertheless, it is easy in every language to make out numerous lists of 
words to the imitative character of which there will in nine cases out of ten be 
an all but universal agreement. Such are bump, thump, plump, thwack, whack, 
imack, crack, clack, clap, flap, flop, pop, snap, rap, tap, [pat, clash, crash, smash, 
s^vash, splash, slash, lash, dash, craunch, crunch, douse, souse, whizz, fizz, hiss, 
whirr, hum, boom, whine, <Un, ring, bang, twang, dang, clank, clmk, chink, 
jingle, tingle, tinkle, creak, squeak, squeal, squall, rattle, clatter, chatter, patter, 
mutter, murmur, gargle, gurgle, guggle, sputter, splutter, paddle, dabble, bubble, 
blubber, rumble. 

Notwithstanding the evidence of forms like these, the derivation of words 
from direct imitation, without the iutervention of orthodox roots, b revolting to 
the feelings of Professor Miiller, who denounces the, lawlessness of doctrines that 
' would undo all the work that has been done by Bopp, Humboldt, and Grimm, 
and others during the last fifty years — and throw etymology back into a state of 
chronic anarchy.' 'If it is once admitted that all words must be traced back to 
definite roots, according to the. strictest phonetic rules, it matters little whether 
those roots are called phonetic Qrpes, more or less preserved in the innumerable 
impressions taken from them, or whether we call them onomatopccic and iuter- 
jectional. As long as we have definite forms between ourselves and chaos, we 
may build our science like an arch of a bridge, that rests on the firm piles fixed 



in the nuhing waters. If, on the contraiy, the roots of language are mere ab- 
(StractioDs, and ^here is nothing to separate language from cries and inteijections, 
then we maj' play with language as children play with the sands of the sea, but 
we must not complain if every fresh tide wipes out the little castles we had built 
on the beadi.'— 3Dd Series, p. 94. 

If Girimm and Bopp had established an immovable barrier between us and 
chaos, it might save some trouble of thought, but the name of no master of the 
Art will now guarantee the solidity of the ground on which we build; we must 
lake it at our own risk though Aristotle himself had said it. The work of every 
man has to stand the brant of water and of fire, and if wood, hay, or stubble is 
found in the building of Grimm or Bopp, or of any meaner name, it is well that 
it be burnt up. 

We come now to the personal interjections, exclamations intended to make 
known affections of the mind, by imitation of the sounds naturally uttered under 
the influence of the affection indicated by the tnteijectton. Thus ah!, the inteij. 
of grief, is an imitation of a sigh ; vgk !, the inteij. of horror, of an utterance at 
the moment of shuddering. 

At the first beginning of hie, eveiy little pain, or any nosatisfied want, in the 
infant, are made known 1^ an instinctive cry. But the infant speedily finds that 
his cry brings bis mother to his ude, that he has only to raise his voice In order 
to get taken up and soothed or fed. He now cries no longer on the simple im* 
pulwon of instinct, but with intelligence of the consolation which follows, and 
it is practically fonnd that the child of the unoccupied mother, who has time to 
attend to every little want of her nurseling, cries more than that of the hard- 
working woman whose needs compel her to leave her children a good deal to 
themselves. In the former case the infant gives expression in the natural way to 
all his wants and feelings of discomfort, and wilfully enforces the utterance as a 
call for the consolation he desires. But when the infant petulantly cries as a 
call for his mother, he makes no nearer approach to speech than the dog or the 
est which comes whining to its master to get the door opened for tL The pur* 
pose of the cry, in the case of the animal or of the infant, is simply to call the 
attention of the mother or the master, withoutathought of symbolising to them, 
by the nature of the cry, the kind of action that is desired of them. It is not 
imtil the child becomes dimly conscious of the thoughts of his mother, and cries 
for the purpose of making her suppose that he is in pain, that he has taken the 
first step in rational speech.- l^e utterance of a cry with such a purpose may 
be taken as the earliest type of interjection al expTCSsion, the principle of which is 
clearly enounced by Lielier in his account of Laura Bridgman, formerly cited. 

' Crying, wringing the hands, and uttering plmntive sounds, are the sponta- 
neous symphenoroena of despair. He in whom they appear does not intention- 
ally produce them. He however who beholds them, knows them, because they 
are spontaneous, and because he is endowed with the same nature and organisa- 
tion ; and thus they become signs of despair. Henceforth rational beings may 
kttentionally produce them when th^ deure to convey the idea of despair.' 



The piindple wtticb givo* ri>e to ioteijectiani it predielf the laae n that 
whiob Itat been ao largelj' illiutrated in the naming of animab. if I wkh (o 
moke a penon of ao unknown language think of a cow, I imitSM the lowing Ol 
die anim^ ; and in the tame way when I with bira to kaow that I am in pw, or 
to think of me 33 suffering pain, 1 imitate the 07 whidi it the aatuid expimsion 
of tu&nog. And as the utterance uaed in the deugnation of animals speedily 
passes from the imitative to the conventional tt^e, to it ii with the Inteijeo- 
tioDB used to exprest varieties of human pastion, whicii are trequentlj to tooed 
dowB iu BMuming an articulate form as to make ni wholly lose ught of A» is- 
Itinctive action which they represent, and fncHB wbeikce they draw their lignifi- 

The nature of iuteijections has been greatly misunderstood by Miiller, who 
treatt tbem aa tpDntaneout utteraaoes, and acoordingly mines their importance 
in iUmtnting the origin of language. He tajt, ' Two theories have been ttarted 
to solve the proUem [of the ultimate oMure of roota], which for shortness' sake 
I shall call the Bowwow tJieory and the Poob|>o<^ theory. According to tha 
lirst, roots are imitations of sounds ; according to the second, they are involumtary 
inteijections.' — ist Series, p. 344. And again, ' There are no doubt in every 
language interjections, and tome of them may become traditional, and enter into 
the compoffltion of words. But these inteijectiona are only the outsktitt of real 
language. Language begins where inteijectiont end. There is as much differ^ 
ence between a real word such as to laugh, and the inteijectian ha ! ha ! as thae 
is between the involuntary act and uoise of sneesing and the verb to sneezs.' ' Aa 
in the case of onomatoptxia, it cannot be denied thst with inteijecttons too aome 
kind of language might have been formed ; but not a language like that which 
we find in numerous varieties among all the racea <^ men. One short inteijec- 
tionmay be more poweriul, more to the point, more eloquent than a long speech. 
In fact, iuteijections, together with gestures, the movements of the muscles, of 
the mouth, and the eye, would be quite sufficient for all purposes which languaga 
answero with the majority of mankiud. Yet we must not forget that bum! 
ugh ! tut t pooh ! are as little to be called words as the expressive gestures whitdi 
usually accompany these exclamations.' — p. 369 — 371. And to the same efiect 
be cites from Home Tooke. 'The dominion of speech is founded on the down- 
fall of iuteijections. Without the artfiil intervention of language mankind would 
have had nothing but inteijections with which to communicate orally any of their 
feelings. The neighing of a horse, the lowing of a cow, the barking of a dog, 
the purring of a cat, sneezing, coughing, groaning, shrieking, and every other is* 
voluntary convulsion with oral sound, have almost aa good a title to be called 
parts of speech as interjections have. Voluntary inteijections are only employed 
where the suddenness and vehemence of some adection or passion return men to 
their natural slate and make them foi^t the use of speech, or when from som« 
drcumstance the shortness of time will not permit tbem to exercise it.' — Diver- 
sions of Purley, p. 31. When the words of Tooke are dted in oppoeition to the 
Uaims of interjectiont to be considered as parts of speech, it sh<»ild be temeoki 



befsd, tbft tf> W ^^ ^^ '^'^ *^ boasti have o/nort as g«>od a .title to the jMine 
f)f lODjpiage w intieiieqdoDs, U practicalljr to reo^nise Clut ume additiooal &uo 
ti<Ki ia {terformed by interjectiom, and the di&reDoe thtu haa% cecognised by 
TQoke is, io trut^, t^e £uulanieaital dJstinctioD betweeo iutfiactive uttwaoce xnd 
jratioiud ^leecb. 

The eeteoce of latioavl speech lies in the iotentioa of the ipeaker to imfinss 
aomething beyond the mere sound of the utterance oq the aund of the hearer. 
And jt is preciaely thu wluch dutioguisJiM uUerjectioos from inttioctive cries. It 
is nitf epealung when a groan of agony is wrung from me, but when I imitate a 
ffftaa by the inteTJection oA / for the purpose of obtainiDg the sympathy of n^ 
bfi^fex, thep speech begins. So, when I am humming and hawing, I am not 
^^aking, bui when I ay An / to signify that I am at a loss what to say, it is not 
the il£st language because my meauing is expressed by a single syllable. It is 
purely acadent that the &yUabIet> haia, by wJiich we inteijectioually represent the 
souqd of laughter, have not been retained in the sense of laugh in the graounatic- 
al pact of our language, as is actually the case in some of the North American 
dialects, for example, in the name of Longfellow's heroine Minnriiaha, ^plained 
as signifying the laughing water. The same imitation may be clearly discerned 
ifi Jdagy. iakota, loud lau^^ter, in Fm. kahotlaa, kokotlaa, and somewhat veiled 
in Arab. kahiaAah, Gr. mx^f^i ffX"^*'' ^^ cacfunno, to bawhaw or laugh 
laud and uorestrainedly. 

Miiller admits that some of our words sprang from imitation of the cries of 
animals and other natural sounds, and others from ioteijections, and thus, he says, 
some kind of language miglu have been formed, which would be quite sufficient 
Sac all the purposes which language serves with the majority of men, yet not a 
language like that actually spoken among men. But he does not explain in what 
fiindamental character a language so fonned would difier from our own, nor can 
he pretend to fiy that the words which originate in interjections are to be di». 
tinguisbed team othen. 

To admit the mechanism as adequate for the production of language, and yet 
to protest that it cotdd not have given rise to such languages aiotv own, because 
comparatively few of the words of our languages have beea accounted for on this 
principle, is to act as many of us may Eemember to have done vhen Scrope and 
Lyell began to ^plain the modem doctrines of Geoiogy. We could not deny 
the reality of the agencies, which those authors pdnted out as in constant opera> 
tion at the present day on tfae feame-work of the earth, demolishing h«Te, and 
there re-ananging, over areas more or less limited j but we laughed at the suppo- 
sition that these were the agendes by which the entii« crust of the earth was 
actually moulded into its present form. Yet these pi^udices gradually gave way 
under patient illustrations of the doctrine, audit came tobeseenbyevetyone that 
if the powers indicated by Lyell and his fellow-workeis could have produced the 
effects attributed to them, by continned operation through unlimited periods of 
time, it would be unceaspnable to seek for the cause a£ the phenomeiu in 
ifuracle or in cfiOTulsioiu pf a kind of which we have do experience in the history 



of the world. And so ia the caie of language, when once a rational origia of 
wordi hai beea established on the priodple of imitation, the critical qaesdon 
fhoold be, whether the words explained on this priodple are a &ir (pedmen of 
tbe entire stock, whether there b any cognisable difference between them and 
the test of language; and not, what is the numerical proportion of the two 
classes, whether the number of words traced to an imitative trngin embraces a 
fiftieth or a fifth of the roots of language. 

There cui be no better key to the condition of mind in wfaidi the use of 
speech would first have b^un, than the language of gesture in use among the 
deaf-and-dumb, which has been carefiiUy studied byMrTyIor,and admirably de- 
scribed in his ' Early History of Mankind.' 'The Gesture-language and Pictuio. 
writing,' he says, ' insignificaat as tliey are in practice iu comparison with speech 
and phonetic writing, bave this great claim to con^deration, that wc can really 
understand them as thoroughly as perhaps we can understand anything, and by 
studying them we can realise to ourselves in some measure a condition of the 
human mind wludi underlies anything which has as yet been. traced in even the 
lowest dialect of language, if taken as a whole. Though, with tbe exception of 
words which are evidently imitative, like peewit and cuckoo, we cannot at present 
tell by what steps man came to express himself by words, we can at least see how 
he still does come to express himself by signs and pictures, and so get some idea 
of the nature of this great movement, which no lower animal b known to have 
made or shown the least sign of making.' 'The Gesture-language b in great 
part a system of representing objects and ideas by a rude outline-gesture, imitat- 
ing tbeir most striking features. It is, as has been well said by a deaf-and-damb 
man, a Picture-language. Here at once its essential difference fi\>m speech be- 
comes evidenL Why the words ttand and go mean what they do is a question to 
which we cannot as yet give the shadow of an answer, and if we had been taught 
to say stand where we now say go, and go where we now say stand, it would be 
practically all tbe same to us. No dovibt there was a sufficient reason for these 
words recdving tbe meanings they now bear, but so &r as we are concerned there 
migbtas well bave been none, for we have quite lost «ght of the connection be- 
tween the word and idea. But in the Gesture-language the relation between idea 
and sign not only always exists, but b scarcely lost ^ght of for a moment. When 
a deaf-and-dumb child holds hb two first fingera forked like a pair of legs, and 
makes them stand and walk upon tbe table, we wont no teaching to tell us what 
thb means nor why it b done. The mother-tongue (so to speak) of the deaf-and- 
dumb is the language of signs. Tiie evidence of the best observers lends to prove 
that they are capable of developing the Gesture-language out of their own mindi 
without the aid of speaking men. The educated deaf-mutes can tell us from 
thdr own experieucc how Gesture-signs originate. 

The following account u given by Kruse, a deaf-mute himself, and a well- 
known teacher of deaf-mutes, and author of several works of no small ability: — 
'Thus the deaf-and-dnmb must have a language without which no thought can be 
brought to pasa. But here nature soon comes to hb help. What strikes him' 



ifaoet, or what makei a distiactioa to liim between one thiog and another, tuch 
distincliye signs of objects are at once rigni by which he knows these objects, and 
knows them again ; they become tokens of things And whilst he alently 
elaborates the signs he has fonad £>r single objects, that is, whilst he describe* < 
their form* for lumself in the air, or imitates them in thought with hands, 
fingers, and gestures, he developet for himself suitable signs to represent ideas, 
which serve him as a means of fixing ideas of difiin^nt kinds in his mind, and 
recaUtng them to his memory. And thus he makes himself a language, the so 
called Gestnre-langnage, and with these few scan^ and imperiect signs a way ftv 
thought b already broken, and with his thought, as it now opens out, the lan- 
guage cultivatet itself, and forms fiirther and fimher.' 

Mr Tylor proceeds to describe some of the signs used in the Deaf-and-Dumb - 
Institution at Berlin :— 

'To express the pronouns I, thou, he, 1 posh my fore-finger against the pit 
of my stomach for /, pnsh it towards the person addressed for thcu, point with '■ 
my thumb over my right shoulder fiir he. When I hold my right hand flat ' 
with the palm down at the level of my waist, and raise it towards the level of 
my shoulder, that »gnifies great ; but if I depress it instead, it means Uttte. T^ 
Mgn for man is taking off the hat ; for child, the ri^t elbow is dandled upon the 
left hand. The adverb hither and the verb to come have the same ugn, beckon- 
ihg with the finger towards oneself To hold the first two fingers apart, like a ■ 
letter V, and dart the finger tips out from the eyes is to see. To touch the ear 
and tODgtie with the forefinger is to hear, and to taste. To speai is to move 
the lips as ia qteaking, and to move the lips thus while pointing with the fore-t 
finger out fix>m the mouth is name, or to name, as though one should define it lo' 
pwtl out h) speaking. To pull up a pinch of fiesh from the back of one's hand 
iijiesh at meaL Make the steam coding ^ from it with the forefinger, and it 
become* roast meat. Make a bird's bill with two fingers in front of one's lips 
and ftap with the arms, and that means goose ; put the first sign and these to- : 
getber, and we have roast goose. To sdze the most striking outline of on object, ' 
the principal movement of an action, is the whole secret, and this a what the 
rudest savage can do untaught, nay, what is more, can do better and more easily 
than the educated man.' 

In the Institutions, signs are taught fiir many abstract terms, such as when or 
yet, or the verb to be, but these, it seems, are essentially £>reign to the nature of 
the Gesture-language, and are never used by the children among themselves.' 
Ilie Gesture-language has no grammar, properly so called. The same sign stands 
for the agent, his action, and the act itself, for walk, wal&eil, walked, walker, the 
particuUr sense in which the «gn is to be undeistood having to be gathered 
from the circumstances of the case. 'A look of inquiry converts an assertion 
hito a question, and fiiUy tenet to make the diSerence between The master it 
come, and Is the master comei The interrogative pronouns who? what? are 
made by looking or pointing about in an inquiring manner; in fact, by a num- 
ber of unsuccessful attempts to say, he, that. The deaf-and-dumb child's way of 

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Mkiog, Who bf betun yaa> wodd be. Yon btgtOif who w» it)' Wbere- 
ttio ioquitT ii of a naore geDeral naturs, h Dumber ef altcroatiTas ara auggettad. 
' The deaf-Bnd-dumb child don oot eek. What did you have for dinner yttter- 
dttf } but, Did you have lonp i dtd yon have potiidgfi ? and so forth. — What i> 
extHvaed hf a genitire oass or a txHreapoadinc picpowtion may hava a distinct 
■fgn of holding in the Ge*tUre-laiiguage. Tb» thl«e ngns to exiveM iA« ^or- 
ikntr't inife, might ba the knife, the garden, and the actiw (tf giaiptDg the 
kaif^ putting it into hii pocket, or Bomething of the kind. But the mere 
putting together of the potseuor and poseeMed nuQr answer the puqxiae.' 

The vocal ligua used at the first commencomeot of speech would difier from 
the gestures which they supplemeated or replaced only in bdng addrened to the 
efu- innead of the eye. £ach leparate utteranoe would be designed to lead the 
hearer to the thought of some scene of existence or sensible iuiage associated witb 
the sound which the utterance is intended to lopreseat, and it might be used to 
rignify a substantive object, or a quality, or action, according to the circuniitaDcea, 
of the caie. The deaf-mute touches his lip to tigaiff either the lip itself or the 
colour red, and the word iif might Mjually have been used in both these wuses, 
at, iufaot, the term pinA isapplied indiderently to a particular flower and a mix- 
tura of while and md, or orange to a certain Ihiit and its peculiar colour. An 
iDaitatiou of the sound of champing with the jaws uigfat with equal propiie^ 
signify dther something to eat or the act of eating, and oa this principle we have 
above explained the origin of words like mum or nmi, which may occasioinUy be 
beard iu our Qurserie* expreaung iodiffereatly the senses of eat or of JbmL Nor is. 
this compreheDsiveness of significMion confined to the self-developed language of 
duldren. In ordinary English the game word may often be used in such a con- 
Btrnctioli as to make it either verb or noun, substantive or adjective, or sometimes 
interjection or adverb also. When I q>eak of going to ioMt or to^i^ gram- 
marians would call the word a verb. When I speak of joining the iimf or catching 
ijiih, it is B substantive. In the expression of a kurU-iali offish^wter the prior 
eluneot is used to qualify the meaning of the fallowing noun, and thus performs 
the part of an adjective. The syllable £iu^ represents a loud dull sound, and when 
it is uttered umply for the purpose of giving rise to the thought of such a sound, 
H when I say. Bang! went the gun, it is called an interjection. But when it is 
roeaot to indicate the action of a certain person, as when I say, Do not bang the 
<loor> it is a verU Wbca it expresses the subject or the object of action, as in ibe 
■antajKCi, He gave the door a bang, it is a noun. When I say. He ran taag ap 
mainat the wall, ia»g qualifies the meaniog of the verb ran, and so is an adverbs 
But these grammatical distktcticHK depend entirely upon the use, in other instances 
«r in etbar languagea, of appropriate modi&cations of the sigtuficanC syllable* 
whether bf addiliotiB or otherwise, in expressing such relations as those indicated 
above. The office of all words at the banning of speech, like that of the Inner- 
jectioDB at the prtsent day, wxtuld be simply to bring to mind a oertan object of 
tbOBght, and it wouldmakenodifieKaBoeia tbenatureof the word wbetherthat 
object was an agent, or an act, or a pasuve scene of existence. The same wanf 



MOO would lerve to desgnate the loving of the cow or the cow itself. It is only. 
vhea a word, ngmfying an attribute of this persoa or of that, coalesces with the 
penonal pronouns, or with elements ezpreaBing relations of time, that the verb 
will b^in to emerge as a separate kind of word irom the rest of speech. In the 
snme way the coeleicence with elements indicating that the thing ugnified is the 
sabject or the object of action, or espreasing the directioa of motion to or from : 
tbe tlung, or some relation between it and another object, will give rise to tlifr 
daw of nouns. We have in Chmese an example of a language in which neither 
verb Dor oonn has yet been dev^ped. but every syllable presents an independent 
itn^e to the mind, the reluioos of wliich are only marked by the construction of 
tbe Knteoce, so that the same word may Mgnify nnder difierent circumstances 
what would be expresKd by a reih, a noun, or an adjective ia an inflectional 
Ismgnage. Tbe syllatde ta conveys the idea of something great, and may be used 
in the sense of great, gieatnen, and to be great. Thus ta/u signifies a great man; 
Jk ta, the man b great. — Miiller L 355. TIm sense of in a place is expressed in 
Cfaineae by adding such words as amg, middle, or net, inside, as iuo aaig, in the 
empiie. The instrumental relation is indicated by the syllable y, which b an old 
word meaning; me ; as y tag (nse stick), with a stick. It is universally supposed 
tliat tbe case^ndings of noons in Greek, Latin, and Sanscrit have arisen from tbe 
coalescence of some such elements as the above, as in the case of our own com- 
pounds, wheretP, whereof, wherefore, whereby, wherewith, the subsidiary element 
being slnired over in pronuiKnation, and gradually worn down until all clue to its 
original form and ngnification has been wholly lost. It is othervnse with the 
personal inflections of tbe verbs, wboae descent from the personal pronouns is in 
many csaes clear enough. 

Inteijectioos are of tbe tame smple ligniflcance as the words in Chinese, or 
M all words mtut have been at tbe first commencement of q>eeci). Ttieir mean- 
ing is cam|dete in itself, sot implying a relation to any other conception. The 
purpose of tbe inreijection is umply to present a certain object to the imagina^ 
tion of the hearer, ksring him to connect it with the ideas suggested by any 
preceding <k following 'words, as if successive scenes of visible represeatation were 
brought before his efes. Tbe term is chiefly applied to exclamations intended 
to express a variety of mental or bodily affections, pam, grief, horror, contempt, 
W(»ider, &c., by imitating tome audible accon4>animent of the aifection in quoa^ 
tion. Thus the notion of pain or grief b conveyed by an imitation tA a sigh or 
a groan ; the idea of dblike and rejeccioo by an imitation of the sound of spit- 
ting. The tnttrjectioa will be completely accounted for in an etymological 
ptnnt of view, when it is traced to a recognised sympbenomenon (as Lieber calb 
it) of tbe afiection, that b, to some outward display of the affection, that admits 
-of au^le representation. Why the aiFection should display itself in such a 
manner b a question beyond tbe bounds of etymological inquiry, but b oAeu 
self-evident, at in tbe case of spitting as a sign of dislike. 

Tl« intetjections which occupy tbe most prominent place in the class are 
perhaps those which represent a cry of pain, a groan, a sigh of oppression aod 

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grief. Such are a. ach, Gael, ach, ock, ochan, v. oeh, s. oh, ok. It. oi, aM, ohit. 
Gr. oi, A, Lat, ah, ok, ta, hei, l\lyr. jao, jaoh. A wideapread fbrm, represeDtiog 
probably a deeper groan, is seen in Gr. oiai, Lat. vce. It. gutu, w. gwae, IUjt. 
mi;, Goth, wai, obo. wt, w^wa, kt. wi, ivSaia, B. woe, on. vH, 

The represeDtation of a ugh or groan by the reliable ab ! ah ! assumes the 
riiape of a substantive or a verb in w. ock, ockax, a. ack, a groan or lamentationi 
V. ocki, ochain, a. acken, dchxtn, to groan, Gr. &)(eiiai, to bewail oneself, aco- 
\iZ»t (to C17 ach! ach!) vxi"' ^X'^fi ^'^ griere, to mourn. It passes on to 
■ignify the cause of the groaning in 41. ace, act, e. mkt, pain, suffering, and in 
Gr. ax^C) pain, grief. The form corresponding to Lat. vee, bowerer, baa more 
generally been used in the (xmstrucdon of words ugniiying pain, grief, misery. 
o. weh, pdu, grie4 afBictioSi <& weken, the pangs of childbirth; kafiftueh,- 
xaknwek, headache, toothache ; wehen (SchmeUer), to ache, to hurt ; I-et. wa»> 
idt, to injure; Illyrian vi^', w. gwae. It. guojo, misfortune, woe. 

It is very common in an early stage of i^ieech to form verbs by the addition 
of elements signifying jay or make to an imitative syllable. Thus in the lan- 
guage of the Gallas the sound of a crack is represented by the syllables cacaJe 
(where c stands for a click with the tongue) ; the chirping of birds by the syllable 
(irr or trrr; the champing of the jaws by djamdjam; and cacak djeda {to say 
tacak) is to crack; lirT-djeJa, to chirp; djami^am goda (goda, to make), t(^ 
smack or make a noise as swine in eating. A similar formation is frequent in 
Sanscrit, and is found in o, tueh sckreien, wek klagen, to C17 woe ! to lament ; 
wehikun, to do woe, to cause pain, to ache. A more artifidat way of expres».> 
ing action is to replace the elements signifying say or make by the sound of an 
/, n, or r, in Gr. mostly a x, at the close of the radical syllable. Thus the Latin 
has ba-t-are, to cry iaa! the Piedmon tese, _/ar bau-bau, and more artificially 
hau'l-i, to make bow-wow, to bark ; Fr. miau-l-er, to ciy muat I AlbaniaQ 
miau~l~u, vtiau-n-is, I mew ; Gr, ala(it, to cry aT, aT, to lament, d/iwCw, to cry 
oI/uK, ah me I yapyaplim, Co sound yapyap, to gargle. In this way from tbe 
root gMU, wai, representing a ciy of pain, are formed B. wai-l. It. gutg-ire, gutg- 
o/-tre, to yell or cry out pitifully, to lament, Bret. gwe-Ua, to weep, w. vei-a, om. 
v«-n-a (to cry vei .'), to yell, howl. lament, o. uieinen, to weep. 

We get a glimpse of the original formation of verbs in tbe way in which tbv 
inieijection sometimes coalesces with tbe personal pronoun. The utterance of 
the inteijection alone would naturally express the pain or grief of the speaker 
himself, bat when jcHoed with the mention of another person, tbe exclamaticHi 
would refer with equal deamess to tbe sufl^ng of the person deugnated, fig 
tilil fa victis I Woe unto thee ! Woe unto tbem ! Accordingly, when the 
speaker wishes emphatically to indicate himself as the sufferer, he adds tbe pro- 
noun of the first person. Hei mihi/ Ak lae! Aye me I Sp. Ay di me/ Giu 
olfiM, It. okimi/ aimil lllyr. vajme! Let. waiman/ woe is me. And so com- 
plete is tbe coalescence of die interjection and the pronoun in some of these 
cases, sa to give rise to the formation of verbs like a simple root. Thus from 
olfUH springs olfiii^u, to wail, lament; from oimi, oimare, to wail or cry alas 



(Florio) ; from Let. waiman I uiaimamu, lameDtation, wtumaidt, to lament, 
ihowing the fbrmaCion of the or. waiment, of the same ugnification. Now if 
we examine the purport of the ntterance ohimi /ah tin I we shaU see that it ii 
intended to let the hearer know that the speaker is in pain or ^ef, and thus hu 
essentially the same meaning with the Gr. axoftai I bemoan myself, I cty ach I 
I am in pain. And no one doubts that the >iiu of oxo^w is the pronoun of the 
first person joined on to an element signifying lamentation or pain, a notion 
which is expressed id the clearest manner by a syllable like ^x ^ ^^^r represent- 
ing a cry of pain. 

llie inteijection in Italian coalesces also tvith the pronoun of the second and 
third peiwNi : ohitu ! alaa £»- thee, o!asi ! alas for him (Florio), suffering to thee, 
to him, corresponding to Gr. ^x"^ ^X''''"> although in these last the identic 
of the verbal terminations with the personal pronoun is not so clearly marked as 
in the case of the fint person of the verb. 

The efiectsof cold and fear on the human frame closely resemble each other. 
They check the action c^ the heart and depress the vital powers, producing a con- 
Tukire shudder, under which the su^rer cowers together with his arms pressed 
against his chest, and utters a deep guttural cry, the vocal representation of which 
will aSord a convenient designation of the attitude, mental or bodily, with which 
it IS associated. Hence, in the first place, the intetjection ugh 1 (in German uh! 
hu! in French oof!) expr^sive of cold or horror, and commonly pronounced 
tion of the soimd which accompanies a shudder. Then 
e character the representative syllable appears under the fiirm of 
i({ or hug, as the root of verbs and adjectives indicating shuddering and horror. 
Kilian has huggheren, to shudder or shiver. The or. ug or kouge was used in the 
seme of shudder at, feel abhorrence at. 

The rattling drum and trumpet's tout 

Delight young twanldes that ore stout ; 

What bis kind frighted mother ugr 

Is mnsidc to the sodger*! lugs. — Jamieson, Sc Diet. 

In a passage of Hardyng cited by Jamieson it is related how the Abbess of Cold- 
inghame, having cut off her own nose and lips for the purpose of striking the 
Danish ravishers with hotror, — 

' Counselled al her systen to do the same 

To make their foes to haigt so with the sight. 

And so they did, afore Che enonies came 

Eche-OD their nose and overlip fall right 

Cot off anon, which was an itmgly sight' 
Here, as Jamieson observes, the passage clearly points out the origin of the word 
itglj/ as signifying what causes dread or abhtHrence, or (carrying the derivation to 
ill original source) what makes us shudder and cry ugh ! 

I^Af the odions ugfy fellow. — Countess of St Albans. 

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Jt m^ be observed that we familiarly use JrigklfiU, or dreadfully agly, for tha 
extreme of ugliness. The radical pliable u compounded with a difierent tennio- 
«tioii ia Scotch itgsome, what causes horror. 

The tigsfimtttat and Eileoce of the Ufcht 
In eveij plux mf apr«t« made am agfaait — Don^u, VngiL 
From the same root are otf. ugga, to fear, to have spprebension of ; vggr, fright, 
apprahension j fggligr, frigblfol, threatening) uggsamr, timorous. Then ai 
things of extraordinary size have a tendency to strike as with awe and terror, ta 
make us houge at them (in the language of Hardyng), the term huge is used to 
signUy eicesdve «ze, a fearful size. The connection of the cry with a certain 
bodily attitude comes next into play, and the word hug is applied to the act of 
pretsing the arms against the breast, which forms a promittemt feature in the 
shudder of cold or horror, and is done in a voluntary way in a dose embrace or 
the like. 

OR. ^ajiati LAT. baba! pafjb ' 
The manifestation of astonishment or absorption in intent observation, by tbe 
instinctive opening of the mouth, is fanuliar to every one. 
I saw a smith stand with his luunmer — thus, 
The t*h3$t his iron did on hii anvil cool, 
WilA efien meutk swallowing a ttiloi's Dews. — K. John. 
The physical cause of the phenomenon appeara to be, that the least exertion 
in breathing interferes with the power of catching any very slight sounds for 
which we are listening ; and as we breathe with greater ease with the mouth opei^ 
when we are intently engaged in the observation of an object of apprehension or 
wonder, listening for every sound that may proceed from it, the mouth instinct- 
ively opens in order to calm down thefiinction of breathing, and to give the fairest 
play to the sense of bearing. Now the exertion of the vdce at tbe moment of 
opening the lips produces tbe syllable ^, which is found as the root of words in 
. the most distant languages signiiying wonder, intently observe, watch, expect, 
wait, remain, endure, or (passing from the mental to the bodily phenomencHi) 
gape or open the mouth, and thence open in general. The repetition of the syl- 
lable ha, 6a, gives the interjection of wonder in Greek and Latin, /3a^a/ ! babce! 
paps ! Tbe exclamation baf a used in the North of France in a Dmiiar manner, 
according to H6cart (Diet. Rouchi), and the same author explains habme as one 
who stares with open month, a gaping booby. Walloon Imwi, to gaze with open 
mouth (Grandgagnage) j esbawi, Old English aliaui, Fr, iboMr, aJiaubir, to cause 
to cry ba I to set agape, to astonish. 

Id himselTwas all his state 
More solemn than the tedious pomp which waits 
On princes, when thdr rich retinue long 
or hoTEei led and grooms besmeared with gold. 
Dazzles tbe crowd, and tett tMem all tigaf€, — Milton. 
In the remote Zulu we find balaza, to astonish. The signiAcant syllable ia 



strangtbfioed by a final d in several of the Romajjce dialects (' the ^ being ia an* 
dent Latin the regular stopgap of the hiatus.' — Quart iEt£v. No. 14S}, as is It, 
badare, to be intent upon, to watch, to loiter, tany, sta^ ) start a iada, to obaem, 
to watch, to wait ; sbadigUore, Provencal badaihar, to yawn ; badar, to open the 
mouth, gola badada, with open mouth ; Jxatarto badiero, an open door ; Pr. £01^, 
20 open (Vocab. de Beni), ba^aHtt (txtdaud), a gaping hoyden, a fool (Cot.) ; 
Catalan iadia, Portuguese baMa, an opeowg wha% the wa rum op into the land, 
M bay } Breton badaieia, to yawn ) tada, badtumi, to be ituinfied, dazzlad, aston- 
ished. In France the simpler fonp of the root, without the addition of the final 
d, givei Old Fr. iaer, iaier, Her, to be iiUent vqws, to hanker after, to gape j 
boueht bianU, a gueule bie, with open mouth ; baiiler, to gape or yawn. Abater 
Is explained by Lacombe, '4coiitcr avec ^tonnement, bouche b^ante, inhiare lo- 
quenti.' The adoption of Fr. aimer gave rise to b, abeyanee, expectatitHi, sii»> 
pease, and oB. able, to lemaio, abide, endure. 

At right of hei they suddeo all arose 

Id |[re>t unala, ni wist whi(A nay to chnxe, 

Vnt Jon *U feadesi Soioti them to aiie.—T. Qoeea. 

The same tran^tion from the sense of earnest observation to that of expecta- 
tioQ or mere endurance until a certain end, is sttn in Latin ailendere, to observe, 
to direct the mind to, and Fr. attendre, to expect, to wait } and again in Italia? 
gttatare, to look, to watch, compared with b. wait, which is radically identical 
and was itsdf originally used in the sense of look, 

B«i7It okprd a nHTaer, and bul hjFin sly cm Mt, 
And mgie afiir ow Um sbippis aflii w dof >b dryvc 

As ttu vowel of the root is thinned down from a to t in the series laer, bfder, 
'chaier, aby, or in Gr. (\i*f) xtdvtt, ■jfavKu, compared with Lat. kio, lo gape, wa 
leant to recognise a similar series in It. badare, Gothic beidan, to look out for, to 
expect, await, and E. bide, aMde, to waiL 

hush! hist! 

A representation of a whispering or rustliog sound 1^ the ntteraooe of a pro- 
longed sk or ss, or of different combinations of s with A, p, or f, is widely used fiy 
the purpose of deman^g silence or cessation of noise, or of warning one to listea. 
Hence the interjections of silence, AiwA / Aiii / whist/ put/ (Hal.), Sc. ipMsh! 
wittskt ! o. pj .' psch / pit I hutch ! titsch ! Da. lyj / Sw. tyst I L«t. */ / It, »m, 
IHedm. cifo/ emtol Fr. ehit/ Turk, JlM/Os%[ic»/ sas/ silence! Fernandian 
jia/ listen! tush! Yorubanol pshaw! (Tylor, Prim. Cult I. 178.) 

The inteijection seems in all case* to arise from a representation of a low 
whispering sound, but the principle on which it acts as a demand of sleoce may 
be explained in two wa^ Id the first placts it may be undentood a* an exhort- 
ation to lower the voice to a whisper, or more urgently, not to 1^ even a whisper 
or a nistle be beard ; but more generally perhaps it is to be undeistood ai an iit- 



timadon to be on the watch for the least whisper that caa be heard, for whicii 
purpose it is necessary that the hearer should keep perfectlf stilL Thus we have 
Sc wluih, whMsh, a rushing or whizzing sound, a whisper. — Jam. 
Lat her ydp on, b« 7011 u calm's s moose, 
Nor kt jvax wiiiii be hedud into the house. 
The It. zitia is used eica«ly in the same way; son fan xitto, not to make the 
least sound; non senHrse un xttlo, not a breath to be beard j slare xitto, to be 
silent. Pisstpisui, pst, hsht, still; also a low whispering; pissipissare, to pah, to 
hshtj also to buzz or whisper vei7 low. — Fl. Topw(wor icAw/«r areiwovinciallf 
used in the sense of whisper. — Hal. The w. hust (pronounced Mst), a buzzing 
noise, hush (Rhys), kusting, whisper, speak low, correspond to b. hist I nlence ! 
listen! In the same way answering to o. tusckf Da. tys / bush! the o. has luS' 
ehen, tascheln, to whisper ; xischen, xischeln, xiischeln, to hiss, whizz, fizz, whisper, 
o. kuschl represents any slight rustling sound, the sound of moving quickly throagh 
the air. ' Husck I sausen wir huch / durch nuch und durch busch.' ' Hutch / 
was rauscht dort in den gebiischen.' In this last example it will be seen that the 
inteijection maybe understood either as a representation of the rustling sound that 
is heard in the bushes, or as an intimation to listen to it. The Gr. oll^m, to gire 
the sound n, to hiss, signifies also, to cry hush ! to command ulence, showing 
that the syllable n, like the Fernandian sia! was used in the sense of hush. 
Hence must be explained Lat. sileo, Goth, silan (formed on the plan of LaL ba- 
l-o,to cry baa), to be hushed or silent. In Gr. my&u, to be silent, viydjw, to put 
to silence, the root has the form of b. sigh, representing the sound of a deep-drawn 
breath, or the whispering of the wind. In like manner the Sc souch, sugh, 
swouck, ioaf, OE. swougk, Magy. sug-, stih-, representing the sound of the wind, or 
of heavy breathing, lead to Sc. souch, silent, calm. To keep a calm sattch ; to 
keep souch, to keep silent. — Jam. Hence as. suwioJi, sti/ugan, swigan, o. schiuei' 
gen, to be silent. The syllable representing a whispering sound is sometimea 
varied by the introduction of an / after the initial w, f, or h. Thus fit>m fomu 
like whisper (o. wispern, wispeln), vlusler, pisler, whist/ hist I we pass to as. 
uilisp (speaking with a whispering sound), lisping, Q.Jlispern,Jiustem, to whisper, 
ciN. hliisia, to listen, as. hlyst, gehlysl, the sense of hearing. The primitive mute 
then &lls away, leaving the initial I alone remaining, as in o, Uspeln, to wtusper, 
also to lisp ; Du. luysteren, to whisper, as well as to Satea (Kil.) ; ^.Ust/ synon- 
ymous with hist I hark, and thence the verb ta listen. 

The notion of a suppressed utterance of the voice is very generally conveyed 
by modifications of the syllable mu, representing the soimd made with the clodr^ 
lips ; mu, mum, mul, mui, mus, to which aie often added a rhyming accompani- 
ment on the plan of such expressions as hugger-mugger, kubbU'buhbte, helter-skelter. 
Thus we have Gr. fii(Hv n^rt ypujtie, to say neither mu not gru, not to utter a 
eyilable ; Lat. ■mullio or mutio, as E. mutter, to say mul, to utter low mdistinct 
sounds ; jiiMi muttire, non. dkere mutlum, to keep silence. Equivalent phrases are 
Fr. ne sonner mot ; It. non fare ne motto ne tolto (Altieri) ; Sp. mo dtdr mus nie 
■chus, ni mistar nt chislar ; Dn. noch mikien noch MMien; o, nicht mucktn, nicki 



mix noch Mir lag^n J Svixniehl mul* ihun. Tfae form ntuffl maj' perhapi be fi^in 
1 reperition of the imitative syllable mu m«, as in Vei mumu, dumb. It ii ased by 
the author of Kerce Plowmau in the sense of the least utterance, where, speaking 
of the avarice of the monlu, he tays that you may sooner 

mete the mist on Mdvera hiUi 

Tluui get a mrvn of their months tie moaej' be them shewed. 
HetKe, by ellipse of the negative, tnum/ silence! Fr. Moral ne parlez plui 
— Paligr. In the tan^ way the Fr. uses mat, as, ne jonaex moi I not a syllable ! 
-— Trevoux. 

With ercryatep of the track leading up to the Lat.muftM, speechless, so clearly- 
marked out, it ii impotable to hesitate between the formation of the word in the 
manner indicated above, and the derivation from Sanscr, mA, to bind, maintained 
by MiiUer, and from so glaring an example we may take courage not always to 
regard the qttestioD as conclusively settled by the most <x>Dfident production of 
a Sanscrit root. As the Fr. uses both mom I and matt as an injunction of 
•ilence, so a penon stands muni or mutt when not a mum or a mut comes from 
hii mouth. Moreover, the sense of speechlessness u expremed od the same 
principle in the most distant tongues. Thus from Magy. kuk, a slight sound. 
It formed hMiiami (identical with the Du. kikhtn in the expression nocA miHeyt 
Moch tiiken), to mutter, and kuka, dumb. The Vei mumu, Mpougwe tmaiMH, 
dumb, are essentinlly identical with our mum, silent, whence mummeri, actors in 
dumbshow. Mr Tylor quotes also Zulu momata, to move the mouth or lips( 
Tahiti)'" omttmo, to murmur ; mamu, to be silent ; Fiji namonomo, Chilian Homn, 
to be silent; Quich4 mem, mute; Quichua amu, silent, dumb. — Prim. Cult. I, 

The ideas of nlence and aecresy or concealmetit are so closely connected, that 
from j<ifn we readily pass to pvirr^put)', the secret rites of Greek worship, whence 
X. mystery, something hidden fi^m the comprehension. In the same way from 
the representative ffliM (Sp. no decir mus ni chua) we have Lat musso, to mutter, 
to be si lent, and thence Fr. musser, to hide ; musse, a private hoard. ' Cil qup 
fituaet les furroens, est escommeng^ is geos : qui abscondit fhimenta maledicetur 
in populis.' Coigiave calb hide-and-seek the game of musse. So also from the 
parallel form muk must probably be explained the familiar hugger mugger, apphed 
to what is done in secret, and mucker, to lay up a (secret) store. Exmoor mug- 
gard (muttering), sullen, displeased. — Halliwell. Gr. ftvyfios, a muttering. 

The inteij. hem/ ahem/ Am/ Aum/ represent the sound made in clearing 
the throat in order to call the attention of the hearer to the speaker. Id Latin It 
has frequently the force of the inter], en I (which may be merely another mode 
of representing the same utterance) when the speaker points to something, or 
does something to which be tiHshes to call attention. Hem ! Davum tibi : Here! 
(pointing) there is Davus for you. Oves scabrae sunt, tam glabra, Aem, quam 
heec est manus : — as smooth, see here ! as this hand. When addressed to a penon 

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ff^ag awtf it bat the «fiect of stoppii^ Uid or calling Um bad. Thus Do. kern 
u cxplaiDed b^ Weiland an eKdamadon to make a penoo stand atill; hem t koor 
Ilia; hallo ! hark thcte. Mr Tylor noticeti an anatogoiu esclamation mnut / ' faaOo, 
stop,' in the language of Fernando Po, Tbeo, ai the notion of bringing to a itaDd 
naturally leads to that of stop^i^ a peiaoo in something that be is doing, the 
inter), ham / is tued hi Heiae aa a prohilHtioo to cbildreo. Ham I ham / Don't 
touch that, leave that alone. Hvm I Hitmme I an inter], of profaibttian.— Brem. 
'Wtb. Hence ktmm ioUn, to kMp on* in check, to nMnln. Du aaat mi 
woll kamm hoUn, you shall altend to my hammf shall stay where I c^oae, do 
as I ^Pect (Oanneil). The cooTenion of the inter). Into a verb gtrts Du. Amrmos, 
AontiMB, to call bock by crying AflM / (WeilaDd),ande. A«iiiiMcn, to mlrain,k«{> 
back, to stop or hinder a proceeding) together irith the b. Amm, to confine. ' Tbcgr 
ilea* me to on ere^ side.' A A«w* is the doubling down vUch eoofiaes the threads 
at a garmeot and hinders them from raveUlng ouL 

Tha point of greatest interest about the inteij. hem is that it K^fen a possibly 
■ndasit aeems to me a ferfrom improbable, origin of the pronoun m«, Gr. emo-, 
at shown in the cases iftov, l/ml, i/it. We have seen that the primary porpoaa 
0f the inteij. b to call the attention of the hearer to the presence of the penm 
who otten the esclamation, and this, it must be observed, is preosely tbe office <rf 
.tbe proDoon me, wbicb stg;nifies tbe person of tbe speaker, ffem is often med 
in Latin when the speaker turns his thou^its upon himself. Hem ! misera 
occidi ! Ah wretched me ! I am lost. Hem ! scio jam quid via dicere. Let nw 
«ee — I know what you would say. In the line 

Me, tie, adsum qui fed, in me conreitite tela, 
we might read the passage without alteration of the meaning 

Hem 1 Hem ! adama qui fed. 
Tbe use of srticulationa consisting mainly of the sound of m orn to signify tbe 
q>eaker himself, b so widely spread in every &mi]y of man, tbat this mode of 
designation must be based on some veiy obvious prindple of significance. 

In an interesting paper on tbe pronouns of the fiist and second penon hy Dr 
Lottner, in the Philological Trans, of 1859, be shows that in upwards of seventy 
Negro languages the pronoun of the first person a t»a, me, mi, man, na, «*, nge, 
ngi, Tti, in, with m and n as personal prefixes. And tbe word is formed on the same 
plan in almost all families of language. In the Finnic family we have Ostiac ma, 
Vogul am. Lap. mon ; in Turkish -ra as possessive affix, as in lala^m, my father. 
Then again Burmese nga, Chinese ngo, Corean not, Australian ngai, Kasua nga, 
Kol ing, aittg, Tamul nan, Basque ni, Georgian me, and among the languages of 
N. and S. America, ni, ne, no, no, miye, in, one, ani. Sec. The Bushmen of the Capo. 

* Mr Trior dtet t)>e derivatiott of c. itmmfH, ' to ito|i, >cltBck, restnun,' from ^ tetcij. 
Mtml lignifyii^ itopl as an ebrioua exttava^utc*. Tbve is bovcver go close a «ODnectiwi 
in meaniiig between the mteijection and the verb, tliat it ii not eaqr Is understand the grounds 
of the cennre from the mouth of one vho fiillj admits the legitimacy of derivation from inter* 



vhoae pronoun of the first penon is wt4tten mfn by Lichtetutein, probablj retain 
the purest tjpe of the expresion, the principle of which appean to be the confiae- 
ment of the voice within the peraon of the speaker, by the closure of the lips or 
teeth TD the utterance of the sounds m, n, ng. It is certain that something of this 
kind is felt when we sound the voice through tl>e nose in an inarticulate waj' 
•with dosed lips, in order to intimate that we are keeping our thoughts to ouraelvat, 
tnd ai« iK)t ptepared, or do not choose, to give them forth in speech. The sound 
irbid) we utter on such an occasion appears in writing in the ihapfe of the inteij. 
. Am / and as it marks the absorptioD of the speaker in his own thoughts, it might 
natarallT' be used to designate himsdf in the earij lisjungs of language before the 
development of the personal pronoons : in other words, it might serve as the basis 
of the prononn me. Nor is the fbnuatiou of the pronoun on such a f^au by any 
Bteana a new suggestion. 

The Grammarian NigitUus (as quoted by A. Gellius, I. x. c 4) asserts that in 
pronouQcdng the pronoun of the first peraon (rgn, mihi, tuts), we hem in, as it 
ver^ the tn^ath within aarsdvea (spiritnm quasi intra nosmetipsos coercemm), 
and hence be concaves that the word is naturally adapted to the meaning it ex- 
pRaaea. He probably felt the truth of the principle in the case of me, and blun* 
deringly extended it to ^, in the pronunciation of which there is certainly no 
faeBMuit^ ia of the voice. It is of the nanis m, n, ag only that this chamcter 
can proper^ be affirmed, and tlxae, aa we have seen, seem to be indifiereotly 
emi^oyed aa the basis of me and its correlativea all over ttw ^be. Plato in the 
CnKylus speaks of the letter n aa keeping the sound within the speaker, and on 
that {vinciide implicitly explains the meaning of the preposition ty, in, which is 
the nwre ailicnladon of the conaoDaotal sound in quastian. 

The applicatioQ of an iDloj. ngnifying see ktrtl to (be seme t^ me, would 
be strictty parallel to the use of It n and vi, prtqieriy signJQ^g here and there, in 
the acme of lu and yati. Other instances of a Uke nature are given by W. v. 
Homboldt in his essay on the ccanectioD between the adverbs of place and the 
peisoqal pronouns, llnis in the language of Tonga, iTtn signifies hiiher, motion 
ttTWwds the speaker; oAi, motioa from the speaker to the penon spoken to, and 
theae particles are used in construction (like It. ct and vi) for me at tu and ym. 
'Bea bebe nn he tflnga fafine'icwhen ^ke lutker the several women, i. e. 
wben several women spc^to ns« or tu, $0 tdla, to tell; tdUt vm, to teM 
bitber, to tell me or ns { tdla tu, to tell thither, to tell you. Here we saem to 
have the very forms of the Lat. pronouns me and Ac, for which it is remarkable 
that the Tonga has totally different words, au and coy. In Armenian there is a 
suffix s, whh^ originally means this or A«r*, but t^ei the meainng of / and vu/. 
Tims htdr-s, this father, I a father, my &ther. In American slang a man speaks 
of hims^as Mts chUd. 

Another consequence of the closing of the month in the utterance of the 
soond of m or M may explain the use of those articuUtions in expressing rqeo- 
lion, refiisal, negation. The eariiest type of reiection is the clowi^; of the 
mouth, and the aversion of the head from the prc^fered breast, and the inherent 



proprie^ of tbe rymbt^iun it obvioiu. De BroHca ohaerm that the articalatioiM 
R and (, both of which be coDsiden at nwal Mnndi, are naturally adapted to dg- 
nify negatioa or contrariety, ipving at examplei tbe words infiiuty and It. tfbr- 
titnala. He overlook! the &ct, however, that thn It. j b mefely tbe remnant of 
a Lat. dis, and gives no other example of the loppoied n^ative power of the 
letter. Moreover, tbe reason he raggettt for attribatiag inch a Ngoificaoce to 
the naialt b timpty abturd. Of the two chanDel«,he»ays (ch. xiv. (39), by whidi 
the voice is etaitted, tbe nose is tbe least used, and it change* the sound of tlv 
vowel, which adapts it for the interjection of doubt, and for the eipreMioa of 
the privatire idea. The espiession of oegatioa by means of nasab it exemplifies! 
in Goth, m, LaL ne, in (in compoatioo), Gr. fut, Masai (E. Afika) ntMe, nn«, m- ; 
Vei ma ,- Haosta n, n, represeoting a sound of which it ii impossible to convey a 
correct idea by visible ngns) — ScbSn. Mr Tylor dtes Botocudo yna (makii^ 
the loudoeat of the sound indicate the strength of the nation) ; Tupt aan, nam ; 
Guatomou; Miranha noni ; Quichua oma, ntonon (whence moiunRfli, to deny); 
Quich^ ma, man, nana; Galla An, Ain, Am; Coptic on, etnmen, tn, mmn; 
Femaadiao 'nt, all ngci^ng noL 


Tbe most universal and direct source of pleasure in animal life 11 tbe appe- 
tite for food, aod it is accordingly from thu source that are taken the types used 
in expressing the ideas of gratiiication or dislike. The savage expresses his ad- 
miration and pleasure by smacking bis lips or rubbing his belly, as if relishing 
food or rqoicmg in a beany meal ; be indicates distaste and rgection by ugns of 
spitting oot a nauseous moutbinl. Thus Petberick, speaking of a tribe of n^rocf 
on tbe Upper Nile, says, 'The astonishment and delight of these people at our 
display of beads was great, and was expressed by laughter and a general rubbing 
of their bellies.' — Egypt and tbe Nile, p. 448. And similar evidence is adduced 
by Ldchardt from tbe remoter savages in Australia. ' They very mndi admired 
our horses and bullocks, and particularly our kangaroo-dog. They expressed 
their admiration by a peculiar smacking or clacking with th«r month and lips.' 
— Australia, p. 336. 

The syllable smack, by which we represent the sound made by the lips or 
tongue in kissing or tasting, is used in English, Swedish, German, Polish, Sec, in 
the sense of taste. Du. smaeck, taste ; smaecilic, sweet, palatable, agreeable to 
the taste. Id tbe Finnish languages, which do not admit of a double consonant 
at the beginning of words, the loss of the initial s gives Esthonian maggo, tnaAAo, 
taste; maggiu, maike. Pin. maim, sweet, well-tasting; maiskia, to smack the 
lips ; maislo, taste ; maiskU, a smack, a kiss, also relishing food, delicacies. Tbe 
initial s is lost also in Fris. macke, to kiss. Tbe initial consonant is somewhat 
varied without impairing tbe imitative effect in Bohemian mlasiati, to smack in 
eating ; mlaskanina, delicacies ; and in Fin. itaskia, o. knatschtn, to imack with 
tbe mouth in eating, showing tbe origin of Lettish nasckkehl, s. notcAen, to bs 
nice in eating, to love delicacies ; ndscherei, dainties. 

,.,.d.:, Google 


' A^m, we have seen that Leichardt employs the syllables smack and clack at 
equally appropriate to represent the sound made by the tongue and palate in the 
enjoyment of tasty food, and in French, closer de la tongue ta employed for tha 
same purpose. We sp=ak of a click with the tongue, though we do not happm 
to apply it to the smack in tasting. The Welsh has gwefusgUc (gwefus, lip), a 
smack with the hps, a kiss. From this source then we may derive Gr. ykvKiit, 
aweet, analogous to Du. smatckltc, Fm. makia, from the imitative smack. He 
sound of an initial cl or gl is readily confounded with that of ll or dl, oi some 
people pronounce glove, dlove, and formerly tlick was used where we now say 
click. Thus Cotgrave renden Fr. niquet, a tnicke, tlick, snap with the fingers. 
The same combination is found in Boh. itaskatt, to smack in eating, lUskad, to 
clap hands; and Lat, stlofipits, parallel with aelopits, a pup or cUck with the 
month. Prom the sound of a smack represented by the form tlick or dlick I 
would explain Lat. delicitB, anything one takes pleasure in, delight, darling; to- 
gether with the cognate delkaias, what one smacks one's chops at, dainty, nice, 
agreeable, as corruptions of an earlier form, dlicue, dlicatus. And as we have 
supposed Gr. yXuKvc (glykys) to be derived from the form click or glick, so from 
ilick or dlick would be formed dlykis or dlukU (dlucis), and ultimately dulcis, 
sweet, the radical identity or rather parallelism of which with yXvK-it has been 
recognised on the principle of such an inversioD. When the sound of an initial 
tlordl became distasteful to Latin ears, it would be slurred over in different 
ways, and dluds would pass into dulcis by inverting the places of the liquid and 
Towel, while the insertion of an e in diiciee, dlicalus, as in the vulgar umierella 
for umbrella, would produce delicice, delicatus. It is true that an inirusivs 
vowel va such cases as the foregoing is commonly (though not universally) short, 
bat the long e in these words may have arisen from their being erroneously re- 
garded as compounds with the preposition de, 


The attitude of dislike and rejection is typified by signs of spitting out an 
unsavoury morsel, as clearly as the feelings of admiration and pleasure by signs 
of the relishing of food. Thus Gawaine Douglas expresses his di^^ust at the way 
in which the harmonious lines of Virgil were mangled by incompetent traiu- 

His ornate goldin verses mare than gilt, 

I ifiUtfir ditspiit to see thune spylte 

By sic sue wkhL— S- 44. 

'Would to God therefore that we were come to such a detestation and loathing 
of lying thoA we would even spaitle at it, and ay fy upon it and all that use it.' — 
Dent's Pathway in Halliwell. The Swedishipo<tsignifiesspittle,andalsoderision, 
cmitempt, insult. The traveller Leichardt met with the same mode of expresuon 
among the savages of Australia. ' The men commenced talking to them, but 
occasionally interrupted their speeches by spitting and uttering a noise like paak / 
pooh I apparently expressive of their disgust.' — p. i8p. It is probable . that this 


xlvi OFFENCE. 

Amtimlian inteijectioti was, in &ct, identical with our own pooh I and like it, in* 
tended to reprcKnt tlie louiMi of spttiiig, for which purpow Burton in hit African 
travels UMt the native (ooA/ 'To-o-h! Tub! exdainu the Muzunga, apicting 
with diigait upon the ground.' — Lake Sef^na of AiHca, a. 346. 

The louod tif apitting ii represented indi^rentty with an initial p, ai in Maori 
pttkuia, to (pit oat { Lat sphere, to spit j respatre (to spit back), to nject with di»- 
dain ; dtspuere, to exprew dif^put or diidain > or with an initial ^ ai in Sanaa. 
t'hAt'ki, the sound of spitting i Pen. tkn kerdan, Chinook aiamaoi toth, Chilian 
tuvditun (to make ihi, totA, tuo), to >pit[ Anhic Itft, spittle ; Galla tutu/ i*. 
presenting the sound of spitting ; litfa, to spit; tufada, to spit, to dea^se, sconi, 
disdain) with which may be joined English ti^, to spit like a cat. In Gredt 
wrim the imitation is rendered more mid bj tbemuonof both tba initial aoonda. 

BLUBT 1 fkt! trotz! 

The feelings of one dwelling on his own merits and aogrj' at the short- 
comings of another are marked by a frowning brow, a set jaw, and inflated cheeks, 
while the breath is drawn in deep inspirations and sent out in pufls through die 
nostril and pasivelips. Hence the expressions of breathing vengeance, filming with 
anger, swelling with pride. 

Sharp breaths of utga puffed 
Her &uiy nostrils out — Teniiyson. 
The sound of hard breathing or blowing is represented by the syllables puff", Jufff, 
whiff", whence a At^ is a fit of ill-temper j to hmff, to swell with indignation or 
pnde, to bluster, to storm. — Johnson. The It bt^a is explained in Thomas' 
Italian Dictionaiy 'the despising blast of the mouth which we call shir|nDg.* 
Brescian bofi, to breathe hard, to' putF, espedally with anger. — Melchiori. Thai, 
as ill-will vents itself in derision, luffa, bfffa, a jest, a trick ; b^ffare, to trick or 
cheat ; bejffarn, to laugh at ; buffime, a jester, a buffoon. 

When the puff of anger or disdain is uttered with exaggerated feeling it pro- 
duces an explosive sound with the lips, represented by the syllable bliirl, which 
was formerly used as an interjection of defiance. ' Bltirl I master constable,' a 
fig for the constaUe. Florio speaks of ' a hburt with one's mouth in scorn or de- 
rision.' To ilurt a thing out is to bring it oat with a sudden espkeion as if spK- 
ting something out of the mouth. A bUrt of greeting in Scotch is a burst of 

A contemptuous whiff or blurt is othemdsc rep res ented by the sotmds fi, pi, 
prt, tt, trl. Thus w. uiffi I is explained by Davis, vox abhoneotis et exprobrantii. 
Wfft, a scom or slight, a fie ; ttr^to, to cry ihanK or fio, to push away with dis^ 
approbation. — Lewv. Sanscr. pAitf, pkAt, imitative aoand of blowing ; expiesuaO 
of diaregant, indignation, anger.— fienfey. TW It. pettt, a blort, petteggiare, 
peltacckiart, to blnrt with the mouth or lip* (Fl.), Ft. /Jt(rra(fe,a noise made with 
the mouth in contempt (Sadler), explain the InteQections on. putt/ Da. pytt / Sw. 
pyl ! pshaw I tnt I nonsense I Nonnan prt / poor imposer un nlence abstriu.-— 



From the latter ford of (be Intojecticn W9 bare i. pet, a fit of ill-humouror 
of uiger ; to MAe p«l, to take buff, to take ofienoe ; pettitk, punonate, ill-hu* 
ffionred. To pelt child ii to iodulge it in iU-bmnoar, and thence a pel, a darling, 
an indulged cbiid or animal, lliea u a child gires vent to ha iU-humour by 
thnutingoot bia lips and inakii^ a inout, or making a lip, as it is called in nursery 
language, a hanging lip is cdkd »pel l^'m the N. of England. To poHl, in De- 
TOBrttlreto poaleh or pimlU, IllTnan puHlise, Magyar pUti/es%tni (pUly, a blort 
vfth the BMtath), Genercae fian ta polle, (igiufy to thow ill-will by thrusting 
•at the lips. Henca Geneme potlu, pouting, sulky t Migy. pUtyan, having 
projecting Ifpt) Oenerese pottu, Prov. pott, lips; Linguedoc pot, poul, a lip; 
poulet, a luss; poutouno, a darling. Again, as in the case of It. hfffa, btffa, 
aboTC-mentioDed, we pan from the cxproeion of ill-will to the notion of a dis- 
^reeable turn in Da. fMia, Sw. putt (to be compared with Deron. potUeh\ e. 
pone, a trick. 

The K. tut/ (en exclamation OKd for checking or rebukiog—'Webater)>eemft 
to tepresent an explofflon from tbe tongue instead of the lips, and gives rise to the 
profindal tutty, itl-tempeied, sullen (HaL), and prob^ly tui-motuked, having a 
projecting underjaw; on. lofo, snout; 5w. tut. Da. lud, a spout, compared to 
the prelecting lips of a sulky child. 

A more forcible representation of the explosive sound is given by the intro- 
duction of an r, as in on. prufta li Apj-Ja, to sound with the lips to a hone in 
order to make Him go on; Sw. pmsta, to snort, to sneeze; Magy. priisn, 
pirvsn, as well as liissx, IrSssx, sneeze. The resemblance of a raeeze to a blurt 
of contempt is witnessed by the expression of a thing not to It sneezed at, tkot to 
be scorned. Thus the Magy. forms afford a good illustration of the oa. in- 
terjections of scorn. Prut/ Ptrol! Tprot I E. Tttll Fr. Trull znAo. Trolx! 

The Manuel des Pecch^, treating of the sin of Pride, takes as first example 
the man 

—that is nDbnioiDe all 
Ayens his &der spiiiUt, 
And scfth Frui I fbc thy cnnyng, prat. — I. 30t& 

Hence are formed the oa. pruie, prout, now written proud, and the Northern 
E. prulten, to hold up the head with pride and disdain (Halliwell), which in the 
West of K (with tnTotion nf the liqi^ md vowel) takes the fbna of part, to 
pa«it, to be snlky or swUen. e. pntten, Dn. prtutat, to sulk; probag, prat, 
Buriy, pnrad, arrogant, llien, as before, passing from the figure of a contcmptu* 
Otis gesture to a piece of contemptuous treatment we have on. pretta, to play a 
trick; prtttr, a trick. And as from the ibrm pet/ put!/ waa derived Swi» 
Bomance polfe, a lip, to firom prut / may be e^lained oan. prort, a lip, and 
figuratirdy a margin or border. 

The uttitAion of the exph>sire aound with an initial (r, at in Magy. irwsKen- 
ni, W sneeu. gtm It. tnncare, to blurt or pop with one's lip or moutb (FU) ; 
inuch di labhv, Fr. tmc, a blurting ar pt^nng with the lifs or tongue to en- 



courag;e a horse ; on. tntlta, to make a noise of such a description in dririi^ 
animals ; vox est instigantis ve! ageotis equos am armenta. — Gudmund. Hence. 
Fr. trut I (an inter), iinporting indignation), tush, tut, fy man (CoL) ; from 
which we pass to Sw. dialect truta, to pout with the lips, make a snout ; truias^ 
to be out of temper ; trut, a snout, muzzle, spouL From the same source is the 
o. truls, troU, trail, expressing ill-will, sconi, defiance. Trul* nit / do not sulk. 
— EladderadatBch. Trote bUlen, to bid defiance ; Iroltm, to defy, to be forwanl 
or obstinate, to pout or sulk, to be proud of; troUig, haughty, insolent, pervencv 
peevish, sulky. — Griebe, Du. Mi^Mn, forf«n, to irritate, insult ; Valencian trotar,. 
to deride, to make a jest o£ Sa dort, pet, sullen humour; A> take the darts, t» 
be in a pee ; dorty, pettish, saucy, dainty. 

A special application of the exclamation of impatience and displeasure is to 
■end an inferior packing from one's presence. Thus from true, representing a 
blurt with the mouth, is to be explained It. truccare, to send, to trudge or psck 
away nimbly (Fl.); Irvcca via/ be off with you. Venerian troxare, to aend 
away. Tlie exclamation in Gaelic takes the form of truis I be off, said to a dog, 
or a person in contempt (Macatpine). In ob. tnus} was used in the same 

Lyere — wis nowher welcome, for his nuuiye tales 
Over il ybonled, and yhote, tnisse.—V\txt PI. Vis. v. 1316. 
To ktte truss is an exact equivalent of a. trolt bieten. In Modem E. theexpres- 
Hon survives in the shape of trudge. 

This tale once lold none other speech preruled, 

Bui pack and tnu^ .' all leysare was to long.— Gascoigne. 

■ FAUoa ! piB ! 

There u a strong analogy between the senses of taste and smell, as between 
■ighl and bearing. When we are sensible of an odour which pleases us we sauff 
up the air through the nostrik, as we eagerly swallow food that is agreeable 
to the palate ; and as we B[»t out a disagreeable morsel, so we reject an of&Ds- 
ive odour by stopping the nose and driving out the infected air through the 
protruded lips, with a noise of which various representations are exhibited in the 
interjections of disgust. 'Piff! PhewIPhitJ' exclaims a popular writer, — ^"tbey 
have all the significance of those exclamatory whiffs which we propel from oar 
lips when we are compelled to hold our noses.' — Punch, Sept. a, 1863. 

Tlie sound of blowing is imitated all over the world by syllables like u/, 
pu. Hie inteij. whew I repfesents a forcible expiration through the protruded 
lips, ' a sound like that of a half-formed whistle, expressing astonishment, scom, or 
dislike ' (Webster). Sc ijvhew, nb. whew, expresses the sound made by a body 
passing rapidly through the air. To whew, Maori wAib, to whistle j wAmi, a stroke 
with a whip ; kwtthiuwhiu, to blow, to winnow. 

The derivatives from the form pu at fa are extremely numerous, ok. jma, o. 
pusen,pJausen,pusten.GT,fuaam, l.\lh.p<lsu,p»ltu,p^ti,Gat\.puth{^ronwxa<xi 
puh), lUyr. puhati, Fm. puhhala, puhMa, Hawaii puki, Maori pUkipihi, pupihi, 



QuichuajMi&t«ii(Tylor), Zulu pMjMKU, Malay ^u^t,Coputf or blow. TlieSanscrit 
pit, pk4l, imitative sound of blowing (Benfby), with pupiusa, the lungs, may be 
compared with Maori p^a, to pant, and pHa-'pika, the lungs. Again, we have 
Magy.Juni,*Jitvni, Galla bifa, afufa, Qmchkpuba ("lyior), Sc. Jtif, It. inffhre, 
X, pujf, to blow. 

From forms like the foregoing we pass to the interjections expressing disgust 
«t a bad smell. Sanders in bis excellent o. dictionary explains pu / as an interj. 
C^resenting the sound made by blowing througli the barely opened lips, and 
thence expressing the rejection of anything nasty. ' Ha puh I wie stank der alle 
mist.' The sense of disgust at a bad smell is expressed in like nuanner by Lat. 
phui/pkuljitlji/ (Forcell.), Venetian f«A/^/ (Patriarchi), Fr./wuoA/ jS/ 
Bret. /o« //«•»/ s.faugh/foh/ phew/ Russ.Jfc/ t/uJ 

It is obvious t|]at the utterance of these inteijections of disgust has the effect 
ef annotmcing, in the most direct manner, the presence of a bad smell, and if the 
utterance is accompauied by gestures pointing out a particular object it will be 
equivalent to an asserliou that the thing stinks or is rotten. It will then be 
necessary only to clothe the significant syllable in grammatical forms in order to 
get verbs or nouns expressing ideas connected with the notion of oUensive smell. 
Accordingly we have Sanscr. pll, p&tika, stinking ; p&ti, putrid, stinking matter, 
civet ; p^y, to stink, to putrefy ; Gr. ruOio, to rot ; Lat. puteo, putor, putidus, 
puter, putresco, pus; Fr, puer, to stink ; OFr. pulant, stinking. The Zulu says 
that the 'meat says pu,' meaning that it stinks. Timorese poop, putrid ; Quicb4 
pohir, lo rot J puz, rottenness; Tupi puxi, nasty (Tylor). At the same time 
from a form corresponding to Bret. Jbei/ and E./atigh/ the Lat. has/te(«i and 
Jixtidus, fetid, alongside oi puteo and pulidus. From the form fu/ are Old Norse 
Jmtm, rotten ; JuM, stench or anything stinking ; Jtill, stinking, rotten ; Jyla, 
■tench, in the Gothic Testament the disciple speaking of the body of Lazarus 
•ays JahfuU ist: by this time he slinketb. Modern Norse /d/, disgusting, of bad 
taste or smell, troublesome, vexatious, angry, bitter. Han va fil aat m, he was 
enraged with us. The b. equivalent nfoul, properly ill smelling, then anything, 
opposed to our taste or requirements, loathsome, ugly in look, dirty, turbid (of 
water), rainy and stormy (of the weather), unfair, underhand in the transactions of 
life. oti. Fityrdi, foul words ; fulmenni, a scoundrel. From the adjective again 
are derived the verb to Jile or d^e, to make foul ; and Jilth, that which makes 

Tlie disagreeable impressions of smell produce a much more vivid repugnance 
than those of taste, and being besides sensible to all around, they aftbrd the most 
convenient type of moral reprobation and displeasure. And probably the earliest 
expretsioQ of these feelings would occur in teaching cleauUness to the Infant. 

' This representation of the sound of bloving or breathing may not improbably be the 
origin of the rootju, Sanscrit Mu, of the verb to be. The negro who is without the verb to ie 
In his ownlangnage supplies- its place hy live. He says, Your hat no /t3 that place you put him 
in. — Farrar, Chap. Lang. p. 54. Orig. Lang. p. 105. A child of my adiuaintance would say, 
Where Ulanf where is it ! Now the breath is universally taken as the type of life. 



The inteijectioD fy! expresMS in the fint instance thb speaker's kom «f a bad 
unell, but it is used to the child in such a manoer oi to agoify, TiM b dktf ; do 
not touch that ; do not do that ) and theo geaaaWy, You have done aometluBg 
displeasing to me, something of which you ought to be ashamed. Laura Bridge, 
man, who was bom deaf and blind, used to utter the sound ff ai Ji whea dis' 
pleased at being touched by strangers. 

When used in a figurative sense to express moral reprobatioD tbe ioteij. «Aes 
assumes a slightly dif^rent form Irom that which expresses ditgust at a bad amell. 
Thus in v.. faugh/ orfohl txpiea dkgaat,Jie / reprobation. Ino. perhaps jtf^/ 
OTpfiii/ are chiefly employed in a moral sense }^i/ w^/ with rwpecl to smolL 
P/ui dich an t pja tiie menseim an I shame on them. But the line caniHX b« 
very distinctly drawn, and in'^ Piatt Deutsch the expression Kfudiiext as in 
Grisons Jiidi I shame cm you. Fr.^ / commonly expresses reprobation, but it is 
also used with respect to smell. Fi I qu'il sent mauvats. Fairs jS d'lme t^ow, ta 
turn up one's nose at it, to despise it. 

When we consider that shame is the pain felt at the reprt^ation of those to 
whom we look with reverence, including our own conscience, and when W6 
observe the equivalence of expressions like pJa ^ck/ JU on you, and skamt ml 
you, we shall easily believe that pu! aa an expressioa of reprehension, b tbs 
source of Lat. pudel, it shames me, it cries fa / on me ; pudeo, I lie under p* I 
I am' ashamed. In like manner repudio is to be explained as I pooh badi, I 
throw back with disdain ; and probably r^to, to reject, disdain, diaapproTe, is 
derived in the same way from the other form of the inteij. Jit I being tha 
analogous to o.pfuien, anpjuim, is.fyne, to ciy fie! on, to express displeaaora: 
£tn jyn le huvd, a scolded dog. The expression then passes on to signify the feel- 
ings which prompt the utterance of the inter). ; disgust, abhorrence, hate. Thus 
irom Russ. /« / is iotmeAfukat (properly to ciy^ /), to abhor, to lootbej from 
•w.ffi/ Jiel ffiatdd, loathsome } ^nWdio, to loathe, to detest; and «> doubtlcM 
from the same form of iheinteij. is to be explained the Goth. J^'on, ^n.Jjd, Ar. 
^aa, to hate, and thence Goth.^'ant^, o.feind, an enemy, and es.^andi, pro* 
perly an enemy, then, as e. ,fimd, the great enemy of the human race. From 
the same source are a./oe (oit._fidif) aad feud, enmity or deadly quarrel. 

The aptness of the figure by which the Datural disgust at stench is made tbo 
type of the feelings of haired, is witnessed by the espres^on of ' stinking in the 
nostrils ' said of anything that is peculiarly batefiil to us. 

Professor Muller objects to the foregoing derivations that they confound to- 
gether the Sanscrit roots pHy, to decay, the source otpuleo, and n.Jmi, wai pfy, 
to hate, corresponding to Jljan and Jrend <1I. 93). But he does not expU^ 
where he supposes the con&sion to take place, and there is in truth no incoiHist- 
ency between the doctrine in the text and the distinct recognition of the roots in 
question. We are familiar in actual speech with two forms of the inteiiection 
of disgust ; the one comprising g. piih ! Fr. ptMok I b. Jtrngh I foh ! addresMd 
especially to smells; the other answering to o. ^t / Yt.JH k.Ju/ and express- 
ing aversion in a more general way. From the first of these we derive putn and 



foul; from the xcoai.fijan andjSend. If we suppose the aoalogoui forms pu I 
aad pi/ lo have been used in a similar way by the Sanscrit-speaking people, it 
would give a rational account of the roola piiy and ph/, which Mfiller ia content 
to leave untouched as ultimate elemeots, but we ought not to be charged with 
confounding them together because we trace thero both to a common principle. 

A Btnall class of words is tbuud in all languages analogous to, and many of 
them identical with, the b. ferms, ■mamma, papa, mammy, daddy, baby, bale, pap 
fm the sense of breast, as well as of sofl food for children), expressing ideas moat 
needed for communication with children at the earliest period of their life. A 
k«tg list of the names of father and mother was published by Prof, I. C. E. Butch- 
man \a the Trans, of the Berlin Acad, der Wiss. for 1853, a translation of which 
is given in the Proceedings of the Philolog. Soc, vol, vi. It appears that words of 
the forgoing cIsk are universally formed from the easiest articulations, ba, pa, ma, 
da, la, na, or ab, ap, am, at, an. We tiud ma, me, mi, iKU, mam^ mama, meme, 
tnom a, mother, and leaa fi-equeutly nearly all the same forms in the sense of &ther; 
pa, ba, p<^, bap, bah, papa, baba, pala, fafe, Jabe, &ther ; la, baba, lama, Ja, 
fafatjawa, be, bi, bo, bibi, mother ; la, da, tat, lata, tad, dad, dada, dade, ta&, Hti, 
father ; de, lai, dax, deda, tile, mother ; nna, nan, tianna, nimia, nang, nape, fether; 
no, mna, nan, nana, nene, neni, nine, nama, mother. In the same way the changes 
are rung on ab, ala, abla, awa, appa, epe, ipa, obo, abob, ubala, alban, father j 
amba,abai, aapu,ibu, ewa, mother; at,aat,ata,atta,otla,aita,ahja, ^ther; hadOf 
ttta, ote, mother ; annek, ina, una, tuher j ana, anna, enna, eenah, ina, onny, in<m, 
vnina, artanai, mottier. La Condamine mentions abba or bala, or p<^ and mama, 
as common to a great number of American languages differing widely from each 
other, and he adverts to a rational explanation of the origin of these designations. 
'If we r^ard these words as the first that children can articulate, and consequently 
those which must in every country have been adopted by the parents who heard 
them spoken, in order to make them serve as signs for the ideas of father and 
mother.' — J)e Brotses, i. iij. 

The speech of the mother may perhaps unconsciously give something of an 
arlicnlate form to the meaningless cooings and mutterings of the in&nt, as the song 
of Ibe mother-bird bfluences that of her young. At any rate these in&itil« 
utterances are represented in speech by the qrllables ba, fa, ma, ta, giving rise to 
foam ^ks s. babble, maffie.faffie.famhle, tattle, to speak imperfectly like a child, 
to talk unmeaningly; os. mamelen, babden, to babble, mutter ; ntommfl', to mut- 
ter; Gr. fia^(u, to say ba, ba, to speak inarticulately (w hence /S^j'w, to speak) ; 
Mod.Gr. /tofiDvXijw, to mumble, mutter, &c. Accordingly the joyfiil or eager 
otteraoces of the child when taken up t^ the mother, or when offered the breast, 
would sonnd to her as if the in£mt greeted her by the name of mama, &c., or as 
if it called for the breast by that name, and she would adopt these names herself 
and teach her child the intelligent use of them. Thus Lat. tnamma, the infantile 
term for mother, has remained, with the dim, mamlla, as the name of the breast, 

d J 

Di. Google 


md the lame u the caK with Via. mamwui. Do. moMmt, mother, nnne, breait ; 
mammen, to gire fnck. Wbea one of the imitative ijllables at Ma had thu been 
taken up to dengnate the mother, a difl^reot ooe, as la, pa, or to, would be ap- 
propriated bf aoalogf m the designation of the &ther. 

Betide* the foam corre^woding to Lat. mamma, mamiia, papiUa, b. pap, for 
the breaft, a class of names strai^lf resembling each other are fbond all orer the 
world, which seem to be taken from a direct imitalion of the soand of nicking. 
That we have Saiucr. cklUk, to rack ; chichi, the breast ; cAw c JIwia , the nipple ; 
TarahiUDara (Am.) tsc/utscki, to sock ; Japan. Uchittcki, taisi, the breatt, milk J 
Manchn Ichtichm, Magy. Utts, Tnng. tyoen, lygen (Castreo), SamtHode inuo (to 
be compared with Fr. wc«r, to mck), iRu/b, Kowrarega nun, Malay woMO, Godang 
iyutyu, Chippeway lototh, Mandingo sito, Bambarra sing, Kurdish acUi, It. (in 
nunery language) cioccia, Albanian si$$a, e. giixt, k. (nunery) tSJJy, fitly, leaf, 
Malay dado, Hebrew dad, q. dialects didi, tUti, the breast or nipple ; Goth, dadd- 
jan, to rack (Pott Dopp. 33). 

The name of the (a£y himself also it formed on the same imitative principle 
which gives their designation to so many animals, viz. from the syllables ha, 6a, 
representing the utterance of the infant. Hie same principle appUes to others of 
these iD&ntile words. The nnrae imitates the wrangling or drowsy tones of the 
infant, as she jogs it to sleep upon her knee, by the syllables no, na, la, la. To 
the first of these forms belongs the Italian lullaby, ninjia ttanna; far la nimia 
nanna, to lull a child ; ninnare, ninnellare, to rock, and in children's language 
nanna, bed, sle^. Far la nanna, andare a nanna, to sleep, to go to bed, go to 
sleep. In the Mpongwe of W, Afiica nana, and in the Swahili of the Eastern 
coast lata, has the sense of sleep. In Malabar, »in, sleep (Pott). The imilaticn 
gives a designation to the infant himself in It. ninna, a little girl ; Milanese nan, 
nanin, a cares«ng term for an infant. Caro el mi nan, my dariing baby. Sp. 
niSo, a child. In Lat. nanus, a dwarf, the designation is transferred to a person 
of childish stature, as in Mod.Gr. vivioy, a young child, a simpleton, and in b. 
ninny it is transferred to a person of childish understanding. From the imi- 
tative /a, la, are o. lalUn, to speak imperfectly like a child, from whence, as in 
other cases, the sense is extended to speaking in general in Gr. Xakitt, to chatter, 
babble, talk. From (he same source are Lat. lallo, and s. /aff, primarily to sing 
a child to sleep, then to calm, to soothe. In Servian the nurses' song sounds lyu, 
lyu, whence lyulyuti, to rack; lyulyaskia, a cradle. 


Another important element of speech, of which a rational explanation may 
perhaps be found in infantile life, is the demonstrative particle ta or da, the very 
name of which shows that it corresponds- to the act of pointing out the object to 
which we wish to direct attentiou. In the language of the deaf-and-dumb, point> 
ing to an object signifies thai, and serves the purpose of verbal mention, as b 
•een at every turn in an account of the making of the will of a dumb man 
quoted by Tylor. The testator points to himself, then to the will, then touches 



his trowsers' pocket, ' the usual sign b^ which he referred to his moaey,' then 
points to his wife, and so on. But, indeed, we do not need the experience of 
the deaf-and-dumb to show that pointing to an object is the natural way of call- 
ing attention to it. Now in our nurseries the child uses the syllable la for vari- 
ous purposes, as to express. Please, Thank yon. Good-bye ; mostly supplement'^ 
ing the utterance by pointing or stretching out the hand towards the object to 
which *it has reference. A child of my acquaintance would ask in this way for 
what it desired. ' Ta / cheese ' (pointing towards it), give me that cheese, 
Tn/ in a diiferent tone returns thanks for something the child has accepted, and 
may be rendeied, that is it, that gratifies me. When it says la-la/ on being 
carried out of the room it accompanies the farewell by waving the hand towards 
those whom it is quitting, implying the direction of its good will towards them, 
as it might by blowing a kiss to them. Sanders (Germ. Diet.) describes dada as 
a word of many applications in o. nurseries, as, for instance, with reference to 
something pretty which the child desires to have. The Fr. child, according to 
Menage, says da-da-da, when he wants something, or wants to name something. 

* The child,' says Lottner in the paper on the personal pronouns above quoted, 

* sees an object, and says ta!* (and at the same time points to it with his finger, 
I add) ; ' we may translate this by there (it is), or that it is, or carry me thither, 
or give me it, and by a variety of expressions besides, but the truth is, that every 
one of these interpretations is wrong, because it replaces the teeming tiilness of 
the infantile word by a clearer but less rich expression of our more abstract lan- 
guage. Yet if a choice between the difiereut translations must be made, I trust 
that few of my readers will retiise me thdr consent, when saying : there the ad* 
verb is by far the most adequate.' — Phil. Trans. 1859. We may carry the 
matter further and say that the infantile ta or da simply represents the act of 
pmnting, all the incidental meanings being supplied by the circumstances of the 
case. It is preserved in mature language in o. da, the fimdamental signification 
of which is to signify the presence of an object. * Dd ! nehmen Sie ! ' ' D& f 
Ihr prasent.' Dieter da (as Lat. is-te), thLs here. Bav. der da-ige, a specified 
person, as it were by pointing him out. A doubling of the utterance gives Gr, 
rtft (orinAttic more emphatically ToSOi*'"* here; as well as Goth. ( Aa(o (ta-ta), 
E. that. The primitive import of the utterance is completely lost sight of in Lat. 
da, give; properly (give) thai, to be compared with the nursery da-da, by 
which a o. child indicates or asks for an object of desire. In the expression Da, 
nehmen Sie, with which something is handed over to another, the word da repre- 
sents the holding out the object or the act of giving. In the language of TongS, 
as Dr Lottner observes, the verb to give is almost invariably replaced by the ad- 
verbs signifying hither or thither, 'nay, seems to have been lost altogether.' 
Mei ia giate au = hilher this to me = give me this. Shall I thither this to thee = 
shall I give you this. 

When we seek for a natural connection of the utterance ta I with the act of 

pointing,* we shall find it, I believe, tu the inarticulate stammerings of the in^t 

* Lottan's exphnatioD it not tatislactoiy. He adopts in the main the viewofSchmits^ 



wbm he sprawls with ann» and le^ in the mere eujofment of life. The utter* 
aooe 90 associated with the mUBcular action of the child sounds io the ear of the 
parent hke the syllables da-dorda, which thus become symbolical of muscular 
exertion, whether in the more energetic form of beatiDg, or of simply itretcbiiig 
out the hand, as in giving or pointing. 

The lyllable da is uaed to represent inarticulate atterance in Swiss dadem, 
dodtrrt, to chatter, stutter, tattle, and this also seems the piiroitive aeoseof Fc 
dad^i childish toj^ng, speech, or dalliance. — Cot. Daiia in Gemun nonetw* 
hai the tense of tmacks or blows. Das kind hat dada b^ommen. TIk saaae 
■ease b seen in Galla dxidada-goda (to make dadada), to beat, to ktiodc, and in 
Yoruba da, strike, beat, pay. 

The greater part of our thoughts seem at the first ^nce so void oi any re- 
ference to sound as to throw great difficulty in the way of a practical bdef io 
the imitative origin of language. * That sounds can be leodered in language \>j 
sounds,' says Miiller, ' and that each language possesses a laige stock i^ words 
imitating the sounds given out by certain things, who would deny } iutA wha 
would deny that some words originally expressive of sound only might be trans- 
ferred to other things which have some analogy with sound ? BtU faov ace 
things which do not appeal to the sense of hearing — how are the ideas of going, 
moving, standing, sinking, tasting, thinking, to be expressed } ' — ioA Series, jk 
89. The answer to the query is already given in the former part of the passage : 
by analogy, or metaphor; which is the transference of a word from one signifies 
tion to another ; the conveyance of a meaning by menUon of something which 
serves to put us in mind of the thing to be signified. But in several of the in- 
stances specified by Miiller it is not difficult to show a direct connection with 
sound. Thus we have seen that the conceptions of taste are expressed by re- 
ference to the smacking of the lips and toi^e in the enjoyment of food. The 
idea of going is common to a hundred modes of progression that occur in actual 
existence, of which any one may, and one in particular must, in eveiy mode of 
expressing' the idea, have been the type from which the name was originally 
taken. In the case of the word ^ itself, for which Johnson gives seventy 
meanings, the original is that which he places first, to walk, to move step by step, 
a sense which lends itielf in the inost obvious manner to imitative expression, by 
a representation of the sound of the footfall. The connection between thought 
and speech is so obvious that we need be at no loss for the means of expressing 
the idea of thinking. Thus Gr. fpdfki is to say; ^ftaHofiai, to say to oneself, to 

spealuDg of the demonstrative in his Coptic Grammar ; — 'Every object is to the child a liviog 
tnlpable thing. When it cannot reach ansnvbere with its luud, then instinctively it niters a 
oy, in tiller ta cause Iff app-oaeh thai ■which has aviaientd ill intertsl.' ' I add,' «»y* Lotlner : — 
- ' When the soul, becoming aware of the ciy issuing forth from its own interior, takes it up as 
a «gn lor the Indefinite ontwaid reality, which is the object of its detire, and shapes, it iatoui 
srticuUte sound, thai we have a pronoun demonitralive. ' 



tliiak, while \iyot signifies both speech and thought. Jn some of the languages 
of the Pacific thinking is said to be called speaking in the belly, Maori mea and 
a both sigaify to speak as well as to think. 

The oonnection between the senses of taste and smell is So close that expres- 
sions originally taken from the exerdse of the one faculty are constantly transferred 
to the other. The o. ichmecken, to Btnack or taste, is used in Bavaria in the sense 
of smell, and icknecier, in popular language, ugnifies the nose. So from Lat. 
-sapere (whick may probably spring firom another representation of the sound of 
smacking) comes Uipor, taste, and thence b. sauour, which is applied to impres- 
sions of smeU as well as to tbtwe of the palate, while sapere iaelf, properly to dis- 
tinguish by taste, U extended to the exercise of the understanding, to have dis- 
cemBtent, to be wise. Sapiens, a man of nice taste, also wise, discreet, judicious. 
In the same way the Goth, mutrs, as. snotor, .wise, prudent, may be explaiued 
fit>m the Gael snol, to snid^ snuff the air, smell, and figuratively, suspect ; Bar. 
m.utm, tosniff, smelt, search ; on. mtiSra, to sniff out Here it will be seen the 
ezpres»on of the idea of wisdom is traced by no distant course to an undoubted 

The same sort of analogy as that which is felt between the senses of smell and 
taste, unites in like manner the sepses of sight and hearing, and thus terms ex- 
pressing conceptions belonging to the sense of hearing are figuratively applied to 
analogous phenomena of the visible world. In the case of sparkle, for example, 
which is a modification of the same imitative root with Sw. spraka, Lith. sprageti, 
to crackle, rattle, the rapid flashing of a small bright light upon the eye is signi- 
fied by the figure of a similar repetition of short sharp impressions ou the ear. 
Fr. pitHUr is an imitative form signifying in the first place to crackle, then to 
sparkle, and, in the domain of movement, to quiver. Du. tinteUn, to tinkle, then 
to twinkle, to glitter. 

Again, iclat (in Old Fr. eiclai), properly a clap or explosion, b used in the 
sense of brightness, splendour, brilliancy. The word bright had a similar origin. 
Xt is the equivalent of o. prachl, splendour, magnificence, which in oho. signified 
a clear sound, outcry, tumulL Bavarian bracht, clang, noise. In as. we have 
beorhlian, to resoimd, and bearht, bright. In the old poem of the Owl and the 
Nightingale bri^t is applied to the clear notes of a bird. 
Heo — song so schille and so irihle 
That &r and ner me hit iherde.— 1. 1654. 

Du. schatereti, ichetsren, to make a loud noise, to shriek with laughter ; scMieren, 
to shine, to gibten ; Dan. knhtTe, kniUre, gnittre, to crackle ; gnistrt, to sparkle. 
Many striking examples of the same transference of signification may be quoted 
from the Finnish, as kilind, a ringing sound, a brilliant light ; kilid, tinkling, glit- 
tering; ti/ilUld, to ring as a glass ; wUlata, wUella, uiitaktaa, to flash, to glitter ; 
kimittd, to sound clear (parallel with b. chime), kimmaltaa, kiimollaa, to shine, to 
glitter, &c. In Galla, bilbila, a ringing noise as of a bell ; bUbilgoda (to make 
bilMO, to ring, to glitter, beam, glisten. Sanscr. marmm-a, a rustling sound } Gr. 
I, to glitter. 

,.,.d.:, Google 


The language of painters is fiill of musical metaphor. It speaks of tiarmoni- 
ous or discordant colouring, discusses the tone of a picture. So in modem aiang, 
which mainly consisis in the use of new and violent metaphors (though perliaps, 
in truth, not more violent than those in which the terms of ordinaiy language 
had their origin), we hear of screaming colours, of dressing loud. The specula- 
tions of the Andents respecting the analo^es of sound and signification were 
extremely loose, as may be »een in the Cratylus, where Socrates is made to explain 
the cipreasive power of the letter-sounds. The letter r, he says, from the mo- 
bility of the tongue in pronouncing it, seemed to him who settled names an ap- 
propriate instrument for the imitation of movement. He accordingly used it for 
that purpose in ^iy and porj, flow and flux, then in ipd/ioc, rpaxl^, L-paMic, 
^mIiuv, iptlatv, letpnaTlZiiv, pun^lr, tremour, rough, strike, break, rend, shatter, 
whirl. Observing that the tongue chiefly slides in pronouncing /, he used it in 
forming the imitative words Azioc, smooth, \irapit, oily, coXXwSqc, gluey, 
ikiod&ym; to slide. And observing that n kept the voice within, he framed the 
words iyioy, tyrot, within, inside, fitting the letters to the sense. 

Much of the same kind is found in an interesting passage of Augustine, which 
has been often quoted. 

'The Stoics,' he says, 'hold that there is no word of which a clear account 
cannot be given. *And because in thb way you might say that it would be an 
infinite task if you had always to seek for the origin of the words in which yoo 
explained the origin of tlie former one, it was easy to suggest the limitation : 
Until you come to the point where there is direct resemblance between the 
sound of the word and the thing ^gnified, as when we speak of the tinkling (tiii- 
nitum) of brass, the neighing of hoises, the bleating of sheep, the clang (clango- 
rem) of trumpets, the clank (atridorem) of chains, for you perceive that these 
words sound like the things which are signified by them. But because there are 
things which do not sound, with these the similitude of touch comes into play, so 
that if the things are soft or rough to the touch, they are fitted with names that 
by the nature of the letters are felt as soft or rough to the ear. Thus the word 
hue, soft, itself sounds soft to the ear ; and who does not feel also thai the word 
atperilai, roughness, is rough like the thing which it signifies ? Voluptat, pleasure, 
b soft to the ear ; crux, the cross, rough. Tl»e things themselves affect our feel- 
ings in accordance with the soiind of the words. As honey is sweet to the taite, 
so the name, tnel, is felt as soft by the ear. Acre, sharp, is rough in both ways. 
Lana, wool, and vtprei, briars, affect the ear in accordance with the way in which 
the things signified are felt by touch. 

It was believed that the first germs of language were to be found in the 
words where there was actual resemblance between the sound of the word and 

* Et quU hoc modo sn^ierere bcile fiiit, si diceres hoc inrinitam esse qnibos verbis alterins 
vcrbi orrginem interpretaris, eonun runus a te orieincm quxrendam esse, done« perreiuatQr 
eo at res cam tono verbi aliqtu similitodine concinoat, &c.— Prindpia Dialectics, c. «. i& 
*o1. i. othis worlu. 



the thing which it sigaified : that from thence the invention of names proceeded 
to take bold of the resemblance of thii^ between themselves j as when, for ex- 
ample, the cross is called crux because the rough sound of the word agrees with 
the roughness of the pain which is suffered on the cross; while the legs are called 
crura, not on account of the roughness of pain, but because in length and 
hardness they are like wood in comparison with the other members of the 

It is obvious that analogies like the foregoing are tar too general to afford any 
satisfactory explanation of the words for which they are supposed to account. If 
any word that sounded rot^h might signify anything that was either rough or 
rigid or painful it would apply to such an infinite vatiety of objects, and the limits 
of the signification would be so vague, that the utterance would not afford the 
smallest guidance towards the meaning of the speaker. Stilt it is plain that there 
most be some analogy between sound and movement, and consequently form, in 
virtue of which we apply the terms rough and smooth to the three conceptions. 
The connection seems to lie in the degree of effort or resistance of which we 
are conscious in the utterance of a rough sound, or in the apprehension 
of a rough sur&ce. We regard the sound of r as rough compared with 
that of /, because the tongue is driven into vibration in the utterance 
of r, making us sensible of an efibrt which answers to the resistance &lt 
in the apprehen^on of a rough sur&ce, while in I the sound issues without re- 
action on the vocal otgans, like the hand pasung over a smooth surface. A greater 
degree of roughness b when the inequalities of the surface are separately felt, or in 
sound, when the vibratory whir passes into a rattle. la a still higher degree of 
roughness the movement becomes a succession of jogs, corresponding to the ine- 
qualities of a rugged surface ora jagged outliue, or, in the case of the voice, to the 
abrupt impulses of a harshly broken utterance. Again, we are conscious of mus- 
cular eflbrt when we raise the tone of the voice by an actual rise of the vocal ap- 
paratus in the throat, and it is precisely this rise and fall of the bodily apparatia 
in the utterance of a high or low note, that makes us consider the uetes as high 
or low. There are thus analogies between sound and bodily movement which 
enable us, by utterances of the voice without direct imitation of sound, to signify 
varieties of movement, together with corresponding modifications of figured sur- 
fyce and outline. The word twitter represents in the first instance a repetition of 
a short sharp sound, but it is applied by analogy to a vibratory movement that is 
wholly unaccompanied by sound. The feeling of abruptness in Kound is given by 
a syllable ending with one of the mutes, or checks as they are called by Mliller,' 
consisting of the letters b, d, g, p, t, k, the peculiarity of which in pronunciation 
is that ' for a time they stop the emission of breatb altogelber ' (Lect. ii. p. 138). 
Hence in pronouncing a syllable ending iu a mute or check we are conscious 
of an abrupt termination of the vocal effort, and we employ a wide range of syl- 
lables constructed on that principle to signify a movement abruptly checked, as 
shag, thog, jag, jog, jig, dag, dig, ttog (in ttagger, to reel abruptly from side to 
ride), job, jii, ttal, rug, tug; Fr. sag-oler, to jog ; sac-cade, a rough and suddni 



jeric, motion, or check. Hm sjUaUe ak^ k used io Biemea (o repreMDt a jogni 
ridJDg or going. ' 'Dot geii juuntur gui ! mk -' of a roi^h ban& £■« oZie tiftmt, 
an <dd wofthlfH hone or carriage, a rattletrap. Sakielm, G. tdrndeb i , ichocieta, ta 
jog. On tlu lame principle we bare e. goat, used inteiiectioBall]' to rc^iresent • 
•harp mdden movement ; Kodt, a jag or diarp projection ; gicieaci, a. eiffug, 
applied to movement bj impnlies abnpdy changing ia dinectian, or the £guic 
traced out by luch a movement } the opposition in the direction of successive im- 
pubei being marked hy the change of vowel from t to a. The production of 
(onnd, bowerer, is ao frequent a couequeoce of movement, that we never can be 
•ure, 'la caaes like the foregoing, that the word does not originally spting from 
direct imitation. Such >cemt certainly the case with the syllable tici, tack, tacit, 
representing sharp short sounds of di^rent kinds, and analogous movemenix. 
Thus we hare z. tki-tack for the beat of a clock ; Fannesao Hc-toc for the beat 
of the heart or the pulse, or the ticking of a watch ; fiolognese tec-tac, a crackeri 
It. leck-ttck, tochrloch, Ucche-locche, ioi the sound of knocking at a door, 
Hence tkk or lock ioi any light sharp movemenL To tick a thing off, to mark 
it with a touch of the pen ; to take a thing on tick, to bare it ticked or marked 
on the score; to tickle, to incite by light touches. Bolognese locc, Brescian lock, 
the blow of the clapper on a bell or knocker on a door, lead to Spanish taceiT, to 
knock, to ring a bell, to beat or play on a musical instniment, and also (witb the 
meaning softened down) to Italian toccare, French toucher, to touch. The Mi- 
lanese toch, like English tick, is a stroke with a pen or pencil, then, figuratively, a 
certain space, so much as is traversed at a stroke ; on bell tocck di strada, a good 
piece of road ; then, as Italian tocco, a piece or bit of anything. 

The same transference of the expression from phenomena of sound to those of 
bodily si^tance takes place with the syllables mak, mik, mot, lot, kui, kik. Sec, 
which were formerly mentioned as being used (generally with a negative) to ex- 
press the least appreciable sound. The closeness of the connection between such 
a meaning and the least appreciable movement is witnessed by the use of the same 
word still to express alike the absence of soimd or motion. Accordingly the G. 
muck, representing in the first instance a eound barely audible, is made to signify 
a slight movement. Mucien, to mutter, to say a word j also to stir, to make the 
least movement. 

The representative syllable takes the form of mici or kick in the Dutch phrase 
noch micken nock kicken, not to utter a sylbble. Then, passing to the significa* 
lion of motion, it produces Dutch micken, Illyrian migati, to winkj micaii 
{uulsati), to stir J Lat. micare, to glitter, to move rapidly to and fro. The analogy 
is then carried a step fiirther, and the sense of a slight movement is made a step- 
ping-stone to the signification of a material atom, a small bodily object Hence 
Lat. and It. mica, Spanish miga, Fr. mie, a crum, a little bit. The train of thought 
runs through the same course in Dutch kickex, to utter a slight sound ; Fr. chicoter, 
to sprawl like an infant { Welsh dci«, and e. kUk, to strike with the foot. Then 
in the Kuse of any least portion of bodily substance. It. eica, Fr. cAic, chiquel, a 
little bit i ckiqut, a quid of tobacco, a playing-marble, properly a small lump of 



clay; S[L cAtco, little. In the same way from the represeutatioo of a slight sound 
by the syllable mol, muf, as in b. mutter, or in the Italian phrase turn fare ne motto 
xe tolto, not to utter a syllable, we pass to the Yorkshire phrase, neither moit nor 
Ml, not an atom ; b. mole, an atom; and mite, the least visible insect ; Du. mol, 
dust, fragments; It. motla, Fr. motle, a lump of earth. 

The use of a syllable like tot to represent a short indistinct sound is shown in 
the Italian phrase above quoted ; in o.n. t<mt, n. tot, a whisper, murmur, mutter ; 
E. lotle, to whisper (Pr. Pm.) ; titter, to laugh in a subdued manner. The ex- 
pression passes on Co the idea of movement in e. lot, to jot down or note wilh a 
slight movement of the pen ; toller, loltU, to move slightly to and fro, to toddle 
like a child ; titter, to tremble, to seesaw (Halliwell) ; Lat. tilillo, to tickle (pro- 
vincially tittle), to excite by slight touches or movements. Then, passing from the 
sense of a slight movement to that of a small bodily object, we have e. tot, 
anything small ; tatty, little (Hatliwell) ; Da. tot, Sc. tail, a bunch or flock of 
flax, wool, or the like ; It. iozzo, a bit, a morsel ; e. lit, a bit, a morsel, anything 
smallof its kind, a small horse, a little girl; titty, tiny, small; titlark, a small 
kind of lark j tiimouse (Du. massche, a sparrow), a small bird ; tittle, a jot or little 
tit. It dtto, zitto, a lad ; dtta, eifella, a girL The passage from the sense of a 
light movement to that of a small portion is seen also in pat, a li^t quidt blow, 
and a small lump of something; to dot, to touch lightly with a pen, to make a 
slight mark; and dot, a snaall lump or pat. — Halliwell. Tojot, to touch, to jog, 
to note a thing hastily on paper ; jot, a small quantity. 

The change of the vowel from a or o to i, or the converse, in such expressions 
as xigaag, ticitack, seesaw, belongs to a principle which is extensively applied in 
the devebpment of language, when an expression having already been found for 
a certain conception, it b wished to signify something of the same fundamental 
kind, but diifering in degree or in some subordinate character. This end is com- 
monly attained by a change, often entirely arbitrary, either in the vowel or the 
initial consonant of the significant syllable. The vowel changes from i to a in 
tick-lack, kn the beating of a clock, not because the pendulum makes a different 
sound in swinging to the right or to the left, but simply in order to symbolise the 
change of direction. A similar instance of distinction by arbitrary difference is 
noticed by Mr Tylor in the language of gesture, where a wise man being symbol- 
ised by touching the tip of the nose with the forefinger, the same organ is touched 
with the little finger to signify a foolish man. In a similar way the relations of 
place, here, there, and out there, corresponding to the personal pronouns, I, you, 
and he, are frequently distinguished by what appears to lie an arbitrary change of 
the vowel sound. Pott (Doppelung p. 48) cites from the African TumaIe,^Bi, 
gfo, gtti, for the three personal pronouns, where the vowels follow in regular scale 
(i, e, a, o, tt) according to the proximity of ihe object indicated. But Che same 
language has re this, ri that, where the order is inverted. The following table is 
from Tylor (Prim. Cult. i. 199). 

Javan. Hii, this; iia, that; iiu, that, further off; Malagasy to, here (close 
at band); eo, there (further oft) ; ao, there (at a thiort distance). 



Japan to, here ; ia, there. 

Canareae ivanu, this ) iva/m, that (iDtennediate) ; mkuw, thaL 

Tamul I, this j 4, that. 

Dhimas isho, ita, here } tuho, uta, there, 

Abchasian oM, thb ; ubri, that. 

Ossetic am, here j um, there. 

Magyar ex, this; oz, that. 

Zulu i^Mi, here; i^, there; Un, this; /eto, that; &nya, that in the d 

Yoniba no, this ; m, thaL 

FemaudiaD alo, this j ofe, that, 

Sahaptin (America) kina, here ; htna, there. 

Mutsuu ne, here; nu, there. 

Tarahumara i£e, here ; aht, there, 

Guaraui nife, tie, thou ; fu^, nt, he. 

Botocudo ati, I ; oti, thou, you, to. 

Carib iu, tliou ; ni, he. 

Chihan tva, this ; hiey, thaL 
Here, as Mr Tylor remarks, no constant rule is obserred, but sometimes i aod 
sometimes a b ased to denote the nearer object. 

Of a nmilar nature is the distinction of sex by a change of vowel, as in Italian 
o for the male, and a for the female, Ttn. vkko, an old man ; akka, an old woman; 
Mangu cAfuAa, mas ; checke, iem\aa ; ama, father; eme, mother. Carib hob*, 
father; bibi, mother. Ibu (Afr.) una, father; nne, mother. It it probably 
to a like principle of distinction that the k, c (t), qu, w, which form the imtial 
element of the interrogative in Sanscr., Gr., LaL, and o. respectively, owe their 
origin. The interrogative pronoims who ? or what t are expressed in gesture 
by looking or p(Mntiag about in an inquiring manner, in fact (says Tylor), by ■ 
number of unsuccessful attempts to say he, that. Then, as the act of pointiiig was 
represented in speech by the particle ta, it seems that the interrogative signification 
was given by the arbitrary change from la to ia, from whence may be explained the 
various initials of the interrogative in the different members of the Indo-Gennanic 

On the other hand, there is often an innate fitness in the change of vowel to 
the modification of meaning wliich it is made to denote. The vowels a and a 
are pronounced with open throat and full sound of the voice, while we compress 
the voice through a narrower opening and utter a less volume of sound in the 
pronunciation of t or e. Hence we unconsciously pass to the use of the vowel i 
in expressing dinunution of actign or of size. A young relation of mine adopted 
the use of baiy as a diminutival prefix.* Baby-Thomas was his designation fix 
the smaller of two servants of that name. But when he wishes to carry the di* 
minution further, he narrows the sound of the word to tee-bee, and at last it be- 
comes a Itebee-ieebee thing. In the same way seems to be formed Acra (Afir.) 
I't, child, young one; iifio, little, small (Pott. loo). It seems to me probable that 
• Vd Jtn, child, alto liltk. 



this Mtue of the thianess of the sound of i or ee is simply erotwdied in tbe 
diminutival arte. 'A little wee &ce with a little yellow beard.' — Menr W^ves. 
A further developmeDt of the ugailicant sound gives the nursery weeny,* surviv* 
ing in regular speech in o. wenig, little, few ; Sc. wean, a child. And perhaps 
the K. tmy may be attained through the rhyming tiny-winy or teeny-weeny, 
analogous to winypiny, fictfiil, speaking in a pipy tone of voice. It will be ob- 
served that we express extreme diminution by dwelling on the Qarrow vowel : 
'a little tee--ny thing,' making the voice as small as posnble. 

The consdousness of forcing the voice through a narrow opening in tbe pro- 
nunciation of the sound ee leads to th& use of syllables like peep, keek, leel, to sig- 
nify a thing maldng its way through a narrow opening, just beginning to appear, 
looking through between obstacles. Da. at pippe /rem is to spring forth, to make 
its way through the bursting envelope, whence Fr. pepin, the pip or pippin, the 
germ from whence the plant is to spring. The 5w. has ttttafrem, to peep through, 
to begin to appear ; titta, to peep, in old e. to teel. 
The Tois knoppis titand fiuth thare hed 

Gan chjp and kjrtlie ttutre ventale lippis red. — DougUa Virgil, 401. & 
The pte/t of dawn is when the curtain of darkness begins to lift and the first streaks 
of light to push through the opening. 

The sound of the footfall is represented in German by the syllables /nt/>^-/ra^ 
Irapp ; from whence Du. trt^, a step, Irappen, to tread, Sw. trappa, slairs. Ilie 
change to the short compressed i in (rtj) adapts the syllable to signify a light quick 
step : Da, trippen, trippelen, to leap, to dance (Kil.) ; Fr. tripigner, to beat tbe 
ground with the feet. C/on^ represents the sound of something large, as chains; 
clini, or chink, of smaller things, as money. To sup up, is to take up b'quids by 
large spoonfuls; to sip, to sup up by little and little, with lipa barely open. T<^, 
nab, knob, signify an extremity of a broad round shape ; tip, nib, nipple, a similar 
object of a smaller size and pointed shape. 

Where a sound is kept up by the continued repetition of distinct impulses on 
the ear, the simplest mode of representing the continued sound is by tbe repetition 
of a syllable resembling tbe elementary impulse, as ding-dong, o. bim-bam. It. 
(£(n-<£tit, (/on-</on, for the sound of bells; murmur, for a continuance^ low and 
indistinct sounds; fnt-a-pat, for a succession of light blows; low-wow, for the 
barking of a dog, &c^ In barbarous languages the formation of words on this 
priocipleisverycommon, andin thePadfic dialects, for instance, they form acon- 
ndetable proportion of the vocabulary. From cases like the foregoing, where an 
imitative syllable is repeated for the purpose of signifying die continued repetition 
of a certain phenomenon, the principle of reduplication, as it is called, is extended 
to express simple continuance of action, or ei-eu, by a further advance in abstrac- 
tion, the idea of action in general, while the special nature of the action intended 
ii indicated by the repeated syllable. In some African languages repetition ii 
habitually used to qualify the meaning of the verb. Thus we have y^oloftopa, 

* ' A little wifity Hung.' I have known Wttny kept as a pel-name by one who had been 



to love, ntpanpa, to love ooiutaiul^ | Mpongwe kamha, to ^ak, iamta-gandi, 
to ttlk at raodoit) ; kendo, to walk, kendagenda, to walk aboot for atnuaenienc. 
Again, from Maori muia, flax, muia-muia (to use a buocb of flas), to wipe 
or rub} mawhiti, to ikip, matokitiwkiti, a graBsliopperj puka, to pant, paia- 
puia, the lungi, the agent ia panting; Malay ayun, to rock, ayuniofutuu, t 
cradle. That the principle is not wholly lifelesa hi English is witneased bj the 
verb poohr-paok, to say pooh ! to, to treat with contempt. 

It ia obvious that the same device which expresses continuance in tinae msj 
be appUed to continuance or extension in space. Thtis in the Pacific /oo, loloa, 
signify long; UUoloa, very long (Pott, i^;). And generally, repetition or coutjo- 
uance of the ugnificant sound expream excess in degree of the quali^ signified. 
Mandingo (^n^, child ; if v^ young, i£i«£-<jin^ ; Susai^, child; t^', little child 
(p. gg). Madagascar raUi or toIc/u, bad ; TOtsi-ratH, or rdtchi, very bad. ' Id the 
Gaboon the strength with which such a word as mpolu b uttered, serves to show 
whether it is great, very great, or very veiy great, and in this way, as Mr Wilson re- 
marks in his Mpongwe grammar, the comparative degrees of greatness, smallness, 
hardness, rapidity and strength, &c., may be conveyed with more accuracy than 
could readily be conceived." — Tylor, Prim. Cult. i. 196. The same principle of 
expression ia in familiar use with ouraelves, although not recognised in written 
language; as when weipeak of an «-n^ --rrnou; appetite, or alittle tee--ny thing. 

The use of reduplicate forms is condemned by the taste of more cultivated 
languages, and the sense of continuance b expressed in a more artificial way by 
the frequentative form of the verb, as it is called, where the effect of repetition is 
given by the addition of an intrinsically unmeaning element, such as the syllable 
el, er, or el, acting as a sort of echo to the ilindamental syllable of the word. 
Thus in £. racket, a clattering noise, or in Fr. cliqu-et-is, clash of weapons, the 
imitative syllables, rack and digue, are echoed by the rudimentary el, instead of 
being actually repeated, and the words express a continued sound of raei, rack, or 
cUck, click. 

It is true that such a syllable as et or it could only, properly speaking, be used 
as an echo to hard sounds, but many devices of expression are extended by analogy 
far beyond their original aim, and thus et or it are employed in Lat. and Fr. to 
express repetition or continuance in a general way, without reference to the par- 
ticular nature of the repealed phenomenon. So from clamo, to call, clamito, to 
keep calling, to call frequently ; from Fr. lacke, a spot, tach-et-er, to corer with 
spots. The elements usually employed in b. for the same purpose are composed of 
an obscure vowel with the consonants I or r, on which the voice can dwell for a 
length of time with a more or less sensible vibration, representing the effect on 
the ear when a conftised succession of beats has merged in a continuous murmur. 
Thus in the pattering of rain or hail, expressing the fall of a rapid succession of 
drops on a hard surface, the syllable ^of imitates the sound of a «ngle drop, while 
the vibration of the r in the second syllable represents the murmuring sound of 
tlie shower when the attention is not directed to the individual taps of which it is 
composed. In like manner to clatter is to do anythibg accompanied by a luc- 



cessioQ of ncnses that might be represented hj the lyllable clai; to craeAlt, to 
make a nic«Moii of cracks ; to rattlt, dabile, buhbU, g^ggU, to make a luccei- 
■ion of Do'iKs that might be represented individual!/ by the syllablet rat, dot, huh, 
gug. "TiM contrivatice ia then extended to signify continusd sction nncoanected 
with any particular nobe, is gtoppls, to make a succession of grabs ; fkitffte, to 
make a luccession of ihoTCi ; dra^le, waggle, joggle, to continue dragging, wag- 
gingj jogging- The final e^ or er is &eqoently replaced by a simple I, which, as 
Ibre remarks under gntella, has something ringing (aliquid tin&uli) fn it Thus 
to mewl and pule, in Fr. miatiUr and plauUr, are to cry mew and few ; to wiut 
u to cry une i PiedmonteM bim-l4, or Jt ban, to make bau-bati, to bark like 

By a fbrtber extennon the frequeotatire dement is mad« to signify the simple 
employment of an object in a my which has (o be understood from the circum- 
ttanccs of the case. Tbos to inee'l ia to rest on the bent knee ; to hand-le, to em- 
ploy the band in dealing with an object. In cases like these, wliere the fi^uent- 
ative elenoent is added to a word already existing in the language, the effact of 
the addition is simply to gireaverbal signification to the compound, an end which 
might equally be attained by the addition of verbal inflections of person and tense, 
without the intervention rf the frequentative element. 

It seems socordingty to be a matterof chance whether the terminal /is added 
or omitted. The Fr. miauler and iiler correspond to £. meur and baa ; the o. 
Jtaie-en to k. kneel. In a. itself, to hand, in some applicaiions, as to handle, in 
others, ia used for dealing with an object by the hand. 

The application of the frequentative etor er (a signify the agent or the in- 
atnunent of action (as in as. tynei, a runner, or in e. rubber, he who rubs, or what 
Is nsed in rubbing) is analogous to the attainment of the same end by repetition 
of the significant syllat4e, as shown above in the case of Malay at/itna^unan, a 
cradle or rocker from ayun, to rock, or Maori puka^ttia, the lungs (the puflm of 
the body), fi^m puka, to puff. 

The same element is found in the constniciionof in as.^co/, fickle, 
to be compared with o. Jickfacken, to move to and fro, and in as. wtmcol, o. 
wankel, wavering, by the side oi wanien, wanieln, to rock or wag. 

When we come to sum up the evidence of the imitative origin of language, 
we find that words are to be found in every dialect that are used mih a con- 
■cioos intention of directly imitating sound, such asjlap, crack, fmaek, or the in- 
teiiections oA/ ugh ! But sometimes the signification is carried on, either by a 
figurative mode of expression, or by association, to something qnite distinct from 
the sound originally represented, although the connection between the two may 
be so close as to be rarely absent from the mind in the use of the word. Thus 
the word Jiap originally imitates the sound made by the blow of a flat surface, 
as the wing of a bird or the comer of a sail. Il then passes on to signify the 
movement to and fro of a flat suriace, and is thence applied to the moveable 
leaf of a table, the part that moves on a hinge up and down, where all dirwt 
coooection witb sound is lost. In like manner craci imitates the sound made 



by a hard body breaking, and U applied in a secondaiT wajr to the e&cts of the 
breach, to the separatioa between tlie broken parts, or to a oairow sepantion 
between adjoining edges, such as might have arisen iix>ni a breach between tbem. 
But when we speak of looking through the eraei t^ a door we have no tbou^t 
of the sound made by a body breaking, altboi^h it is not difficult, on a moment'* 
reflection, to trace the connection between such a sound and the narrow open- 
ing which is our real meaning. It is probable that smack is often used id the 
sense of taste without a thought of the smacking sound of the tongue io the 
enjc^ment of food, which is the origin of the word. 

When an imitative word is used in a secondary sense, it is obviously a mere 
chance bow long, or how generally, the connection with the sound it Was 
originally intended to represent, will continue-to be lelt in daily ^>eech. Sonte- 
times the connecting links are to be found only in a foreign lai^uage, or in 
forms that have become obsolete in our own, wtien the unlettered man can only 
regard the word he is using as an arbitraiy symbol. A gull or a dupe is a pers«i 
easily deceived. The words are used in precisely the same sense, but what is 
the proportion of educated Englishmen who use them with any consciousnesB ai 
the metaphora which give them their meaning ! Most of us probably would be 
inclined to connect the first of the two with gidU, deceit, and comparatively few 
are aware that it is still provincially used in the sense of an unfledged bird. 
When several other iDstances are pointed out in which a young bird b taken as 
the type of helpless simplicity, it leaves no doubt that this is the way in which 
the word gull has acquired its ordinary meauing. Dupe comes to us from the 
French, in which language it signifies also a hoopoe, a bird with which we have 
so little acquaintance at the present day, that we are apt at first to regard the 
double signification as an accidental coincidence. But when we find that the 
names by which the hoopoe is known in Italian, Polish, Breton, as well as in 
French (all radically distinct), are also used in the sense of a simpleton or dope, 
we are sure that there must be something in the habits of the bird, which, at 
a time when it was more familiarly known, made it an appropriate type of the 
character its name in so many instances is used to designate. We should 
hardly have connected uglg with the interjection ugh/ if we had not been 
aware of the obsolete verb ug, to cry ugh ! or feel horror at, and it is only the 
accidental preservation of occasional passages where the verb is written hoitge, 
that gives tu the clue by which kuge and kug are traced to the same source. 

Thus the imitative power of words is gradually obscured by figurative use 
and the loss of intermediate forms, until all suspicion of the original principle of 
tbdr signification has &ded away in the minds of all but the few who have made 
the subject their special study. There is, moreover, no sort of difference either 
in outward appearance, or in mode of use, or in apmess to combine with other 
elements, between words which we are anyhow able to trace to an imitatire 
source, and others of whose significance the grounds are wholly unknown. It 
would be impossible for a pereon who knew nothing of the origin of the -words 
huge and vasi, to guess from the nature of the words which of the two was de- 



rived from the imitation of sound j and when he was informed that kagt had 
been explained on tlus prindple, it would be difficult to avoid the inference that 
a (imilar origin might possibly be found for vast also. Nor can we doubt that a 
wider acquaintance with the fbmu through which our language has past would 
make manifest the imitative origin of numerous words whose signification now 
appeait to be wholly arbitrary. And why should it be assumed that any words 
whatever are beyond the reach of such an explanation ? 

If onomatopoeia is a vera causa as ^ ai it goes; if it affords an adequate 
account of the origin of words signifying things not themselves apprehenuble by 
the ear, it behaves the objectors to the theory to explain what are the limits of 
its reach, to specify the kind of thought for which it is inadequate to find ex- 
presiioa, and the grounds of its shortcomings. And as the difficulty certainly 
does not lie in the capacity of the voice to represent any kind of sound, it can 
only be found in the limited powers of metaphor, that is, in the capacity of one 
thing to put us in mind of another. It will be necessary then to show that 
there are thoughts so essentiall} differing in kind from any of those that have 
been showa to be capable of expression on the principle of imitation, as to escape 
the inference in favonr of the general possibili^ of that mode of expression. 
Hitherto, however, no one has ventured to bring the contest to such an issue. 
The argaoaeuts of objectors have been taken ahnost exclusively from cases where 
the explanations ofiered by the supporters of the theory are either ridiculous on 
the £Ke of them, or are founded in manifest blunder, or are too far-fetched to 
afford satis&ction ; while the positive evidence of the validity of the principle, 
arinng from coses where tt is impossible to resist the evidence of an imitative 
origin, is slurred over, as if the number of such cases was too inconnderable to 
merit attention in a comprehensive tturey of language. 

That the words of inutative origin are ndtfaer inconuderable in number, nor 
restricted in signification to any limited class of ideas, is suffidently shown by 
the examples given in the foregoing pages. We cannot open a dictionary with- 
sut meeting with them, and in any piece of descriptive writing they are found 
it) abundance. 

No doubt the number of words which remtun unexplained on this principla 
would constitute much the larger portion of the dicUonaiy, but this is no mora 
than should be expected by any reasonable believer in the theory. As long as 
the imitative power of a word is felt in speech it will be kept pretfy close to the 
original form. But when the signification is diverted from the object of imita. 
don, and the word is used in a secondary sense, it immediately becomes liable to 
corruption from various causes, and the imitative character is rapidly obscured. 
The imitative force of the inteijections ah! or ack/ and ugk/ mainly depends 
(qton the as^nration, bat when the vocable is no longer used directiy to represent 
the cry of pain or of shuddering, the sound of the aspirate is changed to that of 
8 hard guttural, as in acht (ake) and ugly, and the consciousness of imitation is 
wholly lost. 

In savage life, when the communities are small and ideas few, language is 



liable to rapd change. To this effect we may dte the tetdmonj'of a tboogbdiil 
traveller who had uniKual oppoitimities of otHerratioQ. 'Then are certwD 
peculiaritiea in Indian habits which lead to a quick corrupdon of language and 
■egregatioa of dialects. When Indian* are conrening among themaelvet tbef 
■eem to have pleasure in inventing new modes of pronundadoD and in distott- 
ing words. It is amuuog to notice how the whole party will lau^ wheo the 
wit of the drcle perpetrates a new aUng tenn, and these words are veiy ofoa 
retained. 1 have noticed this during long voyages made with Indian crews, 
When such alterations occur amongst a &mily or horde which often live manjr 
years without communication with the rest of their tribe, the local cormptioD of 
language becomes perpetuated. Single hordes belonging to the same tribe and 
inhabiting the banks of the same river thus become, in the course of many yean' 
isolation, unintelligible to other hordes, as happens with the Collinas on the 
Jurua. I think it very probable, therefore, that the dispoution to invent new 
words and new modes of prononciation, added to the small population and haUti 
of isolation of hordes and tribes, are the causes of the wonderful diversity of lao- 
gnagea in South America.' — Bates, Naturalist on the Amazons, i. 330. 

But even in civilised Ufe, where the habitoal use of writing has so strong a 
tendency to fix the forms of language, words are continually chai^^ng in pro- 
nuncration and in application from one generation to another; and in do very 
long period, compared with the duration of man, the speech of the ancestors be* 
comes uninteUigtble to their descendants. In such cases it is oaiy the art of 
writing that preserves the pedigree of the altered forms. If English, French, and 
Italian were barbarous unwritten languages no one would dream of any re- 
lation between bishop, gviqae, and vescovo, all immediate descendants of the Latis 
tpiscopus. Who, without knowledge of the intermediate diamtu and gUtnto, 
would suspect that such a word at jour could be derived from dies ? or without 
written evidence would have thought of resolving Gnodbye into God be with yo» 
(God b' w' ye), or topsyturvy into topside the other way (top si" t" o'er way) ! 
Suppose that in any of these cases the word bad tteen mimetic in its earlier foriii, 
how vain it would have been to look for any traces of imitation in the laterl If 
we allow the influences which have produced such changes as the above 10 
operate through that vast bpaeof time required to mould out of a common stock 
•ucb languages as English, Welsh, and 'Russian, we shall wonder rather at tbe 
targe than the small number of cases, in which traces of the original imitatiMi 
are still to be made ouL 

Hie letters of the alphabet have a strong analogy with the case of langoagSk 
The letters are signs which lepreseot articulate sounds through the sense of ngbt, 
as words are sign which represent every subject of thought through tbe sense <>i 
hearing. Now the significance of the names by which the letters are known ia 
Hebrew and Greek affords a strong prestunption that they were originally pi^ 
torial imitations of material things, and tbe presumption is converted into mond 
certainty by the acddentai preservation in one or two cases of the original por- 
traiture. The zigzag line which represents the wavy surface of water when used 



at the ijmbol of Aquariiu among tbe ligaa of the zodiac ii foond id Egyptian 
JiieroglTphici with the force of the letter n,* If we cut tbe sjrrabol down to tbe 
three last ilrokei of the zigzag we ihall have the n of the eady Greek io- 
■criptiotu, which doea ixtt materially differ Irom tbe capital N of the present 

But no one from tbe taae form of the letter could have suspected an inten- 
tioD of ispreaenting water. Nor k there one of the letters, the actual fortn of 
which would afford as tbe least assistance in guessing at the object it was meant 
to represent. Why then should it be made a difficulty in admitting the imitat* 
ive origin of the oral ngat, that tbe aim at imitation can be detected in only a 
third or a fiitb, or whatever the proportioQ may be, of the radical elements of 
our speech } Nevertheless, a low estimate of the number of finrni lo traceable 
to an intelligible source often weighs unduly against the acceptance of a rational 
tbeoiy of language. 

Mr Ty]oT faily admits tbe prindple of onomatopceia, bat thinks that the 
evidence adduced does not justify ' tbe setting up of what is called the Inter* 
jectional and Imitative theory as a complete solution of tbe problem of original 
language. Valid as this theoiy proves itself witbin limits, it would be incautious 
to accept a hypothecs which can perhaps account for a twentieth of tbe crude 
fiirms in any language, as a certain and absolute explanation of the nineteen 
twentieths which remain. A k^ must unlock more dooia than this, to be taken 
as tbe master key ' (Prim. Cult. i. 308). Tbe objection does not exactly meet 
tbe position held by prudent supporter* of the theory in question. We do not 
assert that every device by which language has been modified and enlarged 

* The eridcDce for the deriration of the lener N liom the sTmbol repietcnting itater [>■> 
Coptic nnu) cannot be duly (ppreciated unless taken in conjunctioa with the cue of (he 
letter U. Tlie combuutiiMi of the symbol* i uid 3, u shown in the sabjoiiied itlustiation, 
<x:cun very frequently in hieroglyphics with the force of MN. The lower symbol is used for 
M, >nd Ihus in this combination the upper symbol undoubtedly has the force of m, althoa^ it 
i* said to be never used independently for that letter. 

sLy ,UJ ,u/g/»v fi 
9 /ViqV\ U|/| lj12 

^ u 

Now if tbe twoiymfaohbeepitonused byCDtting them down to their eztremity, as ■ Ikm 
brepreunted (Gg. 13) by his head sndfore-l^s, it will le&ve figures 3 and 4, which are iden- 
ticil with the M and N of the early HuEnician and Greek. Figures 5, 6, 7, are forms of 
Phcenidam M from Gesenius ; 8, ancient Greek M ; 9, Greek N from Geteniui ; to and 11 
ftont insctiptioos in the British Museum. 

ei . 



to, for instance, the use of a change of vowel in many languaget to e]q)rett cotn- 
parative nearness or distance of position) has had itt origin id imitation of ■eond. 

Oar doctrine u not exclusive. If new 'modes of phtHietic exprewon, tin- 
known to us as yet,' should be discorered, we shall be only in the position of ttie 
t fathers of modem Geology when the prodigious extent of glacial action in former 
ages began to t>e discovered, and we shall be the fint to recogiiiae the effidency of 
the new machinery. Our limdamental tenet is that tbe same principle which 
enables Man to make known his wants or to convey intelligence by meau c( 
bodily gesture, vould prompt him to the ose of rocal signs £v the same purpoK, 
leading him to utterances, which either by direct resemblance of sonod, or by 
analogies felt in the effort of atterance, might be associated with the notion b> 
be conveyed. The formation of words in this way in all languages ha* been 
universally recognised, and it has been established in a wide range of examj^es, 
differing so greatly in the nature of the signification and in the degree of 
abstraction of the idea, or its remoteness from the direct perceptions of sense, as 
to satisfy us that the principles employed are adequate to the expression of every 
kind of thought. And this is sufficient for the rational theorist of language. If 
man can anyhow have stumbled into speech under the guidance of his ordinary 
inteliigence, it will be absurd to suppose that he was helped over tbe first steps 
of his progress by some supernatural go-cart, in the shape either of direct in- 
spiration, or, what comes to tbe same thing, of an instinct nnknown to us at tho 
present day, but lent for a while to Primitive Man in order to enable him to 
communicate with bis fellows, and then withdrawn wheu its purpose was accom- 

Perhaps afler all it will be found that the principal obstacle to belief in the 
rational ori^n of Language, b an excusable repugnance to think of Man at 
having ever been in so brutish a condition of life as is implied in the want of speech. 
Imagination has always dehghted to place tbe cradle of onr race in a golden age 
of innocent enjoyment, and the more rational views of what tbe course of life 
must have been before the race had acquired the nse of significant speech, or 
had elaborated for themselves the most necessary arts of subsistence, aie felt by 
unreflecting piety as derogatory to the dignity of Man and the character of m 
beneficent Creator. But this is a dangerous line of thought, and the only safe 
rule in speculating on the possible dispensations of Providence (as has been well 
pointed out by Mr Farrar) is the observation of the various conditions in which 
it is actually allotted to Man (witbont any choice of bis own) to carry on bis 
hfe. What is actually allowed to happen to any family of Man cannot be in- 
compatible either with the goodness of God or with His views of the dignity of 
the human race. For God is no respecter of persons or of races. However 
hard or degrading the life of the Fuegian or the Bushman may appear to us, it can 
be no impeachment of the Divine love to suppose that our own progenitors were 
exposed to a similar stru^le. 

We have only the choice of two alternatives. We must dther suppose that' 
Man was created in a civilised state, ready instructed in the arts necessary for 



the coodoct of life, and was permitted to ^I back into the degraded condition 
which we witneti among lavage tribet } or else, that he started from the lowest 
gnde, and rote towardi a higher itate of being, by the accumulated acquisiiions 
in art* and knowledge of generation after generation, and by the advantage 
conitanily given to superior capacity in the struggle for life. Of these alterna- 
tives, that which embodin the notion of continued progiesi a most in accord- 
ance with all our experience of the general course of events, notwithstanding 
the ai^tarent stagnation of particular races, and the barbarism and misery occa- 
uonally caused by violence and warfare. We have witnessed a notable advance 
in the ccHiveniences of life in our own time, and when we look back as far as 
history will reach, we find oar ancestors in the condition of rude barbarians. 
Beyond the readi of any written records we have evidence that the country was 
inhabited by a race of hunters (whether our progenitors or not) who sheltered 
in craves, and carried on their warfiu« with the wild beasts with the rudest wea- 
pons of chipped flint. Whether the owners of these earliest relics of the human 
race were speaking men or not, who shall say? It is certain only that Language 
U not the iimate inheritance of our race ; that it must have hegap to be acquired 
1)y tome definite generation in the pedigree of Man; and as many intelligent and 
highly social kinds of animals, as elephants, for instance, or beavers, live in har- 
ntony whhout the aid of this great convenience of social life, there is no ap- 
parent reason why our own race should not have led their life on earth for an iu- 
detioite period before they acquired the use of speech; whether before that epoch 
the progenitors of the race ought to be called by the name of Man, or not. 

Geologists however universally look back to a period when the earth was peo- 
pled only by animal races, without a trace of human existence ; and the mere 
absence of Man among an animal population of the world is felt by no one at 
repugnant to a thoroi^ belief in .the providential rule of the Creator. Why 
then should such a feeling be roused by the complementary theory which bridges 
over the interval to the appearance of Man, and supposes that one of the races of 
the purely «"■""■! period was gradually raised in the scale of intelligence, by the 
laws of variation affecting all procreative kinds of being, until the progeny, in 
the coune of generations, attained to so enlarged an uudeistanding as to become 
capable ol appreciating each other's motives ; of being moved to admiraiiun and 
love by the exhibition of loving courage, or to indignation and bale by malignant 
conduct ; of findii^ enjoyment or pain in the applause or reprobation of their 
1ellows,oroftheirown reflected thoughts; and sooner or later, of using imiiaiive 
iigus for the purpose of bringing absent things to the thoughts of another mind ? 

,.,.d.:, Google 



JEUi. Gr. 


EUnc's Grammar at the 


Florin, Italian-Eng. diet 

end of Sonuiet's Diet. 


Faery Queen. 


Bailey's EngL Diet., i;37. 








BiKlotton sen Diet. 
Teutonico-Lat. 1654. 






Bohemian or Cieeh. 



Brem. Wtb,, 


siehes Warterbuch. 




Romansch, Rhaeto-R» 


Bas-Breton or Celtie o( 

manee, or language of 




Caipentier, Supplementto 
Ducange, 1766L 


Halliwell'» Diet of Ar- 

chaic and Provincial 


ComiDi^, Diet, de la 

words, 1852. 

langue Romano -Cas- 


Idioticon or Vocabulary 

tiaise, iSso. 

of a dialect 






Cunbrisch, dialect of the 


tish Language^ 
Kihan, Diet Tegtonico- 


Cotgrave, Fr.-Eng. Diet 


Da. or Dan. 




Provincial dialect. 


Kuttner^ Germ.-Eng. 


Diefenbach, Ve^leichen- 

Diet., 1805. 

des Wtfrterbuch der 


Diet Languedocieo- 

.Gothischen Sptache, 

to Ducange, 1857. 

Franj. par Mr I_ & D., 
Lapponic or language of 

Dirf. Sup. 







Ducange, Glossarium Me- 



diic et InfimK Latini- 


Beronie, Diet du patois 


du Bas-Limousin (Cor- 


Douglas' ViigiL 








Hungarian or Magyar. 
Middle High German. 




Latin of the Middle Ages. 


Roquefort, Gloss, de la 


Norwegian or Norse. 

Langue Romaine. 




Patois of the Hainault. 


Old High German. 

H^cart, Diet Rouchi- 


Old Norse, Icelandic. 



Palsgrave, rEscIaircisse- 


Chaucer's banslation of 

ment <k la langue Fran- 

the Roman de la Rose 





Diet do patois du Pays 


Lowland Scotch. 

dc Brai, iSja. 


Schmcller, Baycrisches 




Piatt Deotsch, Low Ger- 



man dialects. 








Piers Plowman. 





Swiss Rom. 

Swiss Romance, the Fr, 


patois of Switterland. 









Richaidson's Eng. Diet 


Walachian or Daco-Ro- 


RaynouardjDict Proven- 


sal, 1836. 



,.,.d.:, Google 

,.,.d.:, Google 



A, as a preUx to nouns, is commonly 
the remnant of the as. on, in, on, among, 
as ^lack, AS. on-bfec ; aviay, AS. on- 
waeg ; alike, AS. on-llc. 

In the obsolete adown it represents the 
hS.of,tii or from ; AS. of-ditne, literally, 
from a height, downwards. 

As a prefix to verbs it corresponds to 

. the Goth, us, out of ; OHG. »r, ar, er, ir; 

C. er, implying a completion of the 

Thus g: erwachen, to awake, is to wake 
tip from a state of sleep ; to abide, is to 
wait until the event looked for takes 

Elace ; to arise, to get up from a recum- 
ent posture. 

Ab-, Ab«-, A- In Lat. compounds, 
away, away from, off. To abuse is to use 
in a manner other than it should be ; ai- 
Ivtion, a washing off; to abstain, Co hold 
away from. Lat a, ab, abs, from. 

Abaft. AS. aJloM, be-aftan, bajlan, 
after, behind. Hence on-baftan, abaft. 
The word seems very early to have ac- 
quired the nautical use in which alone 
It the present day. 

Abandon. Immediately from Fr. 
aiandonner, and that from the noun 
bandon ^also adopted in English, but now 
obsolete}, command, orders, dominion. 
The word Ban is common to all the lan- 
guages of the Teutonic stock in the 
sense of proclamation, announcement. 

remaining with us in the restricted ap> 
plication to Banns of Marriage. Passii^ 
mto the Romance tongues, this word be- 
came bando in Italian and Spanish, an 
edict or proclamation, bandon m French, 
in the same sense, and secondarily in 
that of command, orders, dominion, 

Than Wallace said, Thou sp«iis of mychty 

Fra worthi Bruce had rcsavtt his crown. 
I ihoucht have maid Inglaod at kis biaidmm. 
So wttrely it suld btfn at his viill. 
What plcsyl him, to saufT ihe Idai; or spIlL 


Hence to etitiandon or abandon is to 
bring under the absolute command or 
entire control of any one, to subdue, rule, 
have entire dominion over. 
And he that Ihryll (thiall) is is DOchI Us, 
All that he has tmiandmoiiyl is 
Unto his Lord, whatever he be. — Bruce, 1. 044. 

He that dredelh God wol do diligence to plese 
God by his werkes and abandsn himself with all 
his might well for to do.— Parson's Tale. 

Thus we see that the elliptical expres- 
sion of ' an abandoned character,' to 
which the accident of language has at- 
tached Che notion of one enslaved to vice, 
might in itself with equal propriety have 
been used to signify devotion to good. 

Again, as that which is placed at the 
absolute command of one party must by ■ 
the same act be entirely given up by the 
original possessor, it was an easy step 
from the sense of conferring the com- 
mand of a thing upon some patticulai 


person, to that of renouncing ail claim to 
authority over the subject matter, without 
particular reference to the party into 
whose hands it might come ; and thus in 
modem times the word has ceme to be . 
used almost exclusively in the sense of' 
rcDunciation or desertion. 'Dedicio — 
abaundunement^ the ■ surrender of a 
castle. — Neccham. i 

The adverbial expressions at abandon, 
bandonly, lAandomy, so common in the 
'Bruce "^ and J WaHaee' like the OFr. <* 

n will and pleasure, 
impulse, uncontrolled! y, impetuously, de- 
terminedly. ' Ainsi s'avancferejit de 
grand vohnti tous chevaliers et ecuyers 
et prirent terre.' — Froiss. voL iv. c. ii8. 

To Abuh. Originally, to put to con- 
fusion froin any strong emotion, whether 
of fear, of wonder, shame, or admiration, 
but restricted in modem times to the 
effect of shame. Abash is an adoption 
of the Fr. esbahir, as sounded in the 
greater number of the inflections, isba- 
hiisons, esbahissais, isbahissant. In or- 
der to convert the word thus inflected 
into English it was natural to curtail 
merely the terminations ons, aii, ant, by 
which the inflections differed from each 
other, and the verb was written in Eng- 
lish Co abaisse or abaisk, as raviik, polish, 
furnish, from ravir,polir,foumir. 

Many English veibs of a similar deriv- 
ation were formerly written indifferently 
with or without a final sh, where custom 
has rendered one or other of the two 
modes of spelling obsolete, Thus obey 
was written obasu or obeyshej betray, 

Speaking of Narcissus stooping 
drink, Chaucer writes : 
In the uraler 


And be Ibereof was all abashid. 
His oirae jfaadow had him bttratiti; 
For well he wened (he fotme lo see 
Ofa,d]ildeof filUgrete twauti,— R. R. 15M. 
In the original— 

Et U malntenant s'ihaMf 

Cu- son umbre si ie trahU 

On the Other hand, bumy was formerly 
use as well as burnish ; aiay or abaw 
well as abaisse or abaisk ; 
I saw (he rose when I was nigh. 
It was (hereon a goodly slghl — 
For snch another as I gesse 
Afome ne was. ne more vemieiDe. 
1 was aiaiBid for nwrveille. — K. R. 3645. 

In the original — 

Moult m'a6ahii de la merveitle. 
Yield you madame en hichl can Schir Lust say. 
A woid scho could not ipeik scho was so aiaid. 
K. HaninJamieson- 
Custom, which has rendered obsolete 
betrash and obtish, has exercised her 
authority in like manner over abay or 
abaw, bumy, astony. 

The origin of esbahir itself is to be 
found in the OFr. baer, bier, to gape, 
an onomatspoeia ^m the sound Ba, 
most naturally utteied in the opening of 
the lips. Hence Lat. Babce! Mod. 
Prov. Bah 1 the interjection of wonder ; 
and the verb esbahir, in the active form, 
to set agape, confound, astonish, to strike 
with feelmgs the natural tendency of 
which is to manifest itself by an involun- 
taiY opening of the mouth. Castrais,^ 
baba, to excite admiration. — Cousini^ . 
Zulu baboBa, to astonish, to strike with 
wonder or surprise. 

In Ulmself was all his stale 
More solemn than (he (edious pomp whidi vniU 
On prince*, when their rich retinue long 
or horses lied, and grooms besmeared wi(h cold, 
Daolei Ibe crowd, and itti Hem allataf. 


Wall bawi, to look at with open mouth ; 
esbawi, to abaw or astonish. — Grand^ 
See Abide. 

To Abate. Fr. abbattre, to beat 
down, to ruin, overthrow, cast to the 
ground, Cotgr. Wall, abate, faire tombcr, 
(Grandg.) ; It abbatere, to overthrow, to 
pull down, to make lower, depress, 
weaken, to diminish the force of^ any- 
thing ; abbatere le ■vela, to strike sail ; 
abbattre dal preMxo, to bate something 
of the price ; abbatersi, to light upon, to 
hit,, to nappen, to meet with ; abbatersi 
in una terra, to take possession of aa 
estate. Hence the OE. law term i^ate- 
ment, which is the act of one who in- 
trudes into the possession of lands void 
by the death of the former possessor, 
and not yet taken up by the lawful heir ; 
and the party who thus pounces upait 
the inhentance is called an abator. Sec 
Beat, Bate. 

Abbot, Abb«7, Abbasi. More cor- 
rectly written (Mat, from Lat. abbas, 
abbatis, and that from Syrian abba, 
father. The word was occasionally writ- 
ten abba in Latin, It was a title of r«* 
spect formerly given to monks in ^neral, 
and it must have been during Ibe time 
that it bad this exteikded signiAcation 
that it gave rise to the IM, abbatia, an 
abbey, or society of abbots or iitonks. 


Epiphanius, speaking of the Holy places, 

says, iv» it If ain) affiiic x^loiit loi x*^" 
ciXXui, It contains a. thousand monks and 
a thousand cells. — Ducange. In process 
of time we meet with protestations from 
St Jerome and others against the arro- 
gance of assuming the title of Father, 
ajid either from feelings of sueh a nature, 
or passibly from the analogy between a 
community of monks and a private 
fejnily, the name of Abbot or Father was 
ultimately confined to the head of the 
house, wtiile the monks under bis control 
were called Brothers. 

Abele. The white poplar. PoL Sial^ 
drteiu, Uterally white tree, from bialo, 

• To Abet. OFr. abetter, to de- 
ceive, also to incite ; inciter, animer, 
exciter. — Roquef. Prov.afe/, deceit, trick j 
aietar, to deceive, beguile. 

Lai ne peul-il mie guiler, 

Ni engigner oi iMler.—FtibV II. 366. 

Both senses of the word may be ex- 
plained from Norm, abet, Gaerasey bette, 
a bait for fish ; b^ter. Norm, oMter, to 
bait the hook. — H&icher, Gloss. Norm. 
From the sense of baiting springs that 
of alluring, tempting, inciting, on the one 
hand, and alluring to his own destruc- 
tion, deceiving, beguiling on the other. 
See Bait 

Abeyaiice. OFr. abiiance; droit en 
ohHance, a right in suspense ; ab^oMce, 
expectation, desire. — Gloss, de Qiamp. 
From aiahier, abaier, abayer, to be in- 
tent upon, to desire earnestly, to expect, 
wait, watch, listen. See Abide. 

To Abide, Abie. Goth. Kidan, us- 
beidan, to expect ; gabeidan, to endure ; 
Ulbeism, expectation ; usbeisnei, endur- 
ance, forbearance, as. bidan, abidan, to 
expect, wait, bide ; on. bida, to wait, 
endure, suffer ; b. bona, to suffer death ; 
Dan. bie, Du. beijdett, beijen, verbeijen 
(Bosworth), to wait We have seen 
under Abash that the involuntary open- 
ing of the mouth under the influence of 
astonishment was represented by the 

Sdlable ba, from whence in the Romance 
ialects are formed two series of verbs, 
one with and one without the addition of 
a terminal d to the radical syllable. 
Thus we have It badare, badigliare, to 
gape, to yawn. Cat and Prov. badar, to 
open the mouth, to open j bader, ouvrir 
(Vocab. de Berri) ; P^v. gola budada. 
It bocm badata, with open mouth ; Cat 
badia, a, bay or opening in the coast 
Without the tomioal d we have batr, 

baUr, bier, with the frequentative bailler, 
to open the mouth, to gape ; gueule bit, 
bouche biante, as gola badada^ bocca ba- 
data above mentioned. 

Both forms of the verb are then figur- 
atively applied to signify affections cha- 
racterited by involuntary opening of the 
mouth, intent observation, or absorption 
in an object, watching, listening, expect- 
ation, waiting, endurance, delay, suffer- 
ing. It badare, to attend to, to mind, to 
t^e notice, take care, to desire, covet, 
aspire to, to stay, to tarry, to abide ; 
abbadan, to stay, to attend on ; bada, 
AfHa-J, lingering, tarrying ; Unere a bada, 
to keep in suspei^ Corre^onding 
forms with the d ellaced are OFr, baer, 
baier, bier, to be intent upon, attendre 
avec empressement, aspirer, rn^arder, 
songer, desirer (Roquef.) ; abayer, ?couter 
avec ^tonnement, bouche bfante, inhiare 

I saw a smith sland with his hi _ 

The whilst his ircm did od (be anvil cool. 
With opcD mouth swallowing a tailor's oews- 
K. John. 

Here we have a good illustration of the 
connection between the figure of opening 
the mouth and the ideas ^ rapt attention, 
waiting, suspense, delay. The verb at- 
tend, which in E, signifies the direction of 
the mind to an object, in Fr. attendre 
signifies to suspend action, to wait. In 
other cases the notion of passive waiting 
is expressed by the figure of looking or 
watcliing. Thus G.icar&K, to wait, is iden- 
tical with It ^(irdarf, to look,andE. ivaii 
was formerly used in the sense of look. 
The passage which in our translation is 
' Art thou he that should come, or do we 
look for another,' is in AS. 'we sceolon 
othres abidan.' The ef&cement of the d 
in Du. beijen, in Daa bie compared with 
Sw. bida, and in E. abie, compared with 
abide. Is precisely analogous to that in 
Fr. bdir, baier compared with it badare, 
abadare, or in Fr. crier compared with 

Cents (qQoth she) that i% that these wicked 
shrewES be more bll^ful that aiitn the lormenli 
thai they have deserred than ir no pain of Justioa 

great amaie. ne wist what way to chose, 
But Jove all (eareless forced them (0 aiy.—T. Q. 

It is hardly possible to doubt the iden- 
tity of E. aiie, to remain or endure, with 
the verb of abeyance, expectation or sus* 
pense, which is certainly related to It 



badare, as E. abU to Goth, beidan, AS. 
bidatt. Thus the derivation of badare 
above explained is brought home to E. 
bide, abide, obit. 

Abi«, 3. Fundamentally distinct from 
abie in the sense above explained, al- 
though sometimes confounded with it, is 
the verb abie, properly abuy, and spelt 
indifferently in the older authors abegge, 
abeye, abigg, abid^, from AS. abicgan, 
abycgan, to redeem, to pay the purchase- 
money, to pay the penalty, suffer the 
consequences of anything ; and the sim- 
ple buy, or bie, was often used in the 
same sense. 

Sithe Richesse halli me feiled here. 

She shall aiii Ihat trespass dere.— R. R. 

Algste this selie maidc is sUine alss ! 

Alas I to dere ahoughl she her beaule. 

Doclor's Tale. 

As I am a doughti mai. 
His death Itiou Hit (buyest) tonight. 

For whoso hardy hand od her dolh lay 
It deidy sball aiU, uid dtathfir handaltay. 
Spenser, F. Q. 
And when he food he was yhurt. tlK Pardoner 

be gaa to Ihrete. 
And swore l>y S( Amyas that he should oMg^ 
With strokes hard and sore even upon the ngg. 

ProL Merch. and Tale. 
Ac for the tevnge that thou Lucirer lowe dl Eve 
Tfaou shall layggi bitter quoth God, and bond 
hiro with cheynes. — P. P. 
To buy it dear, seems to have been 
used as a sort of proverbial expression 
for sufTering loss, without special refer- 
ence to the notion of retribution. 
The thingis fellin ss (hey done of wcrre 
BetwixliD hem of Trole and Giekis ofle. 
For some day itnigliiiii ihey of Trait it dtrt 
And efle the Grelus foundin nothing softe 
The foike of Troie. Tt, ajid Cr, 

It will be seen from the foregoing ex- 
amples how naturally the sense of buying 
or paying the purchase-money of a thing 
passes into that of simply suffering, in 
which the word is used in the following 

O God. forbid for mother'a (ault 
The children should aiyt. — Boucher. 
I{ be come into the hands t^ Ibe Holy Inqnis- 
tkm. be must abyt for it. — Boucher. 
i e. must suffer for it 

The connection between the ideas of 
remaining or continuance in time and 
continuance under suffering or pain is 
apparent from the use of the word en- 
durance in both applications. In this 
way both abide and its degraded fonn 
abie come to signify suffer. 


Thus abie for abuy and abie from 
Mde are in certain cases confounded 
together, and the confusion sometimes 
extends to the use of abidi in the sense 
of abuying or paying the penalty. 

If it Iw found so some will dear aiiiU It. 

Jul. Caesar. 

How dearly I aUde that boast so vain. 

Milton, P. L. 

Disparage not the &](h (hou dost not know, 

Lest to thy peril thou aiidt It dear. 

Mids. N. Dr. 
" Able. Lat habilis (from kabeo, to 
have ; Have-like, at hand), convenient, 
fit, adapted ; Fr. kabUe, able, strong, 
powerful, expert, sufficient, fit for any- 
thing he undertakes or is put unto. — 
Cotgr. It abile; Prov. abilk. 

It will be remarked on looking at a 
series of Quotations that in the earlier 
instances ttie sense of the Lat kabilis is 
closely preserved, while in later examples 
the meaning is confined to the case of 
fitness by possession of sufficient active 

God tokenelh and assignelh the times, ailiag 
bem to her proper ofiices. — Chaucer, Boeth. 

In the original, 

Signal tempora proprtis 
Aptans officiis Deus. 
That it God willing to schewe his wrathe. and 
lo make his power knowne, hath suSerid in 

Ee padence vessels of wrathe abk unto death, 
-Wickliffin Ricbaidson- 
To enable a pierson to do a thing or to 
disable him, is to render him fit or unfit 
for doing it 
Divers persona in the House of Commons 

liaHlitali to serve in Parliament, being diiailtd 
Id the highest degree.— Bacon in R. 

The Fr. kabiller is to qualify for any 
purpose, as kabiller du chanvre, de la 
volaille, to dress hemp, to draw fowls, to 
render them fit for use ; whence habili~ 
menls are whatever is required to qualify 
for any special purpose, as habiliments 
of war ; and the most general of all 
qualifications for occupation of any kind 
being simply clothing, the Fr. habilU- 
ment has become appropriated to that 
special slgnificatioa 

Aboard. For on board, within the 
walls of a ship. ON. bord, a board, the 
side of a ship. Innan bords, within the 
ship, on hoard ; at kasta fyri bord, to 
throw overboard. 

Abolisli. Fr. abolir, from Lat aboleo, 
to erase or annuL The neuter form 
aboleuo, to wear away, to grow out of 
use, to perish, when con^iared with 


adoUsM, to grow up, coaUseo, to grow 
together, shows that the force of the 
radical syllable ol, al is growth, vital 
progress. PL D. af-oltn, af-oolden, to 
become worthless through age. De maun 
oUl gang a/, the man dwindles away. 
The primitive idea seems that of beget- 
ting or giving birth to, kindling. OSw. 
ala, to beget or give birth to children, 
and also, as AS. etian, to light a fire ; the 
analogy between life and the progress of 
ignition being one of constant occur- 
rence. So in LaL aUre capUlos, to let 
the hair grow, and altre fiammam, to 
feed the flame. In English we spealc of 
the vital spark, and the verb to kindU is 
used both in the sense of lighting a fire, 
and of giving bitth to a litter of young. 
The application of the root to the notion 
of fire is exemplified in Lat adoleri, 
adoUscere, to bum up {adoUscunt ignibus 
arse. Virg.) ; while the sense of beget- 
ting, giving birth to, explains soboUs 
(for sub-ol-es), prc^eny, and in-d-oUs, 
that which is bom in a man, natural 
disposition. Then, as the duty of nour- 
ishing and supporting is inseparably con- 
neaed with the procreation of offspring, 
the OSw. ala is made to signify to rear, 
to bring up, to feed, to fotten, showing 
that the Latin alire, to nourish, is a 
shoot from the same root In the same 
way Sv.foda signifies to beget, and also 
to rear, to bring up, to feed, to main- 
tain. GacL ilaich, to produce, bring 
forth, nourish, nurse ; il, brood, or young 
of any kind ; oil, Goth, alan, ol, to rear, 
educate, nuise. The root el, signifying 
life, is extant in all the languages of the 
Finnish stock. 

Abominable. — Abominato. 
abominor (from ab and omtn, a portent), 
to deprecate the omen, to recognize a 
disastrous portent in some passing oc- 
currence, and to do something to avert 
tbe threatened cviL Q""^ oBominor, 
which may God avert. Thence to regard 
with feelings of detestation and aUior- 

be-utoM, bHian,ymbutaH, onbulan,ahutan 
about ; literally, around 

Sometimes the two parts' of the word 
are divided by the subject to which it 
relates, or the particle be is separated 
from the preposition and joined to t> 
preceding verb. 

Ymi hancred ulam, nbout cockcrow. 
TbODne 9eo SBf D« 

for lifflh butan, it compasseth the whole 
land of Ethiopia. 

AboTB. AS. u/an, be-ufan, bu/an, 
aiu/an, DiL boven, OE. abo-ajtn, Sc. 
aboon, above, on high. In Barbour's 
Bruce we find both aiowyne and ahoiu, 
as -withoutyn and ■without. 

Abroid. — Abray. To abray or abraid, 

>w obsolete, is common in our older 
writers in the sense of starting out of 
sleep, awaking, breaking out in language. 
AS. (Utragdan, abredan, to awake, snatch 
away, draw out The radical idea is to 
anything with a quick and sudden 
motion, to start, to snatch, to tiun, to 
break out ' See To Bray, 

To Abridge,— Abbreviate, to short- 

1, or cut short Of these synonymous 
terms the former, from Fr. abriger, seems . 
the older forrp, the identity of which with 
Lat abbreviare not being at once ap- 
parent, ■z^^n'iiii^ was subsequently form- 
ed direct from the latter langui^e. 

Abrinr itself, notwithstanding the 
plausible quotation from Chaucer given 
below, is not from G. abbrechen, AS. 
abracan, but from Lat abbreviare, by the 
change of the v and i into u and j respect- 
ively. The Provencal has breu for 
brevis ; breugetat for brevitas ; abbreujar, 
to abridge, leading immediately to Fr. 
abrigerj and other cases may be pointed 
out of similar change in passing from Lat 
to the Romance languages. Lat. levis 
becomes leu in Prov., whUe the verb alle- 
viare is preserved in the double form of 
altrviar and allettjar, whence the Fr. 
alliger, which passed into English under 
the form n/Z^^^f, common in Chaucer and 
his contemporaries, so tliat here also we 
had the double fomi allegge and alleviate, 
precisely corresponding to abridge and 
abbreviate. In like manner from Lat 
gravis, Prov. greu, heavy, hard, severe ; 
greugeiai, gravity, agreujar, Fr. aggri- 
ger, OE. agre^e, to a^iavate. ' Things 
that greauy agredge dieir sin.'— Parson's 

No doubt if we had not so complete a 
pedigree from brevis, the idea of breaking 
off would suggest a very plausible deriva- 
tion from G. abbrechen, to break off; 
kurx abbrechen, to cut short — Kiitiner. 
' And when this olde man wende to en- 
force his tale by resons, all at once be- 
gonne thei to rise for to brekett his tale 
and bidden him full ofke his words for to 
abregge.' — Chaucer, Melibaeus. 

Atttoaoh. For on broach, from Fr. 

,.,.d.:, Google 


brocher, to pierce. To set a tun broach 
is to pierce it, and so to place it in con- 
dition to draw off the contents. 

Right as wbo set a tonne airttht 

He pemd the bard roche. 

Goweria Rlchaidson. 
Wall, abroki, tnettre in perce. — Giandg. 
See Broach. 

Abroad. On broad, spread over the 
surface, far and wide, and hence arbitia.- 
rily applied in the expression of going 
abroad to going beyond the limits ofone^ 
own country. 
But i[ {the rose) ne was so spiede on trtdt. 
That mcD wllhio might know the sede,— R. R. 

AbHeaa. Lat. absctisus, Fr. abscet, 
a course of ill humours ruimiiig out of 
their veins and natural places into the 
empty spaces between the muscles.— 
Cotgr. From abscedere, to retire, with- 
draw, draw to a head. See -cess. 

To Abaoond. To withdraw for the 

Eurpose of concealment; Va\. aitcOHdo,\o 
ide awayi condo, to put by. 

To Abaorb. Lat. ab wA lorieo, to 
Buck up. See Sherbet. 

To Abatain.— Abatembraa. Latod- 
tiifuo, to hold back from an object of de- 
sire, whence abstemious, having a habit 
of abstaining; from. ViniabsUmiMj,Phay, 
abstaining from wine. So Fr. tianter, to 
tin, from itain. 

Abaord, Not agreeable to reason 
or common sense. Lat. absurdut. The 
figure of deafness is frequently used to 
express the failure of something to serve 
the pu^ose expected from things of its 
kind. Thus on. dau/r, deaf; daufr litr, 
a duU colour ; a dtaf nui, one wiQiout a 
kernel ; Fr. lantertu sovrdt, a dark lan- 
tern. So Lat. surdus, deaf ; sitrdus locus, 
i. place ill adapted for hearing; surda 
voia, unheard prayers. Absurditin, what 
is not agreeable to the ears, and fig. to 
the understanding. 
Est hoc auiibus, anun 


To Abut. Fr. bout, end : aboutir, to 
meet end to end, to abut. But bout itself 
is from OFr. ioter, botttf, bouiir, to 
strike, corresponding to e. butt, to strike 
with the head, as a goat or ram. It js 
clear that the full force of the metaphor 
is felt by Shakespeare when he speaks of 
France and Enguind as 

twttmlf^ty mooardiks, 
Whooe high opreaied and aialtimg frenti 
The nanow perilout ocean parts asunder. 
Abuttals or boundaries are translated 
capita in mid. Lat., and abut, capilare. 

In the same way the C. stStsen, la 
thnist, butt, push with the horns, &c^ is 
also applied to the abutting of landsL 
Ikre lander stossen an einander, their 
lands abut on each other. So in Swedish 
sibta, to strike, to thrust, to butt as % 
goat ; sfota tiisoMmans, to meet together, 

Abyaa. Gr. Jlfivmnt, unfathomable^ 
from d and ffvaths or ^ii^, depth. 

Academy. Gr. itaOi^a, a garden 
in the suburbs of Athens where Plats 

Aoc«d«. — AccMa. — Aoeeaaory. T.a^ 
aecidere, aeeessum, to go or come to, to 
arrive at, approach. To support, to be of 
the party or side of any one, to assent to, 
to approve of. Hence acctssery, an aider 
or abetter in a crime. See Ceide. 

Fr. accis from accessus, a fit or sadden 
attack of a disorder, became in OE. axtsst-, 
pi. axes, still preserved in the praviocial 
-xts, the i^ue. — HalliwdL 

A chairn— 

The whtdi cui belln (bee of tkins tumtt. 

Tio. and Creas. a, 131^ 
Aocent. Lat. accentus, modulation of 
le voice, difference in tone, fr'om accina, 
accentum, to sing to an instrument, to ac- 
cord. See Chant. 

Aooomplica. Fr. comfilice, Lat com- 
plex, bound up with, united with one in 
a project, but always in a bad sense. 

Accompliah. Fr. accomplir, Lat com- 
pUre, to fill up, fulfil, complete. 

Accord. Fr. accorder, to agree. Fbrm- 
1 in analogy to the Lat. coneordarr, dis~ 
cordari, from concurs, discors, and con- 
sequently fi^ro cor, the heart, and not 
chorda, the string of a musical instrument 
"' The Swiss Romance has ct>r- 
dcre, cordre, synonymous with G. gonneit, 
to consent heartily with ■mh.a.i rails to 
another; Wall, keure, voir de bon gr< 
dvSnement arrive a quelqu^n, 
quHine chose ait Ueu ; meskeure, missgon- 
;n. — Grandg. 

To Aecoat. Lat. casta, a rib, a side; 
Ft. roste, a rib, cost^, now cSt^, a side; 
eojfr-rf-ciJi/V, side by side. Utact accosler, 
to join side to side, approach, and thence 
-3 greet. 

Accontre. From the Ft. acecufrer; 
formerly accoustrer, to equip with the 
habiliments of SMne special office or 00 
cupation,— an act of which in Catholic 
the fi^uent change of vest- 
appointed periods of the church 
oufd afford a striking and fiuni* 
liar example. 
Mow the person wbo had charge of the 


vesments ia a CathoKc church, was the 
sacristan ; in Lat. eustot sacrarii or ec- 
eUsia (barbarously rendered custrix, 
when the office was fifled by woman), in 
OFr. cousteur or coustre, coittrt; Ger. 
kUtttr, the sacristan, or vestry-keeper.— 

Ad ciulodem sacrarii pertlnEt eura vd euslo- 
dlum templi — vela valagitt latra, ac vaia laciD- 
nun. — Si Isidore in Docsnge. 

The original meaning of accoutrer 
-would thus be to perform the office of 
sacristan to a priest, to invest him with 
the hatnliments of his office ; afterwards 
to invest with the proper habiliments <rf 
■ny other occupation. 

Aoonw. Fr. acervUre, accru', from 
Lat cretcere, to grow. Thence accriie, 
growth, increase, Cotgr,, and E, acern 
to be in the condition (rf a growth, to I 
added to something as w^t naturally 
grows out of it. 

Aoe. Fr. <u, It. asso, the face marked 
with the number one on cuds or dice, 
from Lat Of, assis, which signifies a single 
one. — Diez. 

Aduomatio. Producing an image 
free from iridescent colours. Gr. it, priva- 
tive, and x^fi colour. 

Aobe. A bodily pain, from Aek t the 
natural expression of pain. So from o. 
ach / alas ! the term is applied to woe, 
pief. Mein ach ist deitu freude, my woe 
19 your joy, — Kiittn. Achtn, to utter 
cries of grief, The Gr. ox^, pain, grief, 
is formed on the same principle. 

To Aehiwe. Prov. cap, Fr, ckrf, head, 
Mid thence the end of everything; de 
(hit/ en chief, from end to end ; venir i 
chef, to gain one's end, to accomplish ; 
Prov. acabar, Fr. ackever, to bring to a 
kead, to accomplish, achieve. 

Aci<L— Acrid.— AoorbitT. Lat. aceo, 
to be sharp or sour; luor, sourness; 
acidia, sour, tart; acetum, vinegar, sour 
wine. From the same root acer, acrit, 
sharp, biting, eager; acredo, acrimonia, 
sharpness; aeerbus, sharp, bitter, sour 
Tike an unripe fruit. See Acute. 

Acms. Gr. dicfiq, a point : the highest 
degree of any quality. See Acute. 

Aeolyto. Gr. i€i\mi6at, aa attendant, 
AaoXoriKa^ to follow, attend. 

AoOTB. AS. ttcem, aceren, accem; 
ON. akam; Dan. agemj Du. aker; G. 
ecker, eickel; Goth, akran, fruit. The 
last of the as. spellings shows us an early 
accommodation to the notion of oai-cam, 
a derivation hardly compatible with the 
Other Teutonic and Scandinavian forms, 
or with tlie more gener^ signification of 

Glftndis appcDadoiie omais fnictus oxilinetiir. 
Grimm is himself inclined to en>laiB 
akran, flmit, as the produce of the akr, or 
corn-field, but a more sati^actory deriva- 
tion may probably be found in Ohc;. 
■aniocker, increase, whence G. wucher, ON. 
okr, interest, usury, from the same root 
with Lat. augere, Goth, aukan, to in- 
crease; erde-wficher, the increase of the 
field, fruits of the earth.— Notker. The 
ON. okran,/aneraiio, is formally identical 
with Goth, airan. 

Acoustio. Gr. ^ovvtkog, connected 
with hearing; irani, to hear. 

To Acquaint. OFr. accointer, Prov. 
accoindar, to make known ; OFr. caint, 
informed of a thing, having it known, 
itaxA Lat. cognitus, according to Diez ; 
but this seems one of the cases in which 
it must be doubtful whether the Romance 
word comes from a Lat original, or from 
a corresponding Teutonic root. The G. 
has kutCi (from kennen, to know), known, 
manifest ; kund madun, to make known, 
in precisely the same sense with the Prov. 
coindar, the d of which seems better to 
^ree with the g. word than with the Lat 
cogtiituss G. kttndig, having knowledge 
ofa thing. 

To Acquit. From Lat. quietus, at 
rest, was formed Fr. ^itie, whence ac- 
^uitter, to set at rest with respect to some 
impending dailn or accusation. See 
Quit, Quite. 

Aet». Gr. sypJc;' Lat. agerj Goth. 
ftA-j, cultivated land, corn-land. G. acker, 
a field of cultivated land ; thence a mea- 
sure of land, so much as may be ploughed 

Aoroatio. — A poem in which the first 
letters of the verses compose one or more 
words, friMn Gr. &tpor, tip, crrixoc, a vvrse. 
Act. — Active .—Actor. See Agent 
Acute, The syllable a£ is the founda- 
)n of many words connected with the 
idea of sharpness both in Lat, and Gr., 
3 bad), LaL acies, a point or edge, Imit, 
Hot, a pointed instrument, a sting; Lat^ 
aeui, a needle, {u-operly a prick, as shown 
by the dim. acuUus, a prickle or sting; 
aeuo, to give a point or ec^ to, to ^larp- 
en ; aeutus, sharpened, sharp. Words 
from the same source signilying sharp- 
ness of a figurative kind are seen under 

Ad-, in composition. Lat ad, to. In 
combinati(»i with words beginning with 



to the following consonant, as in «^ 

for adfero, apparo for adparo, &c. 

Ad&gfl. LaL adagium, a proverb. 

To Adav. Two words of distinct 
meaning and origin are here confounded 

1 St, from AS. dagian, dagian, to become 
day, to dawn, OE. to daiv, to dawrtjadam, 
or adavin, to wake out of sleep or out of 
a swoon. ' I adawe or adaivne as the day 
doth in the morning when the sonne 
draweth towards his rising.' ' 1 adawe 
one out of a swounde,' ' to daive from 
swouning, — to dawne or get life in one 
that is fallen in a swoune.'^Palsgrave ' 

A mui that wakelh oT his slepe 

He may not sodenly wel laken kepe 

Upon B thiug. ne s«en it pariitly 

Tu thai he be adawtd veraily.— Chaucer. 

So Da. diaL morgne sig, to rouse one- 
self Arom sleep, from morgen, morning. 

ind, to reduce to silence, to still or 

subdue, from Goth, thahan, mhg. dagen, 

gedagen, to be silent, still ; ON. tkagga, to 

silence, lull, hush. 

As (he bright sun what time hb Aery train 

Towards ihe western brim begins to draw, 

Gins (o abate the brighmess of his beame 

And fervour of his flames somewhnt adxive. 

F, Q, V. ch. 9. 
So spake the bold brere wiih great disdain, 
Lilde hint nnswered the oak again, 
But yielded with shame and grief adavitd, 
That of a weed he was overcrawed. 

Shep. Cal. 

Hessian dachen, tdgen, to allay, to still 
pain, a storm, &c. ' Der schmerz dackt 
sicb nach und nach.' Dacken, to quell 
the luminance of over-forsyard wheat by 
cutting the leaves. Gedaeg, cowed, sub- 

pare Sp. callar to be silent, to abate, 
Decome calm. 

To Add. Lat. addere, to put to or 
unite with, tbe signification of dare in 
composition being in general to dispose 
of an object. Thus reddere, to put back ; 
subdere, to put under ; eondere, to put by. 

Adder. A poisonous snake, as. atir, 
altemj PL D. adder; Bav. alter, ader, 
adem. ON. eitr-orm, literally poison 
snake, from eitr, as. aiter, venom (see 
Atter-cop). The foregoing explanation 
would be perfectly satisfactory, were it 
not that a name differing only by an 
initial n (which is added or lost with equal 
&dlity), with a derivation of its own, is 
still more widely current, wjth which how- 
ever Diefenbadi maintains the foregoing 
to be wholly unconnected Gael naihairj 

w. neidr; Goth, nadrs; on. nadra; OHO 
naira, nadra; c. natter; as. tuedre, ned- 
derj OE. ntddrt. 

Robert of Gloucester, speaking of Ire- 
land, saya, 

Selde me schal in the land any foule wormys te 
For rudres ue other wormes ue mow ther be 
noghl— p. 43. 

Instead of rteddre WicklilT uses tddrt, 
as Mandeville ewte for what we now <all 
neitit, or the modern apron for OE. n»- 
pron. In the same way Bret aer, a ser- 
pent, corresponds to Gael natkair, pro- 
nounced naer. It seems mere accident 
which of the two forms is preserved. 

The forms with an initial n are coqh 
mocly referred to a root signifying to 
pierce or cut, the origin of Goth, nethla, 
OHS. nddal, Bret nadoi, E. needU, and 
are connected with W. naddu, and with 
G. schneiden, to cut Perhaps the ON, 
nolra, to shiver, to lacerate, whence 
notru-gras, a nettle, may be a more pro- 
bable origin. There b little doubt that 
the ON. eitr, AS. aiter, venom, matter, i« 
from OHG. eiten, to bum. 

To AddU. To earn, to thrive. 
Vi^th goodmen's hogs or corn or bay 
I addU my ninepence eveiy day.— Hal. 
Where ivy embraceth the ti«e very ioie 
KiU ivy, 01 tree will addle no more. 

Tusset inHaL 
ON. o£ask, to ^t, also, naturaliter pro- 
cedere, to run its course, to grow, in- 
e. Htnni odladisi sottin : the sick- 
increased. Sw. edla, to till, to cul- 
; the soil, the sciences, the memory, 
im is to get by cultivadon or labour 
ON. odlt, eSli, adal, nature, origin j AS. 
ethel, native place, countr)'. 

Addle. Liquid tilth, a swelling with 
matter in it.— HaL Rotten, as an addU 
egg. An addle-pool, a pool that iweives 
the draining of a dunghill. Sw. diaL 
ko-adel, the urine of cows ; adla or ala, 
mingere, of cows, as in E. to stale, of 
horses. W. hadlu, to decay, to rot. 

Adept. Lat adipiscor, adeptus, to ob* 
tain. Alchymists who have <:d>tained the 
grand elixir, or philosopher's stone, which 
gave them the power of transmuting 
metals to gold, were called adepti, oT 
whom there were said to be twelve always 
in being .^Bailey. Hence an adept, a 
proficient in any art. 

To Adjourn, Fr. jour, a day; ad- 
joumer, to cite one to appear on a cer- 
' lin day, to appoint a day for continuing 

business, to put off to another day. 

To Adjtut. Fr. adjuster, to make to 
meet, and thence to bring to agreement. 



EMs Icel jor sont <hsKvrto 
Qu' unc puis ne furent adpiiies 
Les ou. — ChroD. Nonn, a, ioa6a 

The bones were severed, which were 
never afterwards united See Joust. 

Adjutant. One of the officers who 
assists the commander in keeping- the ac- 
counts of a regiment. Lat adjutare, fre- 
quentative from adjuvare, to assist; It 
aiutanti, an assistant; aiutantede campo, 
an a i decamp. 

Admiral. Ultimately from Arab, amr, 
a. lord, but probably introduced into the 
Western languages from the early Byian- 
tine forms d/ii|pac< <If">Po<<>C< the last of 
which, as Mr Marsh observes, would 
readily pass into Mid. Lat. amiralius 
(with a euphonic t), admiraldus. The 
initial a/ of Sp. almirante, OCat. almi- 
rall is probably the Arab, article, and the 
title was often written alamir in the early 
Spanish diplomacy. Thus, the address 
of letters of credence given by K. James 
II. of Aiagon in 1301, quoted by Marsh 
fi'om Capmany, ran, — ' Al muy bonorado 
e muy noble a/ami'r Don Mahomat Aben- 
nafar rey de Granada e de. Malaga, y 
Amiramu^lemin,' and in the same pass- 
age the King calls himself Almirante and 
Captain -general of the Holy Roman 

In eo conflicto (i. e. the battle of Antioch in 
the (int cnisade) occisua est Cassiani taagtA regis 
^liochiie Qlius et duodccim Admiraldi regis 
Babiloni*, mios cum suis exeidlibus miserat ad 
ferendB BuiiliiL lEgi Antiochise: et quosAdmiial- 
doa voomt. reges sunt qui provinciis legionum 
prasunl. — Durange. 
So tbat aslayne and Bdieynt twelve piincet were 

That me clupeth amyrayls.—^. G. 403. 

Adroit. Fr.fli/fwi(, handsome, nimble, 
ready, apt or fit for anything, favourable, 
prosperous,— Cotgr. ; saison adroiie, con- 
venient season. — Diet. Rom. FromrfrDi/, 
right, as opposed to left, as is shown by 
the synonymous adextre, adestre, from 
dexttr, explained by Cotgr. in the same 
terms. We also use dtxteroia and adroit 
as eauivalent terms. See Direct. 

Adulation. Lat adulari, to fawn, 

Adult Lat. adultus, from adolesco, to 
grow, grow up. See Abolish. 

Adult«r7. Lat. adulter, a paramour, 
originally probably only a young man, 
from adultus, grown up, as Swiss bub, a 
son, boy, paramour or fomicator.- 
Deutsch. Mundart. 3, 370. 

ToAdTance. — Advantn^. Ti.ava: 
cer, to push forwards, from Fr. avaut. It. 
avanti, before, forwards i Lat. ab anU. 


Advantage, something that puts one 
forwards, gain, profit. 
Adventure.— Advent. Lat advenire, 
come up to, to arrive, to happen ; ad- 
ventus, arrival ; £. advent, the coming of 
■ " Ixjrd upon earth. OFr, advenir, 
happen, and thence aventure, a hap- 
ling, chance, accident, a sense pre- 
vea in E. per adventure, perhaps. The 
word was specially appliea to events as 
made the subject of poetical or romantic 
narration, and so passed into the Teu- 
tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving 
rise to a abenteuer, on. afintyr, Sw. 
■e/ivenlyr, OE. aunter, a daring feat, 
hazardous enterprise, or the relation of 
such, a romantic story. ' The Aunters of 
Arthur at Tamwathelan,' is the title of 
1 old E. romance. 

ToAdviae.— Advioe. The Lat.Wium, 
from -videri, gave rise to It visa, OFr. 
vis. Visum mihifuit, it seemed to me, 
would be rendered in Olt /u visa a me, 
OFr. ct m'est *«.— Diei. In the Ro- 
man de la Rose, advis is used in the 
same sense, — advis m'esloit, it seemed to 
me i ■vous fust advis, it seemed to you. 
Hence advis. It. awiso, OE. avise, view, 
sentiment, opinion. Advisedly, avisedly, 
with full consideration. 

The erchbishope of WbIjfs selde ys ayyjt, 
'Sire,' he5eide,'gefllieri3an7moosow7« 
That beste red can thereof rede, Merlio that 
is.— R. G. 144. 

To be avised or advised of a thing 
would thus be, to have notice of it, to be 
informed of it. 


Whence advice in the mercantile sense, 

To advise, in the most usual accepta- 
tion of the term at the present day, is to 
communicate our views to another, to 
give him our opinion for the purpose of 
guiding his conduct, and advice is the 
opinion so given. 

In OFr. adviser, like It. awisare, 
was used in the sense of viewing, per- 
ceiving, taking note. 

SI ry ung songe en mon donnaol 

Qui moult fut bel k ailvutr.—V.. B. 35. 

Avise is frequently found in the same 
sense in our elder authors. 
He lodied back and her oimiw/ well 
Weened as he said that by her outward grace 
That foiresi Florimel was present there in place. 

Advooat*. Lat. advoeare, to call on 
or summon one to a place, especially for 
some definite object, as counsel, aid, &c., 

« and of bataile he w 



to call to one's aid, to call for help, to 
avail oneself of ihe aid of some one in a 
cause. Hence advocatus, one called on 
to aid in a suit as vitness, adviser, legal 
assistant, but not originally the person 
who pleaded Ihe cause of another, who 
was ca!AxA patroftus. 

Advowaoa. From the verb advocare 
(corrupted to advot^e), in the sense ex- 
plained under Advocate, was formed ad- 
voeatio {adtwatio), OFr. advoeson, the 
patronage or right of presentation to on 
ecclesiastical benefice. — Dnc. 

As the clergy were prohibited from ap- 
pearing before the lay tribunals,and even 
from taking oaths, which were always re- 
quired from the parties in a suit, it would 
seem that ecclesiastical persons must 
always have required the service of an 
advocate in the conduct of their le^ 
business, and we find from the authorities 
cited by Ducange, that positive enact- 
ment was repeatedly made by councils 
and princes, that bishops, abbots, and 
churches should have good advocates or 
defenders for the purpose of looking after 
their temporal interests, defending their 
property from rapine and imposition, and 
representing them in courts of law. In 
the decline of the empire, when defence 
from violence was more necessary than 
legal skill, these advocates were natur- 
ally selected among the rich and power- 
ful, who alone could give efficient pro- 
tection, and Charlemagne himself is the 
d^/MVi/iuof the Roman Church. 'Quern 
postea Romani elegerunt sibi advocaium 
Sancti Petri contra l^es Langobardo- 
rum.' — Vita Car. Mag. 

The protection of me Church naturally 
drew with it certain rights and emolu- 
ments on Ihe part of the protector, in- 
cluding the right of presentation to the 
benefice itself; and the advecatio, or 
office of advocate, instead of being an 
elective trust, became a heritable pro- 
perty. Advocatus became in OFr. ad- 
vtnii, whence in the old Law language 
of England, «Aeif«, the person entitled 
to the presentation of a benefice. As it 
was part of the duty of the guardian or 
protector to act a^^atronus, or to plead 
the cause of the Church in suits at law, 
the advowet was also called ^a/rov of the 
living, the name which has finally pre- 
vailed at the present day. 

Adse. AS. adesa. ascia. as. Vocab. 
in Nat. Ant. 

JBathetica. The science of taste. Or. 
oLrfijffrc, perception by sense, oi'irthjrwic, 
endued with sense or perception. 


I Afbbl*.— AAtbUitr- Lat affabUit, 
that niar be spoken to, easy of access or 
approach. ^^"^ to speak. 

To AiCbar. From lLaX./orMm, a mar- 
ket, Fr. /mr, market-price, fixed rate, 
whence offerer, or q^rer, to vahie at 
a certain rate, to set a price upon. From 
the latter of these forms the OE. expres- 
sion to affere an amtrciamtitt, — to fii the 
amount of a fine left uncertain bv the 
court by which it was imposet^ the 
affeerers being the persons deputed to 
determine the amount according to tho 
circumstances of the case. 'Et quod 
amerciamenta pnedictoriun tenentium 
afferentur et taxentur per sacramentuni 
parium suonim.'— Chart A.D. 1316, va. 

Afllaiice.~AJBd&Tit. From.;K)Srj, was 
formed M. LaL affidare^ to pledge one% 
faith. Hence affidavit, a .certificate o£ 
one having pledged his faith ; a 

A B., &c.' The loss of the rf, si 

in like cases, gave Fr. affier^ to affii, (o 

Kwn his faith and credit on. — Cotgr. la 
e manner, from Lat, conjidcre, Fr. con- 
Jlerj from lt.disfidare, Ft. defier, to defy. 

To Afaie, OE. Fr. a^Ur, It. affilar*^ 

' sharpen, to bring to an edge, from Fr. 
jf/, an edge, L^t.JiTuM, a thread. 

Affinity. Lat affiftis, bordering on, 

lated to. Finis, end, bound. 

To Ailbrd. Formed from the adv. 
Jbrtk, as te utter from out, signifying to 
put forth, bring forwards, offer. ' \Jor»U 
as a man dothe his chaffer, je vends, and 
j'ofTers a vendre. I csn/orde it no bettes 
cheape. What do you firde it him for ? 
Pour combien le lui oflrei vdus a tci^ 
dre?'— Palsgr. 

And thereof was Fieri pnnd. 

And putie hem to werlie, 

And jaf bem nicte as he mjighle a/brHiei 

And mesurable h^«. — P. P. 4193. 

For thei hadden possessions wher of 
thei myghten miche more evorthi into- 
aJmes than thei that hadden litiL — Pe- 
cock, Repressor 377, in Marsh. 

For thon moni mon hit walde bim far- 
leven half other thridde lot thenne he 
iseie that he ne mahle na mare K*'^ 
thtax : when he sees that he cannot afford, 
cannot produce more.— Morris, O.E. Ho- 
miUes, p. 31. Do thine elmesse of thon 
thet thu maht ifortkien : do thy alms of 
that thou cananord. — Ibid. p. 37. 

Aifray,— Afraid.— X^y. YT.effraytr, 
to scare, appal, dismay, affright ; effroi, 
terror, astonishment, amaiemeat ; Jray- 


tr, fright, tetrar, scarisg, bcrror.- 

Tne radiod 10600111; o( effri^tr is to 
startle or alarai by a. sudden noise, from 
OFr. tSroi, noise, outcry ; ftdrs effroi, 
to ma& an outcry. 'Toutefois ne fit 
oncques tfiei jnsqti^ ce que tous les 
(iens eussent gagn^ k ranraille, puis 
■'dcrie honiblement.' — Rabelais. ' Sail- 
lirent dc leurs cliambrts sans faire tffri 
ou bruit.' — Cent. Noar. Noav. Hence E. 
/ray or affr^ in the sense of a noisy dis- 
turtttnce, a huriybudy. 

In the Flower and the Leaf, Chaacer 
calls the sadden storm of wind, rain, and 
hail, irtiich drenched the partisans of the 
Leaf to the skin, an »ffi^ay : 
Aod wben the stonn was clene away passed, 
Tbo in the wbite thai stode under the tiea 
They lelt Dsthliii; <rf nil Ibe great a^aj. 
That tb^ in gieoe without had in ybe. 
The radical meaning is well preserved 
In Chaucer's use of a/ray to signify rous- 
ing out of sleep, out of a swoon, which 
owld not be eiplained oa Diei* theory of 
a derivation from haX. frigidus. 

Me met thns id it^ bed all nolted 
And looked forthe, for I was waked 
With small fouks ■ gnte bepe. 
Thai bad afraidi mc out of my sleeps, 
Thmugh noiae and sweteaese of her song. 
Chaucer. Dreaine. 
I was out of my swowne agraidi 
Whereof I slgb my vittea stroide 
And gan to de^ Ibon home again. 


The ultimate derivation is the imitative 
not, /rag, representing a crash, whence 
Lat. fragor, and Fr. fracas, a crash of 
things breaking, disttirbance, <0Tay. 
Thence effrayer, to produce the efiect of 
a sudden crash upon one, to terrify, 
alarm. Flagor ^^ fragor), elciso (dread, 
horror).— Gloss. Kero m Diei. 

To Ai&ont Fr. affronter (from Lat 
frOH3,frontU, the forehead), to meet face 
to &ce, to encounter, insult. See Front. 

After. Goth. Afar, afler, behmd; 
aftar, aftaro, behind ; aflana, from be- 
hind; aflittita, afhtmist, last, hindmost. 
AS. aft, aftan, after, afterwards, a^in. 
ON. aptan, aftan, behind; aptOK dags, 
the latter part of the day, evening; aftar, 
t^last, hinder, hindmost Affording to 
Grimm, the final tar is the comparative 
termination, and the root is simply af, 
the equivalent of Gr. (Es^, of, from. Com- 
pare after with Goth, afarj AS. o/er-nen, 
witfi afUr-noott. 

Again. AS. ongain, ongen, ageir, op. 
posite, towards, against again ; gean, op- 
posite, against; gta»-eanM, to oppose; 

gtan-cyme, an encounter; te-geanes, to- 
wards, against. OSw. gen, igen, o^ 
posite, again ; gena, to meet ; gemtm, 
through; Bret, ^n, opposite; ann tu 
gin, the other side, wroi^ side ; gat- 
otKh-gin, directly opposite, showing the 
origin of the G. reduplicative gegen^ 

Agat«. Lat luhates. According to 
Pliny, from the river Achates in Sicily 
where agates where found. 

Age. From Lat. etat-tm the Prov. has 
etat, edats OFr. tdtd, edagt, tage, aagt, 

H^lr eateit de gnuit (rf&£— Kings a. aa. 

Ki duRrat a treaCut ton ed^i. 

Chanson de Roland in Dies. 

Ai, Kfe, age. 

The form edag* seems constructed bjr 
the addition of the regutar tennination 
age, to td, erroneotisly taken as the radi' 
ral syllable aieded, or it may be a subse- 
quent corruption of et^e, eaige (firom 
ae-tas by the addition of^the terminatioa 
age to the true radical a), by the inoivanic 
insertion o! ad, si modification rendered 
in this case the more easy by the resem- 
blance of the parallel forms edai, edtd. 

*Ag««. Awry, askew. Fmmjee/ an 
exclamation to horses to make them move 
on one side. ?««, to turn or move to one 
side; crooked, awry. — Hal. To jte, to 
move, to stir. ' He wad WAfte.' To mow 
to one side. !n this sense it is used with 
respect to horses or cattle in draught. — 

Agant— Agile.— Agitata.— Act.— 
ActuaL Lat ago, Oftum (in con^k -igo), 
to drive, to move or stir, to manage, to 

do ; agilo, to drive, to stir up, to move to 
and fro. Ac^, the doing of a thing; 
a£tui,-4s, an ac^ deed, doing. 

' To Agg. To {Htivoke, dispute.— Hat 
Apparently from nag in the sense of 
gnaw, by the loss of me initial n. Nag^ 
ging-pain, a gnawing pain, a slight oat 
- -^stant pam; naga^, knaggy, touchy, 

liable, ill-tempered. — Hal. Knagging; 
finding fault peevishly and irritably,^ — 
Mrs B. Sw. dial nagga, to gnaw, bite, 
'" '" ' t^gga, to irritate, disturb. 

consequence of a 

that the fundamental meaning of Hie word 

set a-goMtng on an objet:t of astonish- 

it and horror. 

The French esdaimed the devil was in arms. 

All (be whole anny stood agattd on him. — H. -A. 

Probably the word may be explained 



from Fris. gu-wysje, Dan. gyst, Sw. dial. 

gysa,ga!a sig, to shudder at; gase,gusf, 

horror, fear, revulsion. From the last of 

these forms we pass to Sc gousiy, gaus- 

trous, apphed to what impresses the mind 

with iedii^ of indefinite horror; waste, 

desolate, awful, fiUl of the preteniatural, 


Ciild, mirk, and gnuUe Is the night. 

Loud roars the Uut ayont (he hight.— Janueson. 

He observnl one of (be black man's feet to be 
daven. and that (he black nun's voice was bough 
BnAgBuilit. — GUnvUle in Jam. 

The word now becomes confounded 
with ghostly, the association with which 
has probably led to the insertion of the h 
in gfiaslly itself as well as aghast. 

Agutment, From Lat jacer^ the 
Fr. had gifur, to lie ; whence gisle, a 
lodging, place to lie down in ; gisU dune 
liivre, the form of a hare. Hence agisti 
to give lodging to, to take in cattle 
feed; and the law terra agistment, the 
profit of cattle pasturing on the land. 

Aglet. The tag of a point, i. e. of the 
lace or string by which different parts 
of dress were formerly tied up or fastened 
tc^elber. Hence any small object hang- 
ing loose, as a spangle, the anthers of a 
tulip or of grass, the catkins of a hazel, 
&C. — Junius, Fr. aiguilUtte, diminutive 
of aiguille, a needle, properly the point 
fastened on the end of a lace for drawing 
it through the eyelet holes; then, like E. 
point, applied to the lace itself. 

■ KgUM ] . — Angnail. A sore nail, 
whitlow, com on the toe. 'Agassin, a 
come or agnele on the foot'— Cot AS. 
ahgnargle, a whitlow. From the same 
root with Lat, ango, to pinch, trouble, vex. 
In the sense of a swelled gland (as where 
FL explains It. ghiandole as agneU, glan- 
dules or kernels in the throat, groin, or 
armpits) it is probably from It. angui- 
naglia, the groin or a tumour there ; Fr. 
angonailles, botches or sores.— CoL 

A^.— A!^ne. as. agdn, agangen, 
gone away, passed. He wxs tbanon 
agdn, gone from thence.— Mt 26. 39. 
Tha SaeCemes dasg Wies agangen, was 
past.— Mk. 16, I, 

For in iwldie cas wiminen have swiche somve 
Whan that hir busboDds ben from hem ago . 
Knight's Tale. 
Ago^. Excited with expectation, jig- 
ging with excitement, ready to start in 
pursuit of an object of desire. Literally 
on the jog, or on the start, hamgog, sy- 
nonymous withyof or shog; gog-mire, a 
quagmire. — Hal. ' He is all a^g to go." 

—Baker. In the same way in Sc. one is 
said to be fidg^g fain, nervously eager, 
unable to keep stiU. See Goggle. 

■Agonr- Gr. 'Ayuf, as Ayapa, an as- 
sembly, place of assembly, esp. an as- 
sembly met to see games; thence the 
contest for a prize on such an occasion; 
a struggle, toil, hardship. 'Ayiuvia, aeon- 
test, gymnastic exercise, agony; &y«^ 
iofioi, to contend with, whence antagoniH, 
one who contends against 

To Agree. From Lat gratus, pleas- 
ing, acceptable, are formed It grado, 
Prov. grot, OFr. gret, Fr. gr4, wiU, 
pleasure, favour ; and thence It agradire, 
to receive kindly, to please, Prov. agreiar, 
Fr. agrier, to receive with favour, to give 
one's consent to, to agree. Prov. agrad- 
aile, agreeable. See Grant 

Aigua. A fever coming in periodical 
fits or sharp attacks, from Fr. aigu, sharp, 
^ivre aigue, acute fever. 

I( is a remaikable fact thai the Lepcbas. when 
suffi:ring from protracted cold, take ferer and 
ague in sharp attacks.— Hoc^, Uimalavaa 

Se Don febre agiida 
Vos destrenha 1 costats. 
SnoD qu'une 6i»re fl«»< vous piosse ks cotfc. 

The confinement to periodical fever is 
a modem restriction, from the tendmcy 
of language constantly to become more 

specific in its application. 

For Richard lay so lore Seke, 
On knees prayden the Cryslene host — 
Through hys grace and hys vertue 
He tumyd out of bis agv. 

R, Coer de Don, 3045. 
Aid. Lat. adjuvare, adjutum; adju- 
tare, to help. Prov. adjudar, ajudar, 
atdar, Fr. aider, to help. 

Aidecamp. Fr. aide du. camp. It ajit- 

tante di campo, an officer appointed to 

assist the general in military service. 

To AIL AS. eglian, £0 pain, to grieve, 

trouble, perhaps from the notion of 

pricking; egle, egla, festuca, arista, car- 

' " -Lye, whence ails, the beard of 

(Essex). AS. egle, troublesome, 

Goth, agio, affliction, tribulation, aglui, 

difficult, agls, shameful 

To Aim . Lat. astimare, to consider, 

reckon, to fix at a certain point or 

te; Prov. estimar, to reckon; adesti- 

mar, adesmar, axesmar, aesmar, to calcu- 

ate, to prepare ; ' A son colp aMesmat,' he 

has calculated or aimed his blow well — 

Diez; esmar, OFr. esmer, to calculate, 

to reckon-' Li chevaliers de s'ost a treis 

mille esma.' He reckons the knights of 


his host at 3000— Rom. de Rou ; tsmer, 
to purpose, determine, to offer to strike, 
to aim or level at— Cotgr, 

Air, Lat air, Gr. dqp, doubtless con- 
tracted from Lat. atker, the heavens, Gr. 
a(0^, the Ay, or sometimes air. Gael. 
aeAar, aihar, pronounced ayar, aar, the 
air, sky, w. awyr. 

Aiue. The side divisions of a church, 
like wings on either side of the higher 
nave. Fr. aisle, aiU, a wing, from Lat. 
axilla, ala. 

By a hke analogy, Us ailts du nes, the 
nostiils; Usailes d'unefirit, the skirts of 
a foresL— Cotgr. 

Ait. For eyot, a small flat island in a 
river ; OH, ty, G. aa, island in a river. 

Ajar. On char, on the turn, half open, 
from AS. ceorroH, to turn. 
Like wuiebull dais nimmesinguid ran 
When he cachapis burt one the altan. 
Aad eharrit by Ihe u with hii neck wycht 
Gif one tbeCoiEhede thedynlbinisaot richt. 
D. V. 46, 15. 

Swiss aduw, Du. am karre, akerre, 

Eode vonden de dore aktrn staende. 

Waileweia, 9368. 

See Char, Chare. 

The bott— let Ua boi 
Wenisl Ihow, leid helo Betyn, rortoskonieme? 
Beiyn, 1105. 
It. sckemiar4, ighttnbare, to go aside 
from ; sckimbicdo, a crankling or croolied 
winduDg in and out ; sedere a schimbiccio, 
to sit crooked upon one's legs, as tailors 
do; asghettd>o,aschtmbo,aschencio,a^K)'^, 
askance. — FL Du. schampen, to slip, to 
graze, to glance aside. 

AlAorify. Lat. alacer, -cris, eager, 
brisk; It. fl/Aww, sprighdy, merry. 

Alarm.— JJarum. IL alC arme, to 
arms ! the call to defence on being sur- 
prised by an enemy. 

This said, he nms down with as gr^al > noise 
and ihouting as be could, ayiiie aVarmt. help, 
twip, ddiens, the castle is taken bv the enemy. 
come away (o defence. — Holland's Pliny in 

Hence, e. alarum, a rousing signal of 
martial music, a surprise; Yr.allarmer, 
to give an alamm unto; to rouse or 
affright by an alarum — Cotgr, ; and gen- 
erally, to tUann, to excite apprehension. 
The alarum or larum of a clock is a loud 
riling suddenly let off for the purpose 
of rousing one out of sleeps G. Idrm, up- 
roar, alarm. 

Al&a. From Lat. lassus, Ptnv. las, 
wearied, wretched. Hmce the exclama- 

M'aviati gran gang dooat 
At laisa I can pauc m'a dorat. — Raynooaid. 
You have given me great joy. ah wrelched nte I 
bow little it has lasted, 

Lai I tani en al puis soupir^ 

Et doitestrei^jn clant^ 

Quant ele alme sans estre asobt. — R. R. 

Alchemy. The science of converting 
base metals into gold. Mid. Gr. dp^qfiia ; 
Xq/u'd. — Suidas. Arab. ii/->Hml(J, without 
native root in that language. — Dies. 

AlcohoL Arabic, al kohl, the impal- 
pable powder of antimony with which 
the Orientals adorn their eyelids, any- 
thing reduced to an impalpable powder, 
the pure substance of anything separated 
from the more gross, a pure well-re6ned 
spirit, spirits of wine. To alcoholise, to 
reduce to an impalpable powder, or to 
rectify volatile spirit — B. 

Alcove. Sp. alcoba, a place in a room 
railed off to hold a bed of state ; hence a 
hollow recess in a wall to hold a bed, 
side-board, &c, ; Arab, cobba, a closet 
(Lane) ; alcobba, a cabinet or small cham- 
ber. — Engelberg- Cabrera thinks Sp. 
aleoba a native word Arabized by the 
Moors. AS. bed-cofa, vel bur, cubicu- 
lum.— .^If. Gl. ON. kqfi. Da. kove, a hut, 
a small compartment. 

Alder, it&.alrj e. &aLalUr,awlerj 
G. eller, trie; Du. els; Sw. alj PoL 
olsea, olsxyna; Lat, alHus. 

Aldennan. as. eald, old ; ealdor, an 
elder, a parent, hence a chief, a ruler. 
Hutidredes mldor, a ruler of a hundred, 
a centurion ; ealdor-biscop,aii archbishop ; 
ealdor-moH, a magistrate. 

Ala. AS. eaU, eala, eabt, aloth; on. 
SI; Lith. <Uus, from an (Kiuivatent of 
Gael, dl, to drink ; as Bobem. piwo, beer, 
itampiti, to drink. 

Alambic.— Lembic. A still. It. lam- 
bicco, Umbicco, Sp. alamiique, Arab, al- 
anbiq ; it does not appear, nowever, that 
the word admits of radical explanation in 
the latter language. — Diez. 

Alert. Lat. erigere, erectus, It. ergere, 
'■ to raise up; eria, the steep ascent of a 
hill; erio, straight, erect; star erto, to 
stand up; star a Perta, alUrta, 10 be 
upon one's guard, literally, to stand upon 
an eminence. Hence alert, on one's 
guard, brisk, lively, nimble. 

In Ibis place the priace finding his niCters 
[routiers] aUrt (as the Italians say], with the ad- 
vice of his valiant brother, he sent his tmtnpeu 

to the Duke of P " "" 

161S, in Rid). 

,.,.d.:, Google 

Alg&tes. From the ne. gaits, ways ; 
ON. gala, a path, Sw. gaia, way, street. 
All ways, at all events, in one way or 

less. Brocket. Swagates, in such a 

AlgahrA. From Arab, eljabr, putting 
together. The complete designation was 
el jabr wa el mog&bala, the putting to- 
getlter of parts and equation. From a 
corruption of these words algebraic cal- 
culation is called the game of Algebra 
and Almucgrabala in a poem of the 1 3th 
century cit«l by Demorgan in N. & Q. 

Scd quia de ludis fiebal jermo, quid illo 
Pulcrior esse poteil eieiiido numeronun, 
Quo divinantur numeri plerique per uoum 
Ignoti nolum. sicut Luduol apud Indoi, 
Ijiduin dlcsntes Algtbra almugraialajiu. 

Mogdbala, opposition, comparison, equal- 
ity.— Catafogo. 

Alien. Lat. alienus, belonging to 
another, due to another source ; thence, 

To Alight. Dan. lette, Du. ligten 
(from let, ligt, light), signily to lift, to 
make light or raise into the air. At MU 
noget fra jorden, to lift something from 
the ground. At lette een of sadden; Du. 
jemand uU den xadet ligten, to lift one 
from the saddle. To alight indicates 
the completion of the action thus de- 
scribed ; to be brought by lifting down to 
the ground ; to lift oneself down from the 
saddle, from out of the air. 

Aliment.— Alimaii7. Lat. alimen- 
tum, alimonium, nourishment, victuals, 
from alo, I nourish, support. 

Alkali. Arab-a/-ffi/(,thesalt of ashes. 
— Diei. In modem chemistry general- 
ised to express all those salts that neutra- 
lise acids. 

All. Goth, alls; on. allr; AS. eall. 
Notwithstanding the double /, I have 
long been inclined to suspect that it is a 
derivative from the root d, a, e, «, aye, 
ever. Certainly the significations of ever 
and all are closely related, the one im- 
plying continuance in time, the other 
continuance throughout an extended 
series, or the parts of a multifarious 
object. The sense of the originals, how- 
ever, is not always confined to continu- 
ance in time, as is distinctly pointed out 
by Ihre. ' (jrar-faomet war.swa faguit 

som a ^ull ssei.' The aurox horn was as 
fair as if it were all gold. So a-Hus, all- 
bright; a-tid, modem Sw. all-tid, all 
time. AS. ale, each, is probably te-lic,' 
ever-like, implying the application of a 
predicate to all the members of a series. 
In every, formerly everecke, everilk, for 
i^fr)r-izit,thereisa repetition of theelement 
signifying continuance. But every and 
all express fundamentally the same idea. 
Every one indicates all the indiuiduaU 
of a series ; every man and all m^n are 
the same thing. 

To Allay, formerly written alleggt, as 
to say was formerly to se^. Two dis- 
tinct words are confoundeoin the modem 
allay, the first of which should properly 
with a single /, from AS. ^e- 
^ , / down, to put down, ! 

tianquilUse. Speaking of Wm. R 
Sax. Chron says, 

Eallan folce bebet CBllan tha uorihte to oiy- 
gaiu, the on hU brMbor tlman menu ; 
translated in R. of Gloucester, 
He behet 0«d and that fole an bdwMe that wbi 

To aiigge all Inlher bwes that jbolde were be- 
And better make than were snthihe be was ybotc 


In the same way the Swed. has ■atddret 
l^ggf^ ^gJ itmrken logger sig, the wicd 
is &id; the pain abates. So in Virgil, 
venti pesutre, the winds were laid. 

If by your art, my dearest father, yoa hare 
Put the wild waters in (bis roai, 0/0^ them. 

So to allay thirst, grief, &c. 

The other form, confounded with alegge 
from alecgan in the modem allay, is the 
old allegge, from Fr. alUger, It. alleg- 
giare, Lat. alleviare, to lighten, mitigate^ 
tranquillise, thus coming round so exactly 
to the sense of alay from alecgan, that it 
is impossible sometimes to say to which 
of the two origins the word should be re- 

Lat. levis, light, easy, gentle, becomes 
Prov. lev,' whence Iruiar, leujar, to 
su:^eia/^wr, alleujar,OYT. alU^r, 
lighten, to assuage, precisely in the 
same way that from brevis, abbrtviart, 
are formed Prov. breu, abreujar, Fr. a^ 
br/ger, OE. abregge, to abridge. 
~ue m'dones joi em'ltujataa. dolor, 
u'elle me doankt Joio ct m'alUgiil ma dMt- 
leui. — Rayn. 
Per Dieu aleujati m'aqueit bys 1 
For God's sake lighien me this tnirden. 




It woBht bave ln<oiigbt toy life a^a. 
For certes evenly I daieweUuine 
The sight only and the savour 
^ftgyamuchotmy languor.— S. R. 

JtX Qit original, 

he voir lans plus, et I'oudeur 
Si nCaU^oiait ma doukur. 

So in Italian, 

Fate Umoaina et Sa mesu accio die iatlt^ne i 

I that cnjr tormeals luy be awMgiil, or al- 


ToAUedga. Fr..,4//«j»«r,tD alledgc, 
to produce reasons, evidence, or author- 
ity for the proof of. — Cotg, 

Lat. legarg, to intfust or assign unto ; 
alUgare, to depute or commission one, 
to xnA a message, to solicit by message. 
' Petit a me Raboniua et amicos allegat.' 
Rabonius asks of me and sends friends 
(to support bis petition). Hence it came 
to signily, to adduce reasons or witnesses 
in support of an argument. From the 
language of Uwyers probably the word 
came into general use in England and 

Tbd woll dUs" Blso and I7 the godspdl pre- 

Nc^te judicaie quenquam.— P. P. 

Here we find alUdge, from Lat. alUgare, 

spelt and pronounced 

ner as alleggt (the modem allay), from 

AS. alecgaK, and there is so little differ- 

. . meaning betw^n laying down 

and bringing forward reasons, that the 

l.atin aiia Saxon derivatives were some- 

times confounded. 

And Ae this noble duke altydt 

Pull many another skill, and seide 

She had well deserved wrecke, — Gower in Rich. 

Here altyiie is plainly to be understood 

in the sense of tne Lat. aiUgare. 

Allegory. Gr. AAAqyiipia, a figure of 
meech involving a sense different from 

AU«7. Fr. aiUe, a walk, path, passage, 
from aiUr, to go. 

Alligator. The American crocodile, 
from the Sp< lagatio, a liiard ; Lat. la- 
etrta. In Hawkins' voyage he speaks of 
these under the name of alagartoes. La- 
mrto das Indiai, the cayman or South 
American alligator.— Neumann. 

Allodial. Allodium, in Mid. Ut., 
was an estate held in absolute possession 
without a feudal superior. — Blackstone. 
The derivation has been much disputed, 
and little light has been thrown upon it 
hf the various guesses of antiquarians. 
Tht word appears as early as the ninth 

century under the forms alodis, atodus, 
alodium, alaudum, and in Fr. aleu, aleu 
franc, franc-alaud, Jranc-aloi, franc- 
aleuf. The general sense is that of an 
estate held in absolute possession. 'MeK 
prsedium possessionis hereditarias, hoc 
est, alodum nostrum qui est in pago An- 
degavensL'— Charta an. 83^ in Due. 
' Alaudum meum sive hsereditatem quam 
dedit mihi pater meus in die nuptiarum 
^ Patemx haereditati, quam 
alodium vel patrimoniam vo- 
contuUt' It is oft«i opposed 
._ a'fjef. 'Haec autem fiierunt ea— quse 
de allodiis sive priediis in feudum cwn- 
mutavit Adela.' It is taken for an 
estate free of duties. ' Habemus vinea 
agripenum unum alltdialiter immunem, 
hoc est ah omni censijs et vicariae red- 
hibitione liberum.' ' Reddit ea terra 3 
den. census cum ante semper alodium 
fuisset.' A.D. 1708. 

It can hardly be wholly distinct from 
ON. odal, which is used in much the same 
sense, allodium, pnedium heieditarium ; 
6dals-j6rd, prsedium hereditarium ; dial- 
borinn,vsAixs ad herediumavitum, scilicet 
recta lined \. primo occupante; dSals- 
madr, dominus allodialis, strictfe primus 
occupans.— H aldorsen. 

Dan. Sw. odil, a patrimonial estate. 
The landed proprietors of the Shetland 
Isles arc still called udallers, according to 
Sir Walter Scott. The on. S£U is also 
used in the sense of abandoned goods, at 
leggia fyrer ddal, to abandon a thing, to 
leave it to be taken by the first occupier, 
If Mid. Lat. alodis, alodum, is identical 
with the ON. word, it exhibits a sii^ular 
transposition of syllables. Ihre would 
account for allodium from the compound 
' alldha odhol,' mentioned in the Gothic 
laws,— an ancient inheritance, from alldr, 
jetas, antiquitas, and Sdal, inheritance, as 
allda-vinr, an ancient friend, alder-hafd, 
a possession of long standing. See Ihre 
in v. Od 

To Allov. Two words seem here 
confounded; i. firom Lat. laudare, to 
praise, and 2. from locare, to place, to leL 
From the LaL laus, laudis, was formed 
Prov. laus, lau, praise, approval, advice. 
Hence lauEar,alausar, OFr. loer, louer, 
alourr, to praise, to approve, to recom- 
mend. In like manner the Lat. laudo 
was used for approbation and advice. 

^ Laudo igitur ut ab eo suam filiam 
primogenitam petatis duci nostro con- 
jugem,' — 1 recommend. ' El vos illuc 
tendere penitus dtslaudamus^ — we dis- 
suade you. — Ducange. 'Et leur de-. 




manda que il looient \ faire, et li lolretit 
tous que il descendisL' 'Et il li dirent 
que je li avois loi bon conseiL' — Join- 
ville in Raynouard. In the same way in 
English : 

This is Ibe sum of what I would have ye wngh, 
First whether ye o//to' niy whole devise, 
And think it gwd for me. for them, for you, 
And if ye like it and alleio il well — 

Fencx and ['□rrei in Richardson. 

Especially laus was applied to the ap- 
probation given by a feudal lord to the 
alienation of a fee depending upon him, 
and to the fine he received for permission 
to alienate. ' Hoc donum/aaaiii'i/Adain 
Maringotus, de cujus feodo erat.' — Due. 

From signifying consent to a grant, 
the word came to b« apphed to the grant 
itself, ' Comes concessit iis et laudavit 
terras et feuda conim ad suam fideUtatem 
et servitium.' ' Facta est hjec laus sive 
concessio in claustro S. Marii.' — Due. 

Here we come very near the applica- 
tion of allowance to express an assign- 
ment of a certain amount of money or 
goods to a particular person or foi a 
special purpose. 

* And his allowance was a continual 
allowance given by the king, a daily rate 
for every day all his life.' — 2 Kings. 

In this sense, however, to allow is 
from the LaL locare, to place, allocare, 
to appoint to a certain place or purpose ; 
IL allogart, 10 place, to fix ; Prov. alogar, 
Fr. louer, allouer, to assign, to put out to 



L'appartiennent ^ s 
dlUiuia les distes bi 
die in Raynouard. 

To allow in rekeninge — alloco. Al- 
lowance — allocacio. — Pr. Pm. Wall. 
alauwer, depenser. — Grandg. 

Again, as the senses of Lat. laudare 
and allocare coalesced in Fr. allouer and 
E. allow, the confusion seems to have 
been carried back into the contemporary 
Latin, where allocare is used in the sense 
of approve or admit ; issonium allocabile, 
an admissible excuse. 

Alloy. The proportion of base metal 
mixed with gold or silver in coinage. 
From Lat. lex, the law or rule by which 
the composition of the money is go- 
verned. It, U^a, Fr. loi, alou ' Unus- 
quisque denanus cudatur et fiat ail legem 
undecim denariorum.' — Due, In the 
mining language of Spain the term is 
applied to the proportion of silver found 
in the ore. 'The extraction for the 

week was 750 cargos of clean ore, aver- 
age ley from nine to ten marl^ per 
monton, with an increased proportioD of 
gold.'— Times, Jan. 2, 1857. 

From signifying the proportion of base 
metal in die coin, the term alloy was 
applied to the base metal itselil 

Alluvial. LaL alluo {ad and lavo, to 
wash), to wash against ; alluvUs, mud 
brought down by the overflowing of a 
river ; alluvtui (of land), produced by 
the mud of such overflowing. 

To Ally. Fr. altier. LaL I'gare, to 
tie ; alligare, to tie to, to unite. 

Almanack. The word seems origin' 
ally to have been applied to a plan of 
the movements of the heavenly bodies. 
' Sed hje tabuke vocantur Almanack vet 
Tallignum, in quibus sunt omnes motus 
coelorum certificad k principio mundi 
usque in finem — ut homo posset inspicere 
omnia qufe in ccelo sunt onuii die, sicut 
nos in calendario inspicimus omnia festa 
Sanctorum.'— Roger Bacon, Opus Ter- 
tium, p. 36. 

In the Arab, of Syria al mattHkk is 
climate or temperature. 

Almond. Gr. d/iuy^dXii, Lat amyg- 
dala, WaUach, tnigdMe, mandule; Sp. 
almendra, Prov, amandola, Fr. amandt. 
Il mandola, mandorla, Langued. amen- 
lou, amello. 

Alms. — Almonry. — Aumry. Gr. 
ikufyaaivif, properly compass ionateness, 
then relief given to the poor. This, 
being an ecclesiastical expression, passed 
direct into the Teutonic languages under 
the form of G. almosen, as. almetse, 
altnes, OE. almesse, almoie, Sc. a-wmous, 
alms J and into the Romance under the 
form of Prov. almosna, Fr. 
aumdne. Hence the Fr. i 
almoner, awmnere, an officer whose duty 
it is to dispense alms, and almonry, 
aumry, the place where the alms are 
given, from the last of which again it 
seems that the old form awmbrere, an 
almoner, must have been derived, — Pr. 
Pm. When aumry is used with refer- 
ence to the distribution of alms, doubt- 
less two distinct words are confounded, 
almonry and ammary or ambry, from 
Fr armoire, Lat. armaria, almatia, a 
cupboard. This latter word in English 
was specially applied to a cupboard foi 
keeping cold and broken victuals. — 
Bailey, in v. Ambre, Ammery, Aumry. 
Ambry, a pantry. — HaL Then as an 
aumry or receptacle for broken victuals 
would occupy an important place in the 
office where the daily dole of charity was 


dispensed, the association seems to have 
led to the use of aumry or ambry, as if it 
were a contraction of almonry, frotn 
which, as far as sound is concerned, it 
might very well have arisen. And vice 
versi, almtmry was sometimes used in 
the sense of armarium, almarium, a 
cupboard. Almonarium, aimorietum, 
alm^ala, a cupboard or safe to set up 
broken victuals to be distributed as alms 
to the poor. — B, See Ambry. 

Aloft. On h/l, up in the air. G. 
lufi, ON. lopl, loft, OE. lift, the air, the 
sky. If. aa loft, akift, on high. 

• Along. AS. andlaitF^ c. entlang, 
erttlangs, tangs. It lunga^x, U long de, 
through the length of as. and laitgne 
dag, throughout the length of the day. 

The term is also used figuratively to 
' express dependance, accordance. 

1 cannot tell "■hereon it was alcngt-' 
Some said it was lexgon Ibe Bre maldng, 
Some said il was bng on [he blowing. 

Canon Yeoman's Tale. 

This mode of expression is very gen- 
Trap fes<Ment mkx cortcHsie 
A loute gent lane it que erefX. 

Fab. et Contes. i. i6o. 




what they 

Hence selonc, selon, according 

>, the 

initial element of which is the particle si, 
tt, ce, so, here, this. 

In the same way PoL wedlug, accord- 
ing to, from I", '"t, indicating relation of 
place, and dlugo, long. 

The AS, fonn was gelang. '^t the 
is ure lyf gelang^ our Ufe is along of 
tbee, is dependent on thee. ' Hii sobton 
on hwom that gelang wtere.' They in- 

Juired along of whom that happened — 
ye. Walach. lAngi, juxta, secundum, 
penes, pone, propter. 

Alool To loof or luff in nautical 
langu^^ is to turn the vessel up into the 
wind. Aloof, then, is to the windward 
of one, and as a vessel to the windward 
has it in her choice either to sail away 
or to bear down upon the leeward vessel, 
aloofias come to signify out of danger, 
in safety from, out ofreach of. 
Nor do we And him forward to be sounded ; 
But with a ciaflj madness keeps aioo^, 
When we would bring him on to some confession 
Of his true state.— Hunlet. 

Alpine. Of the nature of things found 
in lofty mountains ; from the Alps, the 
highest mountains in Europe. GaeL 

The fire-place on which sacri- 

fices were made to the gods. Lat; altare, 
which Ihre would explain from on, eldr, 
fire, and ar, or am, a hearth ; or perhaps 
AS. fm, ant, a place ; as Lat lucema, 
latema, a lantern, (laimluc-em, leoktem, 
the place of a light. 

To Alter. To make something other 
than what it is ; Lat. alterare, from alter, 
the other. So G. dndem, to change, from 
ander, the other ; and the Lat. muto finds 
an origin of like nature in Esthon. mu, 
another, whence muduma, mttudma, to 

AlwayB. AS. eallne •mag, ealle 'Uiaga, 
the whole way, altogether, throughout 
The Servians use_^«/, way, for the num- 
ber of times a thing happens ; jedenput, 
once ; dva put, twice, Stc. Dan. een- . 
gang, one going, once ; tre-gange, three 
times. So from Du. r^se, a journey, 
ten, twte, dry, reysen, semeL ter, bis. — 

Am-, Amb-. Gr, i^, about, around, 
property on both sides ; a/igtw, ambo, both. 

AmalgBm. A pasty mixture of mer- 
cury and other metal, from Gr. fioXo^/ia, 
an emollient, probably a poultice, and 
that from ^aD^iaam, to soften. — Diez. 

Amauuenaia. Lat. from ihe habit of 
the scribe or secretary signing Ihe docu- 
ments he Wrote (as we see in St Paul's 

Epistles) ' A manu ,' from the hand 

ot^ so and so. Hence a manu tervus was 
a slave employed as secretary. 

To Amate. To confound, stupely, 

Updn the walli the Pagans old and young 
Stood boshed and sliU, amaied and amaied. 
FairfaK in Boucher. 
OFr. amaier, mater, maltir, to abate, 
mortify, make fade, from mat, G. mall, 
dull, spiritless, faint It. motto, mad, 
foolish ; Sp. malar, to quench, to slay. 
But when I cameoul of swooning 
And bad my wit and my feeling, 

Of bl 


In the original— Je fus moult vain. 

Derived by Diei from the expression 
check-male, at chess. 

Amative, Amity. From Lat amo, to 
love, are amor, Fr. amour, love ; amatus, 
loved ; amabilis; amicus, a loving one, a 
friend; and from each of these numerous 
secondary derivatives ; amorous,amative, 
amateur, amiable, amicable. Lat amici- 
fti), Fr. amitU, E. amity, 8lc 

To Amaj. It smagare, to discourage, 
dispirit ; Sp. desmayar, to discourage, 
despond ', desmayar se, to laint ; OPort. 



amago, fright ; Prov. eimagar, esmalar, 

to trouble, to frighten, to grieve; Fr. 

^esmaur, to be sad, pensive, astonied, 

careful, to take thought— Colgr. Ennay, 

thought, care, c»rk. Hence E. amay, 

diimay, or simply may. 

Beiyn tlai at couasell. his heut was fall woo. 

And his menye (attendants) soty, dislroJit, and 

aU amaj^ie.— Chaucer, Beryn. 1643. 
So for ought that Beryn coud ethir ipeke or pray 
He myghl in no wyse pass, full sore he gan 10 

majr— Ibid. 1685. 

The Romance forma are, according to 
Diez, derived from the Goth, magan, to 
have power, to be strong, with the ne- 
gative particle dis. Compare Dan. af- 
maet, a swoon. 

Ambassador. Goth. ^)U]%uij^,a serv- 
ant, andbahti, service, ministry ; OHC. 
ambaht, a minister or ministry ; ampah- 
tan, to minister; G. ampt, employment. 

In Middle 'La.t. ambascia, amiaxia, or 
ambactia, was used for - business, and 
particularly applied to the business of 
another person, or mess^e committed 
to another, and hence the modem sense 
of embassy, It. ambaseiata, as the message 
sent by a ruling power to the government 
of anothef state ; ambassador, the person 
who carries such a message. ' Castrais, 
etnd£isa, to employ. 

' Quicunque asjnum alienum extra do- 
mini voluntatem prassumpserit, aut per 
unum diem aut per duos in ambascia 
jua ' — in his own business. — Lex Bur- 
gund. in Due. ' Si in dominica ambascia 
luerit occupatus.' — Lex Sal. In another 
edition, ' Si in jussione Regis fuerlt oc- 

Ambasciari, to convey a message, 
' Et ambasciari ex illorum parte quod 
mihi jussum fuerat.' — Hincmar. in Due. 

The word amiactus is said by Festus 
to be Gallic : ' ambaetus apud Ennium 
linguil tiallici servus appellatur ; ' and 
Cscsar. speaking of the equites in Gaul, 
says, 'circum se ambactos, clientesque 
habent.' Hence Grimm explains the 
word from bak, as backers, supporters, 
persons standing at one's back, as lunch- 
man, a person standing at one's haunch 
or side. 

The notion of manual labour is pre- 
served in Du. amba^,a, handicraft; am- 
bagts-mann, an artisan, on. ambalt, a 
female slave. It. ambasdan (perhaps 
originally to oppress with work), to 
trouble, to grieve ; ambascia, anguish, 
distress, shortness of breath. 
. Ambw, Ambergria. uhg. ambtr, 

dmer, Fr. ambre, Sp. Ptg. antbar, alamt- 
bar, aiambre. The Ar, anbar seems to 
have signified in the first iasiaxice atHS^r- 
gris or grey amber, an odoriferous ex- 
cretion of certain fish, cast up by the 
waves, like the yellow amber, on the 
shore. Hence the name was transferred 
to the latter substance. 

AmbioDt. — Ambition. Lat. amiia, to 
go round, to environ ; also to go about 
hunting for favour or collecting votes, 
whence ambitio, a soliciting of or eager 
desire for posts of honour, &c 

Ambls. Fr. ambler, Sp. amblar, tt. 
ambiare, from Lat ambulo, to walk, go a 
foot's pace. 

Ambry, Aumbry, Aumbar. A side- 
board or cupboard-top on which plate 
was displayed — Skinner ; in whose time 
the word was becoming obsolete. 

Fr. armoire, a cupboard. Sp. arfnarut, 
almario, G. aimer, a cupboard. Mid. 
Lat. armaria, almaria, a chest or cup- 
board, especially for keeping books, 
whence armarius, the monk in charge of 
the books of a monastery. ' Purpuram 
optimam dc almarid toUens ' 'thesaurum 
et almariunl cum ejus piertinentiis, vide- 
licet libris ecclesia;.' — Due. ' Biblio- 
theca, sive armarium vel archivum, hoc- 
hord.'— Gloss. AMt. 

The word was very variously written 
in English. ' Almoriolum— an almery,* 
—Pictorial Vocab. in National Antiqui- 
ties. And as the term was often applied. 
to a cupboard used for keeping broken 
meat, of which alms would mainly con- 
sist, it seems to have contracted a &I- 
lacious reference to the word alms, and 
thus lo become confounded with almomry, 
the ofhce where alms were distributed. 

The original meaning, according to 
Diez, is a chest in which arms were kept, 
' armarium, reposilorium armorum.— 
Gloss. Lindcnbr. 

Ambuah. From It. bosco, Prov. base, 
a bush, wood, thicket j It. imbosairsi, 
Prov. emboscar, Fr. embuscher, to go'into 
a wood, get into a thicket for shelter, 
then to lie in wait, set an ambush. 

Amenabla. Easy to be led or ruled, 
from Fr. ameiter, to bring or lead unto, 
mener, to lead, to conduct. See Demean. 

Amercement. — Amerciament. A 
pecuniary penalty imposed upon offend- 
ers at the mercy of the court ; it differs 
from a fine, which is a punishment cer- ' 
tain, and determined by some statute. — 
B. In Law \j\^\T\,poni in misericord^ 
was thus to be placed at the mercy of 
, the court ; //re mis i merci, or Ure amer-^ 


eii, to be amerced, and misericordia was 
used for any arbitrary exaction. 

Concedimus eliam dsdem abbati bI monachls 
« eorum auccessoribus quod sint quieli de omni- 
biu mutrieerdiii in perpetuum.— Charier Edw 

o pladtabunCi 

I. in Due. Et inde coi 

deotnnnius nurn^nr-ifii- _ 

bemus habere ii solidoa — Due 

When a party was thus placed at the 
mercy of the court, it was the business of 
affttrora appointed for that purpose to 
fix the amount of the amercement. See 

Amnacty. Gr. kmnfrrAa (a priv. & 
fomfuu, I remember), a banishing from 
remembrance of former misdeeds. 

Anurant. From num/, hill, and val, 
valley, the French formed amont and 
aval, upwards aod downwards respect- 
ively, whence manter, to mount, to rise 
up, and avaler, to send down, to swallow. 
Hence amount is the sum total to which 
a number of charges rise up when added 

Ample. Lat ampius, large, spacious. 

Amput&te. Lat. amputo, to cut off, 
to prune ; puto, to cleanse, and thence to 
cut off useless branches, to prune ; putus, 
pure, clean, bright. 

Amulet. Lat. amuletum, a ball or 
anything worn about the person as a 
preservative or charm against evil. From 
Arab, hamala, to carry. 

To Amuse. To give one something 
to muse on, to occupy the thoughts, to 
entertain, give cheerful occupation. For- 
merly also used as the simple muse, to 
contemplate, earnestly hx the thoughts on. 

Here 1 pat my pen into the mkhom and fell 
into a stitHig and deep anmifmutt, revolving in 
my iniDd with great perplexity the amazing 
cKiuige of our at^rs — Fleetwood in Richanbon. 

An. The indefitiite article, the purport 
of which is simply to indicate individ- 
uality. It is the same word with the 
numeral otie, as. aft, and the difference 
in pronunciation has arisen from a 
lighter accent being laid upon the word 
when used as an article than when as a 
definite numeral. So in Breton, the in- 
definite article has become eurt, while the 
numeral is MXdM. Dan. ten, one, en, a, an. 

An.— And. There is no radical dis- 
tinction between art and and, which are 
accidental modifications of spriling ulti- 
mately appropriated to special applica- 
tioDS of the particle. 

In our older writers it was not unfre- 
qnent to make use ot an \a the sense in 
which we now employ and, and vice 
versfl tfAi/ in the senK of dM or ^. 

First, an for aiirf. 

He sone come bysyde hys fooe echon, 

Ah bylevede hym there al nygt, and al hjs ost 

Ah Ihcf^ anoD Bmorve Strang bstavle do. 

R. G. 319. 

Secondly, and for 1/ or an. 

Me rewelh sore I am ualo hire teyde, 
For and I should rt^ene evoy vice 
Which that aba holh, ywis I were 10 nice. 
Squire's Prologue. 
And I were so apt lo quarrel as thou an, any 
man should buy the fee simple of my life Ibi BD 
hour and a half. 

We find an i/and and if , or simply art 
ior if. 
— 1 pniy thee. Launce, and if thou seeaE mj 


a thou daUiciI, then 

wicked servant say in 
am thy fot __ 

In the same sense the OSwed. an, 
while em an corresponds eitactly to our 
an if, am, formerly ef, being the exact 
representative ot &. if. The Sw. an is 
also used in the sense of and, still, yet. — 

It is extremely difficult to guess at the 
sensible image which lies at the root of 
the obscure significations expressed by 
the panicles and conjunctions, the most 
time-worn rehcs of language; but in the 
present instance it seems that both sense 
and form might well be taken from the E. 
even, in the sense of continuous, unbroken, 

The poetical contraction of even into 
e'en shows how such a root might give 
rise to such forms as on. enn, OSwed. 
an, Dan. end. With respect to meaning, 
we still use even as a conjunction in cases 
closely corresponding to the Swed. an, 
and Dan. end. Thus we have Swed. 
an-nu translated by Ihre, eliamnum, 
even now, i. e. without a sensible break 
between the event in question and now ; 
andock, quamvis, even thotigh, or al- 
though ; an, yet, still, continuously ; 
' he is still there,' he continues there. 
So in Danish, — om dette end skulde ske, 
even if that should happen ; end ikke, ne 
quidem, not even then ; end nu, even 
now. When one proposition is made 
conditional on another, the two are prac- 
tically put upon the same level, and thtu 
the conditional ity may fairly be expressed 
by even contracted into an or an. Ana- 
lysing in this point of view the sentence 
above quoted, 

Nay, ait thou dalUeat. then I am Ihy foe, 

it must be interpreted, Nay, understand 

Di. Google 

20 ANA 

these pTopositioos as equally certain, 
thou dalliest here, I am tfiy foe. — It de- 
pends upon you whether the first is to 
prove a fact or no, but the second pro- 
position has the same value which you 
choose to give to the former. 

It will subsequently be shown probable 
that the conjunction (/ is another relic of 
the same word. On the other hand, 
placing two things side by side, or on a 
.level with each other, may be used to 
express that they are to be taken together, 
to be treated in the same manner, to 
form a single whole ; and thus it is that 
the same word, which implies condition- 
ality when circumstances show the un- 
certainty of the first clause, may become 
a copulative when the circumstances of 
the sentence indicate such a signification. 

Ana- Gr. iri, up, on, back. 

Aoatomy, Gr. dmrifivw, to cut up. 
See Aiom. 

Ancestor. Fr. aiueitre, andtre, from 
L^t. OHUassor, one that goes before. 
See Cede. 

Anchor. Lat anchora, Gr. &.ynf<i. 
There can be no doubt that it is flrom the 
root signifying hook, which gives rise tc 
the Gr. iftvka^, curved, crooked ; d-fKin. 
an elbow, recess, comer ; fycq, fynvof, a 
hook ; Lat aaguliu, an angle, umus, z 
hooie, crooked. 

Unco alliget one**™ morm.— Virg. 

Anchoret, A hermit. Gr. ivaxi^ 
tnrc, one who has retired from (he world 
from iyax**p^*'i to retire. 
. Anchovy. Fr, ancfaii, It a»cioe_ 
Gr. ifbi), Lat. apua, apkya {afiya) ; 
whence might arise, It {apj-uga) aeciuga. 
Pied SiciL aneiova, Genoes. anaua. — 

Anciont. Lat. ante, Prov. aniei, It 
OMgt, before, whence ansiam?, Fr. ancien, 
ancient, belonging to former times. 

Ancle. AS. ancleow, G. enkel. Pro- 
bably a parallel formation with Gr, 
ifcfXii, a loop, the bend of the arm; and 
from the same root, dytiiti, the elbow, or 
bending of the aim ; It anca, the haunch, 
or bending of the hip ; Ohg. ancha, Bav. 
anke (genick), the bending of the neck. 

And. See An, 

Andiron. Originally the iron bars 
which supported the two ends of the logs 
on a wood fire. AS. brand-ism, brand- 
iron, could never have been corrupted 
into andiron. The Mid. Lat has andena, 
andela, aadida, anderia. Fr. landUr, 
grand chenet de cuisine, — Diet Wallon. 
The Flemish wend-ijser probably 
hibits the true origin, from •wendeit. 

turn ; wend-ijur, brand-ijser, crateute- 
rium, ferrum m quo veru v«titur, — KiL, 
'- ■•.. the rack in front of the kitchen-dogs 

which the spit turns. 'Lander, GalL 
landier, Lat venitentum; item hfec an- 
dena.' — Catholicon Arm. in Due. Attdtna 
seems a mere latinisation of OE. aundyre 
for nndiron, as brondyr for brondirott, 
gredyre for gridiron. 'Anriena, auadyre.' 
' Trepos, brandyr.' i Craticula, gredyre.' 
— National Antiq. 178. In modem Eng- 
lish ihe term has been transfetred to 
the moveable fire-irons. 

To Aneal, Anele. To give the last 
unction. laneele a sick man, J'enAuiUe. 
—Palsgr, Fr. huille, oil. 

Anecdote. Gr. iiHc^arac, not pub- 
lished, firom itiiiaiii, to give out, to put 

*Ansnt, Anenst. Parallel with G. 
nebtK (from in eben), from as. on-eftn, on- 
emit, as in Byrhtnoth, I. 184 — 'on-emn 
hyra frean', beside their lord. An-emnt, 
equally. — Shareliam's Poems, ed. Wright, 
p. 75 ; <!«-««— Mandeville's Trav., p. 80, 
Anefent (with an inorganic t, as in 
amongs-l, agains-l) — Ancren Riwle ; 'as 
antttte me', as concerning me.— Alexan- 
der, ed. Stevenson, L 735, The addition 
of the Northern English adverbial sufHx 
is gives anentis, afterwards corrupted into 
anenis, anence, anenst. The successive 
senses are on even, equally, beside, in 
relation to, concerning, &c. — Rev. W. W. 

Angel. Lat (7K^/«J, from Gr.'ATTtXoc, 
a messenger, one sent ; ayylXAw, to send 

Anger. Formerly used in the sense 
of trouble, torment, grievance. 
He that ey has Imt fre 
May not know well the propyrti, 
The angyr na the wrechyt dome 
Thai is cowplyt to foule Chyrldame, 

Brace, L ajs- 


From whom fele angirs I have had. — R. R. 

In the original. 

Par qui je fiis puis moult gtiyi. 

From the sense of oppression, or injury, 
the expression was transferred to the 
feelings of resentment naturally aroused 
in the mind of the person aggrieved. In 
the same way, the word karm signifies 
injury, damage, in English, and resent- 
ment, anger, vexation, in Swedish, 

The idea of injury is very often ex- 
pressed by the image of pressure, as in 
the word oppress, or the Fr, grever, to 
bear heavv on one. Now the root iwrg" 
is very widely spread in the sense of 



compression, tightness. G. eng, i 
pressed, strait, narrow; Lat. angere, 
to strain, strangle, vex, torment ; angus- 
tus, narrow; angina, oppression of the 
breast ; angor, anguish, sorrow, vejtation 
Gr. i.-]x*>-, to compress, strain, strangle 
whencearx*(^ It.^rwjo), near; oy^'oSa' 
to be grieved ; ^^x"vn, what causes paii 
or grief. 

Both physical and metaphorical sense; 
are well developed in the on. angr, 
narrow, a nook or comer, grief, pain, 
sorrow ; angra, to torment, to trouble ; 
kraiia-angar, crabs' pincers. 

To A&ffle. To tish with a rod and 
Hue, from as. angel, a fish-hook. Du. 
OHghilsHoer, aitghtl-roeiie,a. fishing-line, 
fishing-rod ; angkeltn, to angle. Chaucer 
has angle-hook, showing that the proper 
meaning of the word angle was then lost, 
and by a further confusion it was sub- 
sequently applied to the rod. 
A fisher neil his trembling angit bears. — Pope. 

Anguish. Lat. angustia, a strait, 
whence It. angoscia (as poscia, from 
posiea), Fr. angoisse, E. anguisk. See 


Lat. anilis, from anus, i 

A ni mal. —Animate. Lat. animus, 
the spirit, living principle, mind, properly 
the breath, as the ruling function of life 
in man, analogous to ^irit, from ^iro, 
to breathe. Gr. dvip>c, wind ; ia, diti", 
to blow. 

To AnneaL To fire glass in order to 
melt and fix the vitreous colours with 
which it is painted. 

one in fIoss w»..*...».. 

in Worcester. 
I dM^/apotteoferthe or such e like with 
a coloure, Je plommc^PaLsgr. Also to 
temper glass or metab in a gradually 
decreasing heat. It /ccare, to fire or set 
on fire, abo to neal metals,— Fl. 

From AS. alan, onalan, to set on fire, 
bum, bake. The expression cocH lateris 
of the Vu^te, Is. xvi. 7, 1 1, is rendered 
afulid tyil in the earlier WicklifBte 
version, and bakun tijl in the later.— 

• To Aimoy. It. annoiare, OFr. 
tmour, anueir, anuUr, Fr. ennuyer, to 
annoy, vex, trouble, grieve, afflict, weary, 
irkfij importune overmuch. — Cot. The 
origu of^the word has been well explained 
by Diez from the Lat. phrase esse in odie, 
lLex«r»«i'rftt>,to be hateful or repugnant 
to one. EssealicuitnuiAi); apudaliquem 
w 0dio esse. — Cic. Hence was formed 


Sp. enojo, offence, injury, anger; enojar, 
to molest, trouble, vex; It noia, trouble, 
weariness, vexation, disquiet; rtcarH a 
noja, to be tired of something; nojare, 
venire a noja, to weary, to be tedious to. 
Diei cites OVenet.//» te sont a inodic 
as exactly equivalent to It. piu ti sono a 
noja. * Recarsi a noia, e aversi a noia^ 
saysVanzoni.'vagliono recarsi in fastidio, 
in recrescimento, in odio, odiare, odium 
in aliquem concipere.' So in Languedoc, 
odi, hate, disgust ; aver en odi, to hate ; 
la car me ven en odi, meat is distasteful 
to me ; mt -vines en odi, vous m'ennuyez^ 
you are tedious to me. From in odio 
arose OFr. enuy, envi (commonly re- 
ferred to Lat. invitus), d envi or d en-vis, 
unwillingly, with regret, as kui from 
kodie. And from enuy was formed 
ennuyer, to weary, to annoy. 

From the same source must be ex- 
plained Du. noode, noeye, unwilling, 
with regret or displeasure ;«oodbw/f)!iuft. 
gravat^ aliquid facere; noode hebben, 
asgri ferre ; noeyen, noyen, ofScere, nocere, 
molcstum esse. — Kil. ' Noode, nooyelick, 
k ennuy, k regret, invitus, coaclus, ingra- 
tus, vel iegre, molest^ ; jet noode doen, 
faire quelque chose enuy; noode jet 
horen, ouyr enuy quelque chose, graviter 
audire.'— Thesaurus Theut Ling. 1573, 

.Anodyns. Gr. dviMuvoc (a priv. and 
Wu»^ pain), without sense of pain, 
capable of dispelling pain. 

Anomaloua. Gr. avi^akoz (a priv. 
and h^oKhi, level, fair), irregular, devi- 
ating from an even surface. 
^ Anon. AS. on an, in one, jugiter,cofv< 
tinuo, sine intermissione — Lye ; at one 
time, in a moment; ever and anon, con- 

Answer. AS. andswarian, from and, 
in opposition, and swerian, Goth, svaran, 

en^tge for. It is remarkable that the 
Latin expression for answer is formed in 
exactly the same way from a verb spon- 
dere, signifying to engage for, to assure. 
The simpler idea of speaking in return is 
directly expressed by Goth, anda-vaurd, 
G. anl-ivort, AS. andwyrd, current side 
by side with the synonymous andswar. 

Ant. The well-known insect, con- 
tracted from emmet; like aunt, a parent's 
"'ster, from Lat. amita. 

Ant«- Lat. anU, before. 

Ant- AnU- Or. Arri, against What 

in feice of one or before one is in one 
point of view opposite or against one. 

Anthem. A divine song sung by two 
opposite choirs or choruses.— B. Lat. 



taiUphona; Gr. avri^wni, from n'l-nfwviw, 
to sound in answer. Prov. anti/ena; 
AS. antifn, whence anthint, as from AS. 
aUfn, E. sletn. The Fr. fonn antitnne 
shows a simi1a.r corruption to that of 
Estiinttt, from Stefhaaus. 

A&tick. -^ Antique. LaL anlicui, 
from ante, before, as posticus, bom post, 

At the revival of art in the 14th and 
ijth centuries the recognised models of 
imitation were chiefly the remains of 
ancient sculpture, left as the legacy of 
Roman civilisation. Hence the applica- 
tion of the term antique to work of sculp- 
tured omameniation, while individual 
figures wrought in imitation or supposed 
imitation of the ancient models, were 
called antiques, as the originals are at the 
present day. 

At the entering oT the p>liys before the gate 
was builded a fountain of unbowed work en- 
grayled with antidii workes, — the oH God of 
wine called Bacchus Urling the wine, wblch by 
(he conduiu in the earth ran to the people 
plentEODsly witb red, wliite; >nd cUnt wine. — 
Hall's Chron. 

Again from the same author : 

At the n«ther end were two broad arches opon 
three aniikt pillers, all of ^1d, burnished, 
swaged, and graven full of gargillsar.d lerpentes 
— and slxive the aiches were made sundiy 
amtiJus and dcvices- 

But as it is easier to produce a certain 
effect by monstrous aJid caricature re- 
presentations than by aiming at the 
beautiful in art, the sculptures by which 
OUT medieval buildings were adorned, 
executed by such stone-masons as were 
to be had, were chiefly of the former 
class, and an antick came to signify a 
grotesque figure such as we see on the 
spouts or pinnacles of our cathedrals. 

Some fetch the origin of this proverb (he looks 

of the Devil which doth or lately did overlook 
Uncoln College. Surely the architect intended 
It no further (han for an ordinarr antitki. — Ful- 
ler in R. 

Now for the Inside here grows another douljt, 
whether grotesca, as the Italiaui, or autiatu 
vrorfc. as vre call it, should be received. — Re- 
liquia Wottonians in R. 

The term was next transferred to the 

gotesque characters, such as savages, 
una, and devils, which were favourite 
subjects of imitation in masques and 


Id tbe ikbe meta] as they liyliig were, — Spencer. 


To dance the aniieks is explained by 
Bailey to dance ailer an odd and ridicu- 
lous manner, or in a ridiculous dress, like 
a jack-pudding. To go antiquely, in 
Shake^ar, to go in strange disguises. 
I n modem language antic is appueid to 
extravagant gestures, such as those 
adopteo by persons representing the 
characters called antics in ancient 
masques. Mannequin, a puppet or an 
antic— Cot 

Antidote. Gr. ivrtiiormi, something 
^iven against, a preventative ; feriot, what 
IS to be given. 

Antler, Fr. andouillers, the branches 
of a stag's horns ; but properly andouilUr 
is the first branch or brow-antlcr, sur- 
andouiller the second. As the brow- 
antler projects forward tbe word has been 
derived from ante, before, but the ex- 
planation has not been satis&ctoriljr 
made out 

Anvil. Formerly written anvilt or 
anvild; AS, anfill; Pl.D. ambaltj Du. 
aenbeld, amdtld, a block to hammer on. 
Percutere, vilian — Gloss. Peiron ; fiiOst, 
verberas. — Otfried. So LaL incus, in- 
curiis, from in and cudere, to strike ; G. 
amboss; ■ OHG. anapos, from an and 
bossen, to strike. 

Anxious. Lat. anxius, from ango, 
anxi, to strain, press, strangle, choke, 
vex, trouble. 

Any. AS. anig, from an, one, and ig, 
a termination equivalent to Goth, eigs, 
from tigan, to have. Thus from ^lie, a 
gift, w^th, gabeigs, one having wealth, 
rich. In like manner, onr is that which 
partakes of the nature of one, a small 
quantity, a few, some one, one at tbe 

Apanage. LaL panis, bread, wfaenoe 
Vrov. panar, apanar, to nourish, to sup- 
port ; Fr. apanage, a provision for a 
younger child. 

Apart. — Apartment. Fr. i part, 
aside, separate. Apartment, something 
set aside, a suite of rooms set aside for a 
separate purpose, finally applied to a 
single chamber. 

Ape, Originally a monkey in general ; 
latterly applied to the tailless species. 
To ape, to imitate gestures, from the imi- 
tative habits of monkeys. But is it not 
gossible that the name of the ape maybe 
om imitating or taking off the actions 
of another ? Goth,, on. ef, G. ab, of, from. 

Aperient, — Aperture. Lat aperio, 
apertum, to open, to display ; patio, to 
bring forth. See Cover, 

Aphotina, Gr. i^a^a^h^, a definite 



; a'fofii'Ccs, to mark off, to define; 
t^, 3 boiind, landmark. 

Apo- Gr. ciirj, corresp. to I^t. ab, of, 
off, from, away. 

Apoplexy. From Gr. arairX^nirv, 

to Strike down, to disable ; — o/ioi, to lose 
one's senses, become diziy ; ir\qv<F<», Eu, 
to strike- 

ApostU. — Xpistle. Gr. iic&ma\e^, 
one sent out, from u'lroirriXXw, to send off, 
despatch on some service. In the same 
way from i-KvnkiAu, to ^nd to, to an- 
nounce, iiruiTDXiJ, an epistle or letter. 

Apothecary. Gr. dtfi&ntri, a store or 
keeping-place; airari6i)/ii, to store or put 

Appal. Wholly unconnected with /ii/e, 
lo which it is often referred. To cause to 
paJl (see Pall), lo deaden, to take away 
or lose the vital powers, whether through 
age or sudden terror, horror, or the like. 
An old aMalled wight, in Chaucer, is a 
man who lias lost his vigour through age. 

quickened again the faith of Chtiti 

s oThis kinL 
afpatUd.—VMtaxi m R. 

Ajiparel. From Lat. par, equal, like, 
the MLat. diminutive paricutus, gave 
rise to \l.parecckio, Sf.parejo, Tr.ptireil, 
like. Hence It. apiarecehiart, Sp. apar- 
tjar, Prov. ajmreikar, Ft. apparttUer, 
properly to join like to like, to fit, to suit. 
Appartil, outfit, preparation, habiliments. 

And whanne sum men seiden of Ihe Temple 
that it was afarthd wild good stones.— WicI if 
iu R. Eke If he apparailU his mete more deli- 
dously than nede is. — Parson's Tale. 

Then like Fr. habiller; or E. dress, the 
word was specially applied to clothing, 
as 4fee necessary preparation for every 
kind oTaction. 

To Appeal. Lat. appellare, Fr. ap- 
ptUr, to call, to call on one for a special 
purpos^ to call for judgment, to call on 
one for his defence, i. e. to accuse him of 

To Ajipear.— Apparent. OFr. ap- 
paroirj \ja,\.. pano, to be open to view. 

Appeaa*. Fr. appaiser, from paix, 

Apple. AS. ail, ON. apat, w. opal, 
Ir. avail, Lith. eSolys, 'Sm%%. jablokg. 

To Appoint. The Fr. point was used 
in the sense of condition, manner, ar- 
rangement — the order, trim, array, plight, 
case, taking, one is in.— Cotgr. En 
pitaix poittct, in piteous case; habiller 
en ce poind, to dress in this fashion.— 
Cent Nouv. Nouv. A paiiut, aptly, in 


good time, in good season ; prendre son 
a painct, lo take his fittest opportunity 
for i quand it ftit i poind, when the 
proper time came. Hence appaincl, fit- 
ness, opportunity, a thing for one's pur- 
pose, after his mind ; and appoincter (to 
find fitting, pronounce fitting), to deter- 
mine, order, decree, to finish a contro- 
versy, to accord, agree, make a composi- 
tion between parties, to assign or grant 
over unto.— Cotgr. 

To Appraise. Lat. pretium, Fr. prix, 
a price, value ; apprider, to rate, esteem, 
pnie, set a price on.— Cotgr, I prise 
ware, I sette a piyce of a thynge what it 
is worthe : je o/»iJf.— Palsgr, The PI. 
D. laven is used both as E. praise, to 
commend, and also as appraise, to set a 
price on. To praise, in fict, is only to 
exalt the price or value of a thing, to 
speak in commendation. 

Appreliend.— Apprentice.— Apprise. 
"Lzx. prehendere, to catch hold of; appre- 
kendere, to seize, and metaphoricJly to ' 
take the meaning, to Ttnderstand, to 
learn. Fr. apprendre, appris, to learn, 
whence the E. apprise, to make a thing 
known. Fr. apprentis, a learner, one 
taken for the purpose of learning a trade. 

Approach. From Lat. prope (comp. 
propius), near, were formed appropiari 
(cited by Diet from a late author). 
Walach. apropid, Prov. apropchar. It. 
approcdare, Fr. approcher, to come near, 
to approach. 

Approbation. — Approve. — Ap- 
prover. LM.proiiis, %ooi, probare, op- 
probare, to deem good, pronounce good. 
Ft. approver, to approve, allow, find 
good, consent unto.— Cotgr. 

Hence an Approver in law is one who 
has been privy and consenting to a crime, 
but receives pardon in consideration of 
liis giving evidence against his principal. 

This false Ihefe Ihis sompnour, quoth the fiere, 
Had alway bandis redy lo his bond, 
That lellith him all the secre (bey knew, 
For their acquaintance was not come of new ; 
They werin his affnrviri privily. — Friar's Tale. 

Appurtenance. Fr. apparimir, to 
pertain or beloi^ to. 

• Apricot. Formerly apricock, agree- 
ing with \»\.pracogua otpracoda. Mod. 
Gr. ir^uminoi'. They were considered 
by the Romans a kmd of peach, and 
were supposed to take their name from 
their ripening earlier than the ordinary 

MalurEscunl zstate prircacia fntra tiigiala 
annos repeals et primo denariii anaqlto venua- 
data.— Pliny, N. H. iv. 11. 




It may be doubted, however, whether! 
the Lat. pracoqua was not an adapt- 
ation. It is certain that the apricot 
was inirixiuced from Armenia, and the 
fruit is still called barkuk in Persian. It 
• is far more likely that the name should 
have been imported with the fruit into 
Italy than that the Persians should have 
adopted the I^tin name of a native 
fruit. — Maish. 

Aproo. A clolh worn in front for the 

rcection of the clothes, by corruption 

—And tbeiewitli to wepe 
She nude, and wilh her tiaprrn fsit and white 

She wyped soft ber eyen for leris thai she outluh. 
Chaucer, Beiya. Piol. 31. 

Still called napfiem [pronounced itap- 
*roH in Oeveland. J. C. A.] in the N. of 
E.— HaU. Nairun, or barm-cloth.— Pr. 
Pm. From OFr. naperon, properly the 
intensitive of nape, a cloth, as napkin is 
. ihe diminutive. Naperon., grande nappe. 
— Roquefort. Naperon is explained by 
H&art, a small cloth put upon the table~ 
cloth during dinner, to preserve it from 
stains, and taken away before dessert, a 
purpose precisely analogous to that for 
which an apron is used. ' Un beau 
service de damass^ de Sil^sie 1 la nappe, 
le naperon et 24 serviettes,' — About. Ma- 
delon. The loss or addition of an initial 
M to words is very common, and fre- 
quently we are unable to say whether the 
consonant has been lost or added. 

Thus we have nauger zmA. auger, newt 

__i ._.... - 1 e//, nawi a.tid awr,nompire 

, and the same phenomenon 

[) in other European languages. 

Apt. Lat. aptus, fastened close, con- 
nected, and thence fitj suitable, proper. 

Aquooua. — Aquatio. Lat. a^ua, San- 
ger, ap, Gr. OK, Alban. ughe, water ; 
Goth, ahva, OHG. aha, a river. 

Arable. Lat aro, OE. ear, to plough. 

Arbiter. — Arbitrate. The primary 
sense of LaL arbiter is commonly given 
as an eye-witness, from whence that of 
an umpire or judge is supposed to be 
derived, as a witness specially called in 
for the purpose of determining the ques- 
tion under trial. Bui there is no recog- 
nised derivation in Latin which would 
account for either of these significations. 
A rational explanation may, however, be 
found in Fin. 

There is a common tendency in ai 
informed state of society to seek for the 
resolution of doubtful questions of suffi. 
cient interest by the casting of lots in 

and ewie, c 

some shape or other. Thus in Latin 
sors, a lot, is taken in the sdise of an 
oracle, and JorCilegus is a Aiothsayer, 
who gives oracles, or answers ques- 
s by the casting of lots ; and this 
doubtless is the origin of E. sorcerer, 
sorcery. Albanian, shert, a lot, skortdr, 

soothsayer. Now one of the points 
upon which the cunning man of the 
present day is most frequently consulted 
IS the finding of lost property, and a 
dispute upon such a subject among a 
barbarous people would naturally be re- 
ferred to one who was supposed to have 

ipematural means of knowing the truth. 
Thus the lots-man or soothsayer would 
naturally be called atas arbiter 01 Aooms- 
man. Now we find in Fin. arpa, a lot, 
symbol, divining rod, or any instrument 
of divination; arpa-mies, (nuM^man,) 
jmductor, aroiter, hariolus; arpeUn, 
arwtlla, to decide by lot, to divine ; ar- 
wata, conjicio, auguror, sestimo, arbitror ; 
ar^aaja, arbiter in re censendS; arwelo, 
arbiCnum, opinio, conjectura ; anvaus, 
conjectura, teslimatio arbitraria. It will 
be observed in how large a proportion of 
these cases the Lat. arbiter and its de- 
lves are used in explanation of the 
Fin. words derived from arpa. 

Arbonr. From OE. herhere, origitiaDy 
signifying a place for the cultivation of 
herbs, a pieasure-ground, garden, sub- 
iequently applied to the bower or rustic 
shelter which commonly occupied the 
most conspicuous situationin the garden ; 
and thus the etymological reference to 
herbs being no longer apparent, the spell- 
ing was probably accommodated to the 
notion of being sheltered by trees or 
shrubs {arbor). 

This path 

I foliowid till il me brought 

To 11 right p)esBun( herbir wnl ywraught. 
Which that benchid wai, and with loins new 

Freshly luraici • 

The hegge also thai yedin In compas 
And closid in all the grene htrtere. 
With Sycamor was sei and Eglateie,— 
And shapln was this herbir, iiife and all. 
As is a pretty parlour. 

Chaucer, Flower and Le»f. 

II growyth in a gardyn, quod he, 
That God made hymselve, 
Amyddes mannes t>ody, 

The more {root) is of that stokke, 

Herte highle the herhtr 

That it intie groweth.— P. P. a, 331. 

The word is still used in its ancient 
meaning at Shrewsbury, where the differ- 
ent guilds have separate little pleasure- 
gardens with their suihmer-houses each 
within its own fence, in the midst of an 


open field outside the town, and over the 
^te of one of these gardens is written 
' Shoemakers' Arbour,' 

This Udr walked outright till he might lee her 
enter tnlQ a fine close arior ; it was of treeii whose 
branches so interlaced each other that It could 
resist the strongest Tiolence of eye-siRht.— Ar- 
cadia in R. 

Arch. A curved line, part of a circle, 
anything of a bowed form, as the arch of 
a bridge. Lat. arcus, a, bow, which has 
been referred to W. ^wyrog, curved, 
ixomgwyro, to bend, 

* ircn, Arrant. i./4rrf and its equiv- 
alents in the other branches of Teutonic 
are used with great latitude of meaning. 
In £. it signifies roguish, mischievous, 
sly, and must be identified with Dan. 
arrig, ill-tempiered, troublesome, C. arg, 
bad of its kind, morally bad, mischievous, 
wanton, Du. erg, sly, malicious. G. ein 
arger kttabi, Du. an erg kind, an arch 
boy, un malin enfant, un petit rus^. The 
earliest meaning that we can trace is that 
of ON, afy, AS. targ, earh, faint-hearted, 
slu^sh, timid, and in that sense among 
the Lombanis it was the most offensive 
term of abuse that could be employed. 
* Memento Dux Ferdulfe quod me esse 
inertem el inutilem dixens, et vulgari 
vertw, <trga, vocaveris.'— Paul Wame- 
frid. ' Si quis alium argam pier furorem 
damaverit. — Lex. Langobard, in Due. 
Then from the contempt felt for any- 
thing like timidity in those rough and 
warlike times the word acquired the 
sense of worthless, bad, exaggerated in 
decree when applied to a t^ quality. 
OK. argvilugr, taxed with cowardice, 
contemptible, bad. Dan. det arrigsU 
SHOVS, the most arrant trash, wretcbed 
stuff', oe. anoe, fainthearted. 

Now thou seist be is the be$te knygt, 
And thou as erat coward. 

Alisaunder, 3340. 

There can be no doubt that E. arrant 
is essentially the same word, the termina- 
tion of which is probably from the mas- 
culine inflection en of the PL D. adjective. 
EfH argen drag, an arrant rogue.— Brem. 
Wtb. * " 

2. Arch in composition. Gr. dpxh, 
beginning, opyuv, to be first. Apj^t in 
comp. signifies chief or principal, as in 
ifXuptic, ipxHyTiXoc, chief priest, arch- 
angel. This particle takes the form of 
arei in It., erx in C, arri in E. ; arct- 
vescovo, ert-bischof, arch-bishop. In G. 
as in £. it is also applied to pre-eminence 
in evi] ; erz-6etruger, an arch-deceiver . 
tTM-vmckerer, an arrant usurer. Perhaps 

fall the more readily into this appli- 

ion from the tact that our version of 

the Gr. particle is identical with arch 

applied on other grounds to pre-eminence 

Architeiit. Gr. ^pxiTixruv (&px4i ^i<l 

crwv, a builder, worker, from riltj^u, to 

instruct, fabricate), a chief builder. 

AichiTea. Gr. ap^tav, the court of 

a magistrate, receptacle where the public 

acts were kept. The term woult! thus 

appear to be connected with apx>"v, a 

ruler, apxh, government, rule [princi7 

patus), and not with ip;i(a?ot, ancienL 

From ipxaov was formed Lat arihivum 

(as Argive from 'A^jdm), a repository for 

records or pubhc documents, and hence 

. modem languages the term archives 

applied to the records themselves. 

Ardent. — Ardour. — Arson. Lat ar- 

•.o, arsum, Fr. ardre, ars, to be on fire, 

I bum ( ardor, burning heat Fr. arson, 

burning or setting on fire. — Cot. 

Ardnoua. Lat. arduus, high, lolty, 

difficult to reach. 

Area. Lat area, a threshing-floor, a 
bare plot of ground, a court yard, an ex- 
tent of flat surface. Applied in modem 
E. to the narrow yard between the under- 
ground part of a house and the ground in 

Ar^ne.— Argumant. Lat arguo, to 
demonstrate, make clear or prove. 
Arid. Lat aridus, from areo, to dry. 
Ariatoeracy. Gr. dpdrroipartia {apvirot, 
the best, bravest, a noble, and cpuriH, to 
rule, exercise lordship), ruling by the 
nobles, whence the body of the nobles 

Arm. Sax. earm, Lat. armus, the 
shoulder-joint, especially of a brute, 
though sometimes applied to man. Con- 
nect«l with ramus, a branch, by Russ. 
ramo (pi, ram^nd), shoulder ; Boh. ram^, 
forearm; rvrnuwc, arm,shoulder,branch, 
Arma. — Army. Lat. arma, W. ar/, 
Gael, arm, a weapon. As the arm itself 
is the natural weapon of offence, it is pos- 
sible that the word arm in the sense of 
weapon may be simply an application of 
the same word as the designation of the 
bodily limb. 

From the verb armare, to arm, are 
formed the participial nouns. It. armala, 
Sp, armada, Fr. armie, of which the two 
former are confined by custom to a naval 
expedition, while the Fr. armie, and our 
army, which is derived from it, are ap- 

Silied only to an armed body of land 
orces, though formerly also used in the 
sense of a navat expedition. 



Al Leyes was h« and at Salalie 

Whanne (hey were wonne, and in the grete see 

In many a noble nnwdc had he be. 

Prol. Knight's Tale. 

Artjm&tio. Gr. dpufiam^, from Spv/ia, 
Gweeiness of odours, a sweet smell. 

Arquebuss. It, archibuso affords an 
example of a foreign word altered in order 
to square with a supposed etymology. It 
is commonly derived from area, a bow, as 
the only implement of analogous effect 
before the invention of fire-arms, and 
iuso, pierced, hollow. But Diei has well 
ftbsMTed hi)w incongruous an expression 
a hollow bow or pierced bow would be, 
and the true derivation is the Du. haeck- 
buyse, hatck-busse, properly a gun fired 
from a rest, from haeck, the hook or 
forked rest on which it is supported, and 
busse, c. biickse, a fire-arm. From 
kaecke-busse it became harquebuss, and 
in It. archibuso or arcabugia, as if from 
arco^ a bow. In Scotch it was called a 
hagiut o/croehe; Fr. arquebus d croc. — 

Airack. Ptg. araca, orraca, rak. 
From Arab, arac, sweat ; 'arac al-lamr, 
sweat (juice) of the date. The name of 
'arac or 'araqui was first applied lo the 

tilled spirit in |[eneral, being applied by 
tisto thence spirit brought from the East 
Indies. — Doiy 

To Arraign. In the Latin of the 
Middle Ages, rationes was the term for 
the pleadings in a suit; raf tones extr cere, 
or ad rationes stare, to plead ; mifUre or 
ponereadrationes, or arrationare (whence 
m OFr. arraisoHtter, aresner, aregnier, 
arraigner), to arraign, i. e. to call one to 
account, to require him to plead^ to 
place him under accusation. 

Tbos sal ilk man al his endyng 
Be putted til an hard rekenyng, 
And be artsmnd. a!s right es 
Of alle bis mTSdedys, mare and les. 

Pricke of Conscience. 3460. 

In like manner was formed derationare, 
to clear one of the accusation, to deraign, 
to justify, lo refute. 

Arrant. Pre-eminent in something 
bad, as an arrant fool, thief, knave. 'An 
trraunt usurer.'— Pr. Pm. See Arch, 

To Array. It. arredare, to prepare 
or dispose beforehand, to gel ready. 
Arredare una casa, to furnish a house ; 

unovascelio,toequipa ship. Arredo, 

household furniture, rigging of a ship, 
and in the plural arr«/i, apparel, raiment, 
as clothing is the equipment universally 
necessary. OFr. arroyer, arrier, to 

dispose, set in order, prepare, fit ouL 
The simple verb is not extant in Italian, 
but is preserved to us in the OK. mi&, 
the fundamental meaning of which seems 
to be to push forwards, to lay ouL At 
reida sverdit, to wield a sword; at r. 
/ram mat, to bring forth food ; at r./eit, 
to pay down money; air. til rumtl, to 
prepare the bed ; at r. kn a iestinom, to 
carry hay on a horse. Sw. reda, to pre- 
pare, to set in order, to arrange ; reda elt equip a vessel; reda til mid- 
dagen, to prepare dinner. The same 
word is preserved in the Scotch, to red, 
to red up, to put in order, to dress; to 
red the road, to clear the way. — Jam. 

The meaning of the IjsX.parOjfiaratut, 
seems to have been developeii on an 
analogous plan. The fundamental mean- 
ing of the simple paro seems to be to 
lay out, to push forwards. Thus separg 
is to lay thmgs by themselves ; comparo 
to place them side by side; ^r^nrtf, to 
lay them out beforehand; and the II, 
Parare, to ward off. 

To Arrrat. Lat. restart, to remain 
behind, to stand still. It. arrestare, Fr. 
arrester, to bring one to stand, to seize 
his person. 

To Arriva. Mid. Lat adripare, to 
come to shore, from ripa, bank, sbore ; 
then generalised, iL arrivare, Sp. ar- 
ribar, Fr. arriver, to arrive. — Diet. 

Arrogant. Lat. ad and rogo, to ask. 
Sibi aliquid arro^are, to ascribe some- 
thing to oneself; arrogans, claiming 
more than one's due. 

ArroT. ON. or, gen. oruar, an arrow ; 
Sr-vamar, missiles, probably from their 
whirring through the air; ' orvamar 
flugo hvinandi )-fir baufut theim,' the 
arrows flew whiuing over their heads. — 
Safa Sverris. p- 26. On the same prin- 
ciple It freeaa, an arrow, may be conrt- 
pared with Fr. frissement d'un trait, the 
whizzing sound of an arrow. — Cot Sw. . 
hurra, to whirl, hurl. 

Arsenal. It. argana,darsena,tarwana, 
a dock-yard, place of naval stores and 
outfit, dock. Sp. atarasana, ataraiana/j 
a dock, coverea shed over a rope-walk. 
From Arab, ddr cind'a, ddr-af-cirtd'a, 
ddr-a^-fan'a or ddr-{ana, a place of con- 
struction or work. It is applied by 
Edrisi to a manufacture of Morocco 
leather. Ibn-Khaldoun quotes an order 
of the Caliph Abdalmehc to build at 
Tunis ' a ddr-cind'a for the construction 
rerything necessary for the equip- 
. and annament of vessels.' Pedro 
de Alcala translates afarasana by the 


Arab, d/h- a cinSa. — Engelmann and 

Opmet ad illius (navigu) consenmlionem in 
locuiD pertrahi coopwtum, qui locus, uH dicnim 
conservalur navl^m, Anraa vulgariler appel- 
latur. — Sanunis id Due. 

Araon. See Ardent. 

Art. The exercise of skill or invenlion 
in the production of some material object 
or intellectual effect; the rules and 
method of well doing a thing ; skill, con- 
trivance, cunning. 

Art and part, when a person is both 
the contriver of a crime and takes part 
in the execution, but commonly in the 
negative, neither art nor pari. From 
the Lat. ttec artiftx nee partueps, neither 
contriver nor partaker. 

Artery. Gr. dpr^/Mu, an air-receplacle 
(supposed from d^p, and rqplw, to keep, 
preserve), the windpipe, and thence any 
pulsating blood-channel. * 

Artid^oke. Venet. articiocoj Sp. ctl- 
cachofa; Arab, al-ckarsckufas It. car- 
ciofa. — Diei. 

Article. Lat ariiculus, diminutive 
of artut, a joint, a separate element or 
member of anything, an instant of time, 
a single mcmlier of a sentence, formerly 
appUed to any part of speech, as turn, 

effect of which is to designate 

tjcular individual of the 

tioned, or to show that 

applies to some one individual, and not 

to the kind at large. 

Artillery. We find in Middle Latin 
the term ars, and the derivative nrtyf- 
cium, applied in general to the implement 
with which anything is done,and specially 
to the implements of war, on the same 
principle that the Gr. riijx<»'4i t^e equi- 
valent of the Lat. an, gave rise to the 
word machiaa, a machine, and on which 
the word engine is derived from the Lat. 
iMgeniutn, a contrivance. Thus a statute 
oAhe year 1352 enacts ; 

Quod nulla peisona—sil a 
monbus coruu1u]n..-aub pcent 
m qulbus . 



Cum Diagnis bombaidjs et ph 

From ars seems to have been formed the 
Fr. verb artiller, in the general sense of 
exercising a handicraft, or performing 
skilled work, subsequently applied t ' 
manufacturing or supplying with i 
tions of war. In testimony of the 
general sense we find artiliaria, and 

thence the modem Fr. aielier, a work- 
Quod eliganluT duo legales homiaei qui 
vadant cum ofliciali ad visilandum oniDcs ar- 
tiliariai extrcaita artim paiamrvm. — Stat. 
A. D. 1360. ID Due. 

Artillemeitf, artillerie, is given by 
Roquefort in the sense of implement, 
fumilure, equipment, as well as instru- 
ment of war, and the word iS used by 
Rymer in the more general sense : — 

Deccm et ocio dlsccs argeuti, unum caliceni 
aigenleum, urum parvum tinlinnabulum pre 
mlssi, &c., et oinnes alias arlUlariai slbi com- 

A statute of Edward II. shows what ' 
was understood by artillery in that day : 

Item ordinatum est quod sit unus arHIIalor 
qui fadat balislas. cereUos, areas, sagillas, 
lanceas, spieulas, el alia, aima necessaiia pro 

the Sook of Samuel, speaking 

of bow and arrows, it is said, 'And 
Jonathan gave his artillery to the lad, 
and said, Go carry them to the city.' 

Ab. The comparison of the G. dialects 
shows that lu is a contraction from all- 
so; AS. eallrwa; O. also, als, as (Schulie, 
Schmeller), OFris. aha, atse, als, asa, 
aw,(« (Richthofen). ' ait auch wir verge- 
ben unsem schuldigem,' as we also for- 
give our debtors.— Schmeller. Also, sic, 
omnino, tiditer, ita. — Kilian. Fris. ' alsa 
grate bote aisa,' g. ' eben so grosse busse 
alsl as great a fine as ; Fris. ' alsoe graet 
als,' ' atsee graet ende alsoe lytich ah^ as 
great and as small as ; ' alsoe ofle als^ as 
often as. 

In OE. we often find als for also, 
Schjr Edward that had sic valour 
Was dede ; and Jhone Stewart alsua. 
And Jhone [he Sowllis all with the 
And Qlhyiit/i of thar compan/.^Bniec, ni. 795. 
Schir Edward that daj- wajd nocht ta 
His col aimouT ; but Gib Harper, 
That men held als withoutyn per 
Off bis estate, had on lha.1 day 
All hale Schir Edwardis array. — Bruce, ill. 783. 
i. e. whom men held as without eqtial of 
his station. 

So in German, ' ein solcher, als er ist,' 
— such a one as he is. — Schmeller. In 
expressions like iw great as, where two 
as correspond to each other, the Geimaits 
render the first by so, the second by als; 
in OE. the Arst was commonly written 
als, the second as, 


To Weris water cnmmyn als ner 

As on othyr balff (hdr layis wer. 

Bnice, xiv. 103. 




9l grete (resoiire that ei 

Of all thai grete (resoiire that ever he biwan 
^/t b»re was his loweii! fli Job the powers man, 
R. Brtinoe. 
But this is probably only because the se- 
cond ns, having less emphasis upon it 
than the first, bore more contraction, 
just as wc have seen in the corresponding 
Frisian expressions that the first as is 
rendered by alsoe, the second by als. In 
other cases the Frisian expression is just 
the converse of the G. Fris. a/sa longe 
la := G- io ioMgt als, as long as ; Fns. 
asa^ria—G. to weit all, as; Fris. 
aUafir sa, in so far as. 

Ascetic. Gr. JonjrKit (ore!*, to prac- 
tise, exercise as an art), devoted to the 
practice of sacred duties, meditation, &c. 
Hence the idea of exercising rigorous 

Ash. I. The tree. AS. asc, ON. askr. 
3. Dust Goth, azgo, AS. asca, ON. aska, 
Esthon. ask, refuse, dung. 

Aahlar. Hewn stone- OFr. aiseler, 
Sc aislair. ' Entur le temple — fud un 
inurs dc treiz estruiz de aisehrs qui bien 
furent polis : ' — tribus ordinibus laplAim 
polJIorum. — Livre des Rois. ' A mason 
cannocht hew ain evin aislair without 
directioun of his rewilL' — Jam. Fr. 
'bouttice, an ashlar or binding-stone in 
building.' — Cot, 

Fr. aisdtr seems to be derived from 
aitselle (Lat. axilla), the hollow beneath 
the arm or between a branch and the 
stem of a tree, applied to the angle 
between a rafter and the wall on which 
it rests, or between two members of a 
compound beam in centering. Alsselier, 
then, or esselier, in carpentry, is the 
bracket which supports a beam, or the 

3uartering-piece which clamps a rafter to 
le wall (piice de bois qu'on assemble 
dans un chevron et dans la rainure, pour 
cintrer des quarticrs (Gattel) ; pour for- 
mer les quartiers dans une charpente ^ 
lambris ; qui sert i former les cintres, ou 
(]ui SDutient par les bouts les entrans ou 
tirans. — Trevoux), From thus serving to 
unite the segments of a compound beam 
the name seems to have been transferred 
to a binding-stone in masonry, and thence 
to any hewn and squared stone mixed 
with rubblestone in building. 

To Ask. K&.acsian,asdaH,<m.askia, 
G. haschen, 

*Adcanc*, Aakatmt. Fris. sk&n. 
VTj % aa Skands, awry. — Outzen. It 
Kkiattcio, athwart, across, against the 
grain ; aschianciart, to go awry i scuh- 
Bort, scansare, to turn aside, slip aside, 
walk by. — Fl. Both askant and the 

synonymous aslant may be traced tbrot^ 
Sc. asklent, askew, to "W . ysgleittio, OFr. 
esclincher, to slip or slide. En eUleak- 
aunt (esci enchant), obliquando. — Nec- 
cham in Nat. Antiq. Then by the loss of 
the / on the one hand, askauntj and of 
the k on the other, Sw. slinla, to slide, 
and E. aslant. The rudiment of the lost 
/ is seen in the i of It. schianeio, and 
wholly obliterated in scanxare. The Du. 
sckuin, N. skjiins (pron. shons), oblique, 
wiy, I skjbns, awry, seem to belong to a 
totally different root connected with E. 
sAun, shunt, to push aside, move aside. 

A^ew. ,ON. sknfr, Dan. skjctv, c. 
schief, schdf, schieb, schiebicht, obUque, 
wry ; ON. d skd, askew. Gr. <ncoc6c, 
Lat scctvus, properly oblique, then left, 
on the left hand ; avula/ arifa, a wry 

From G. schieben, to shove, as shown 
by Du. schuin, oblique, compared with 
E. shun, shunt, to push aside. C. vers- 
chieben, to put out of its place, to set 

Aj«peTit3r. Lat. asptr, rough. 
To Aspire.— Aapii&ta. Lat, aspiro, 
to pant after, to pretend to, from spiro, 

to breathe. The Lat. aspiro is also used 
for the strong breathing employed in 
pronouncing the letter h, thence called 
the aspirate, a term etymologically un- 
connected with the spiritus asper of the 
Latin grammarians. 

A«a. Lat. asinus, Q. esel, Pol. osiol. 

To Aaeail.— Assault. Lat. satire, to 
leap, to spring ; Fr. saillir, to sally, to 
leap ; assailhr, to assail, to set upon, 
whence assault, assailing or setting upon. 
. Assart. A cleared place in a wood. 
Fr. essart. Mid. Lat. exartum, essartum, 
assartum, sartutn, 

Eisaria vulgo diciuitur — quando forestse. ne- 
mora. vel dumeta quselibel — succidunCur. quibus 
suctisis ** radUiliti exmlHs terra subvertilur « 
eicolitur.— Lib. Scacch. in Due. 

Et quicquid m tolo lerrilorio Lausslniaco di- 
ruptum e[ exsdrpalum est quod vulgo didtur 
irjuf/.— Chart. A. D. 1196, in Due. 

From ex-sarilum, grubbed up. — DJei. 
Lat. sarrio, sario, to hoe, to weed. 

Assassin. Hashish is the name of an 
intoxicating drug prepared from hemp in 
useamong the natives of the East. Hence 
Arab. ' Haschischin,' a name given to the 
members of a sect in Syria who wound 
themselves up by doses of hashish to 

Grform at all risk the orders of their 
ird, known as the Sheik, or Old Man 
of the Mountain. As the murder of his 
enemies would be the most dreaded of 




these behests, the name of Asiassin was 
given to one commissioned to perform a 
murder ; assassinatiatt, a murder per- 
formed by one lying in wait for that 
special purpos&^Die^. De Sacy, Mem. 
de I'Inslitut. i8i8. 

To Asaaf. LaL exigere, to examine, 
to prove by examination ; ' annulis ferreis 
ad certum pondus exactis pro nummo 
utantur,' iron rings proved of a certain 
weight. — Caesar. Hence, exn^um, a 
weighing, a trial, standard weight. 
'EfJ/uv, pensitatio ; l^ayiAZin, examino, 
perpendo— GL in Due 

quEB sine Iraude debent cuslodin. — Nov«U. Th»- 
odosii in Due. 

Habells aglnam (a balance], aagium facile, 
quemadroodun tuIUs ponderate. — Zeno, ibid. 

From ixagiuM was formed the It sag- 
gio, a proof; trial, sample, taste of any- 
thing ; assaggiare, to prove, try, taste, 
whence Fr. essa^er, to try, and E. assay, 
WW.— Mur. Diss. 27, p. S85. 

To AMemble. The origin of LaL 
simul, together, at once, is probably the 
radical sam, very widely spread in the 
sense of same, self. The locative case 
of Fin. sama, the same, is samalla. ad- 
verbially used in the sense of at once, to- 
gether, which seems to explain the forma- 
tion of Lat. simul. From simul, insimul, 
were formed It insieme, Fr. ensemble, 
together i assembler, to draw together, 
^assembler, to meet or flock together ; 
whence E. assemble. In the Germanic 
branch of language we have Goth, sama, 
the same; samana (corresponding to Fin. 
samalla), Sw. samman, G. susammen, 
AS. le somnt, to the same place, together ; 
samnian, samnian, Sw. samtnla, Dan. 
lamU, c. versammtln, to collect, to assem- 
ble. The OE. assemble was often used 
in the special sense of joining in battle. 

B]r Carhame asiimilyd thai ; 
Thare was hard fychtine as I haide say. 

Wyntown in Jam. 

And in old Italian we find sembiaglia ii 
the same sense. ' La varatta era tornita 
Non poteo a sio patre dare succurso. Non 
poteo c'ssere a la sembiaglia.' In the 
Latin translation, ' confiiclui interest 
nequibat.' — Hist Rom. Fragm. in Mi 


down, was used in Middle Lat in an 
active sense for to set, to impose a tax ; 
assidtre talUam/ in Fr. asseoir la laille. 

to fix a certain amount upon each indl- 

ivisum est generaliler quod praedicta quad- 
tagesima hoc modo auidiatur et eoUigaiur. — 
Malb. Paris, A. D. 1332. 

EI fuit quodlibel feodum mililore assasum 

nc Bd 40 soL —Due. 

A«aets, in legal language, are fiinds 
for the satisfaction of certain demands. 
Commonly derived from Fr. asses, but in 
OE. it was commonly written asseth. 
And if it luflks not for asseth.— P. Plowman, 
p. 94. 
And [^lat willing 10 nuilie aseilh to the pe<q)le 
fl to hem Barabbas.— Wiclif, Mark 15. 
And though on heapes that lie him by, 
Yet never shall make his richeue 
Asitlh unto his greediness. — R. R. 

Uls.Veaeeethe (makyn seethe — K.), satis- 
facio. — Pr. Pm. ' Now then, rise and go 
forthe and spekyng do aseethe to thy 
servauntis ' — Wiclif^ ; satisfac servis tuis . 
—Vulgate. 'Therefore 1 swore to the 
hows of Heli that the wickedness of his 
hows shall not be doon aseith before with 
slain sacrificis and giftls.' — Wiclif. In 
the Vulgate, expietur. Assytk, sithe, to 
make compensation, to satisfy. ' I have 
gotten my heart's site on him.* — Lye in 
Junius, V. syth^. Gael siotk, sith, peace, 
quietness, rest from war, reconciliation ; 
siihich, calm, pacify, assuage, reconcile ; 
W. kedd, tranquillity, heddu, to pacify ; 
Pol. Bohem. syt, syty, satisfied, full ; 
Bohem. sytiti, to satisfy. 

The Lat satis, enough ; on. stett, satti, 
reconciliatio, sattr, reconciliatus, con- 
temns, consentiens ; seSia, saturare ; G. 
salt, full, satisfied, — are doubtless all 
fundamentally related. 

A«siduouB. Lat. assiduus, sitting 
down, seated, constantly present, unre- 

Amiza.— Aaaisea. From assidere was 
formed OFr. assire, to set, whence assis, 
set, seated, settled ; assise, a set rate, a 
lax, as assize 0/ bread, the settled rate for 
the sale of bread ; also a set day, whence 
cour d'assize, a court to be held on a set 

Ballivos nostros posuimus qui in baliviis suls 
singulis mensibus ponent unum diem qui didlur 
Aiiisia in quo omnes illi qui clamoreoi Ikdeot 
recipient jus suum. — Charta Philip August. A.D. 
1 19a., in Due. 

Assisa in It is used forasettled pattern 
of dress, and is the origin of E. sixe, % 
settled cut or make. 

To AjseoiL To acquit. Lat. aisol- 
■vere, to loose from ; OFr. absolver, ab- 
sciller, assoiler.— Roquefort, 'To whom 
spak Sampson, Y shal purpose to yow a 



dowtous word, the which if ye soyleit to 

me, &c. ; forsothe if ye mowen not assoyU, 
&c. And they mi^htcn not bi Ihre days 
say/at the proposicioun.' — Wyclif, Judges 
xiv. IT, &c. 

ToAtenstge, Troml^t.suavu, sweet, 
agreeable, Prov. suau, sweet, agreeable, 
soft, traoijuil, OFr. soe/,soue/, sweet, soft, 
gentle, arise, Prov, assuauear, assuavar, 
tusuaviar, to appease, to calm, to soften. 
Hence, OFr. dfjoaafw, to soften, to allay, 
answering to assuaviar, as alUger to al- 
leviare, abreger to abbreviare, agriger to 
aggraviare, soulago' to sollcviare. 

Uals moalt m' aisimagia 1' oingture — R. R. ; 
translated by Chaucer, 

Now soflecing with the oiclmmt 

Aathma. Gt. ivOfa, panting, difficult 

To Aatonlsh. — Astound. — Stony. 
Fr. estonrur, to astonish, amaze, daunt ; 
also to sionitie, benumme or dull the 
senses of. — Cotgr. The form astonish 
shows that esionnir must also have 
been in use. According to Diez, from 
Lat. at/citare, attonitum (strengthened 
to extonare), to thunder at, to stun, 
to stupefy. So in E. thunder-struck is 
used for a high degree of astonishment. 
Sut probably the root ton in aitomtus is 
used rather as the representative of a loud 
overpowering sound in general, than 
specially of thunder. Thus we haveif/n, 
a. loud continued noise ; dint, a blow ; to 

fuse by noise, to stupefy. — Halliwell. AS. 
stuntan, to strike, to stun, to make stupid 
with noise ; stunt, stupefied, foolish ; G. 
erstaunen, to be in the condition of one 

Astute. Lat. tistus, subtilty, craft. 

Aaylum. I^t. asylum, from Gr. 
^hXdv (a priv., and mMv, to plunder, in- 
jure), a place inviolable, safe by the force 
of consecration. 

At. ON. at, Dau. ad, equivalent to 
E. to before a verb, at stgia, to say ; Lat. 
ad, to ; Sanscr. adhi, upon. 

AtUetio. Gr. aexnr, a contest for a 
prize ; dSXqr^c a proficient in muscular 

Atlaa. Gr. *,*rXac, the name of ont 
who was fabled to support on his shoul- 
ders the entire vault of heaven, the globe ; 
thence, applied to a book of maps of the 
countries of the globe : which had com- 
monly a picture of Adas supporting the 
globe for a frontispiece. 

Atmotphere. Gr. itr^icc, smoke, va- 

Atom. Gr. arofiaq (from a privative 
id Tlfiiw, to cut), indivisible, that does 
)t admit of cutting or separation. 
Atona. To bring at om, to reconcile, 
and thence to suffer the pains of what- 
ver sacrifice is necessary to bring about 
If genlilmen Of other of Uiat contrei 
Were wi-olh, sbe wolde bringrn hem atom. 
So wise and ripe wordes badde she. 

Chaucer in R. 
One Gorl, one Mediator (that is to lay, Bdto- 
ile, inlerceSHir. or an aleiu-matcr) between 
God and man.— Tyndall in R. 
Lod. Is Ihete division 'Iwixt my Loid and 

Dis. A most unhappy one ; I woold do much 
T alleiu Ibem tot the love I bear to Casio. 

The idea of reconciliation was expressed 
in the same way' in Fr. 



Fab. et Contes. i. i8i. 

OE. to one, to unite, to join in one. 

David sailh the rich folic thai embiaiiden and 
0v.fM all hir herle to Ireasour of [his world shall 
slepe JD the sleping of deth . — Chaucer in R. 

Put together and ortyd, continuus ; put 
together but not onyd, contiguus.— Pr. 

Precisely the converse of this expres- 
sion is seen in G. enls-weyen, to disunite, 
sew dissension, from enzwey, in two ; 
sick itttMweyen, to quarrel, fall into vari- 
ance .^Kiittn. 

Atrocioua. Lat. atrox, fierce, barbai^ 

To Attach.— Attack. These words, 
though now distinct, are both derived 
from the It. attauare, to fasten, to hang. 
Venet, tacarej Piedm. tachi, to &slen. 
Hence in Fr. the double form, attacker, 
to tie, to fasten, to stick, to attach, and 
attaguer, properly to fasten on, to begin 
a quarrel. S'attacker is also used in the 
same sense ; ^attacker d, to coape, scuffle. 

; la battaglia, 

to engage in battle ; — — il fuoco, to set 
on fire ; attaccarsi il fuoco, to catch fire ; 
di parole, to quarrel. 

To attach one, in legal language, is to 
lay hold of one, to apprehend him under 
a chaise of criminality. 

Attainder. — Attaint. Fr. aitaixdr* 
(OFr. aWfl/nalrr— Roquet), to reach or 
attain unto, hit or strike in reaching, to 
overtake, bring to pass, also to attaint or 


convict, also to accuse or charge with. — 
Cotgr. The institution of a judicial ac- 
cusation is compared lo the pursuit of an 
enemy ; the proceedings are called a suit, 
Fr. poursuite en jugtmenf, and the 
agency of the plaintiff is expressed by 
the VKi^ prosequi, lo pursue. In follow- 
ing out the metaphor the conduct of the 
suit to a successful issue in the convic- 
tion of the accused is expressed by the 
verb attingeri, Fr, atlaindre, which sig- 
nifies the apprehension of the object of a 

Quern fugientao dictus Raimundiu atinxil. 

Hence the Fr. attainte d'une cause, the 
gain of a suit ; attaindre le meffait, to fix 
the charge of a crime upon one, to prove 
a crime. — Carp. Atains du fet, convicted 
of the fact, caught by it, having it brought 
home to one. — Roquef. 

Attire. OFr. atour, attour, a French 
hood, also any kind of tire or altire for a 
woman's head. DamoiselU d'atour, the 
waiting-woman that uses to dress or attire 
her mistress — Cotgr., — a tirewotnan. 
Attouri, tired, attired, dressed, trimmed, 
adorned. Aitourner, to altire, deck, 
dress. Atlourneur, one that waits in the 
chamber to dress his master or his mis- 

The original sense Qi attiring vns that 
of preparing or getting ready for a certain 
purpose, from the notion of turning to- 
wards it, by a similar train of thought lo 
that by which the sense of dress, clothing, 
is derived from directing to a certain end, 
preparing for it, clothing being the most 
universally necessary ofall preparations. 
He allired him to battle with tolc (bal he hod. 

R. Branoe in R. 
What docs the kiDC of Fiance t alires bim eood 

The change from atour to attire is 
singular, but we tind them used with ap- 
parent indifference. 

&r her alire so bright and shene 
McD might pereeve well and seoe 
She wv nol of Rellgiouo, 
Nor n' ii I make niencioun 
Nor of robe, Dor of Iresour. 
Of broche, neilber of htr rich ajltur. — R. R. 
Riche alj/r, noble vesture, 
Bele robe ou rictae peluie. — PoUt. Songs. 
OFr. aiirer, attirer, aiirier, ajuster, 
convenir, aeeorder, omer, decorer, parer, 
preparer, disposer, regler.— Roquefort. 

I tyer an egg r je accoustre : 1 tyer 
with garments: je habille and je ac- 
coustre. — Pa]sgr. 

Attittide. Posture of body. It. aUo, 
from LaL a^e, actum, act, action, pos- 



ture; It. atUtudine, promptness, dis- 
position to act, and also simply posture, 

Attomsf. Mid. Lat. attomatus, one 
put in the turn or place of another, one 
appointed to execute an office on behalf 
of another. 

Li niomi est cil qui pardevani justice est 
atami pour aucun en Eschequier ou en Assise 
pour poursuiyre et pour defend™ sa droiture. — 
Jus Munidpole Nomunnonun, in Due 

Auburn. Now applied to a rich red- 
brown colour of hair, but originally it 
probably designated what we now cajl 
flaxen hair. The meaning of the word 
is simply whitish. It. al&umo, the white 
or sapwood of timber, ' also that whitish 
colour of women's hair called an atum- 
colour.'— Y\. '[Cometal splendoris al- 
bumi radium producens.'— Due. In the 
Walser dialect of the Grisons, Ulb is used 
in the sense of yellowish brown like the 
colour of a brown sheep. — Biihler. 

Aviction. — Augment Lat. augee, 
auctum, Gr. aufw, Goth, aukan, AS. eaeait, 
to increase, to eke, 

Andaoioiu. Lat. audax,-acis; aitdeo. 

Audience.— Audit. In the law lan- 
guage of the middle ages audire was 
specially applied to the solemn hearing 
of a court of justice, whence auditntia 
was frequently used as synonymous with 
judgment, court of justice, &c., and even 
m the sense of suit at law. The Judge 
was termed auditor, and the term was m 
particular applied to persons commis- 
sioned to inquire into any special matter. 
The term was then applied to the notaries 
or officers appointed to authenticate all 
legal acts, to hear the desires of the 
parties, and to take them down in writing ; 
also to the parlies witnessing a deed. 
'Testes sunt hujus rci visores et audi- 
lores, &c. Hoc viderunt et audierunt 

At the present day the term is confined 
to the investigation of accounts, the ex- 
amination and allowance of which is 
termed the audit, the parties examining, 
the auditors. 

Auger. An implement for drilling 
holes, by turning round a centre which is 
steadied against the pit of the stomach. 
Formerly written nauger, Du. evtgker, 
nevegher. In cases Uke these, which are 



been added in the one case or lost in the ' 
other. In the present case the form with 
an initial » is undoubtedly the original. 
AS. naf-gar,naf-1ler. Taradros [a gimlet], 
napugird. — Gloss. Cassel, The force of 
Uie former element of the word is ex- 
plained from the Finnish napa, a navel, 
and hence, the middle of anything, centre 
of a circle, axis of a wheeL In com- 
position it signifies revolution, as from 
meren, the sea, mertn-napa, a whirlpool ; 
from rauta^ iron, napa-raula, the iron 
stem on which the upper millstone rests 
and turns; maaii-napa, the axis of the 
earth. With kaira, a borer, the equiva- 
lent of AS. gar, it fonns napa-kaira, 
exactly corresponding to the common E. 
name of the tool, a centre-bit, a piercer 
acting by the revolution of the tool round 
a fixed axis or centre. Lap. nape, navel. 

The other element of the word cor- 
responding to the Fin. kaira, AS. gar, is 
identical with the K gore, in the sense of 
being gored by a bull, i. e. pierced by his 
horns. AS. gar, a javelin, gara, an an- 
gular pfoint of land. 

Auffht or Onght. Something; as 
naught or nought, nothing, as. d-^wiht, 
OHG. tthwUtt; modern G- icht; from d, G. 
aiv, ever, and wihl, Goth, -waihts, a 
thing. See Whit 

Auffui. — Aiigiuy. See Auspice. 

Atmt. Lat. amita. OTt. ante. Icilz 
ondes avoit la sole ante espousal 
Chron. Du Guesclin. 264. A similar c 
traction takes place in emmet, ant. 

Aiupioe. — Aospicious. Lat. auspex 
for avisptx (as auceps,^ bird-catcher, for 
aviceps), a diviner by the observation of 
(LaL a-uis) birds. As the au^r drew his 
divinations from the same source, the 
element gjir is probably the equivalent 
of spex in auspex, and reminds us of OE. 
gaure, to observe, to stare. 

Auat«te. Lat. austerus, from Gr. 
a!nrTtipo(, harsh, severe, rough. 

Authentic. Gr. avBivriK, one who 
acts or owns ii> his own right (der. from 
B^tc, and uoftu, mittere), aiiSttTucbc, 
backed by sufficient authority. 

Author. Lat. auctor {augeo, auctum, 
to increase), a contriver, originator, 
maker; auctoriias, the right of the 
maker over the thing made, jurisdiction. 

Automaton. Gr. aiiri^rat, self- 
moving, self-acting; airii, self, and fiov 
fi^iun, I Stir mysdf, am stiired. 

AutnnuL Lat. aulumnus. Some- 
times written auetamnus, as if firom 

auctum, increase; the time when the 
increase of the earth is gathered in. 

AuxiliATT. Lat. auxilium, help. See 

To Avaa I. To be of service. Fr. 
valoir, to be worth ; hat. vaUre, to be 
well in bealth, to be able, to be worth. 

To Avail or Avale, to lower. To 
vail his flag, to lower his flag. Fr i 
■vol, downwards ; & mimt tt i vol, towards 
the hill and towards the vale, upwards 
and downwards. Hence «wi/w, properly 
to let down, to lower, now used in the 

nse of swallowing. 

Av&lanctae. A lall of snow sliding 
down from higher groimd in the Alps. 
Mid. Lat. avaiaatia, a slope, declivity, 
descent, from Fr. avaUr, to let down. — 

Avaric*. Lat. avarus, covetous ; 
avto, to desire, to rejoice. 

Avast. A nautical expression for hold, 
stop, stay. Avaii talking/ cease talk- 
ing 1 Old Cant, a waste, away ; Hitg a 
waste, go you hence. — Rogue's Diet- in 
modem slang. Probably waste has here 
the sense of empty ; go into empty space, 
avoid thee. In viast, in vain. — W. and 
the Werewolf 

They left tbair awin schip stardand tMu/. 
Squyer MeUnim, L 773. 

Avannt. Begone! Fr. ovon/, before; 
en avant ! forwards ! 

Avenue. Fr. advenue, avenue, an 
access, passage, or entry unto a place. — 
Cot. Applied in E. to the double row of 
trees by which the approach to a house 
of distinction was formerly marked. Lat. 

To Aver. Lat. verus, true ; Fr. avA-er, 

Aver. A beast of the plough. The Fr. 
avoir (from habere, to have), as well as 
Sp. haber, was used in the sense of goods, 
i, money. This in Mid. Latl 

Taialft [Mctione quod siJvis corporibns soil 
el avtris et equis et armis cum pace recederent. 
—Chart, A. D. 1166. !u istum sanctum locum, 
venimus cum Avemi nostros. ~ Chart. Kisp. 
A. D, 819. El in loto quBnlum Rex Adelfbnsus 
tenet de rege Navarree melioret cum suo proprio 
aviri. quantum volueiit et poteriL — Hovcdeu, 

Averii, or Averia, was then applied 
to cattle in general, as the principal pos- 

Hoc placilum dilatitmem non redpit propter 
aviria, i. e. animalia mula, ne diu detjneaniur 
inclusa.— Regiam Majestatem. Si come j™ 
bayle k un home mes bertrits > campesier, ou 


IMS bcenfe ft arer la (erre et il occ 

We then have averia carrucrr, beasts 
of the plough ; and the word avers finally 
came to be confined to the significatii 
of cart-horses. 

'Avarftge. i./fv^ru^e is explained 
duty work done for the Lord of the man 
wiih the avers or draught cattle of the 
tenants. Sciendum est quod unumquod- 
gue averagium asstivale debet fieri intci 
Hokday et gulam Augusti.^Spelman in 
Due. But probably the reference to the 
avers of the tenant may be a mistaken 
accommodation. From Dan. hof, 
are formed hffvgaard,Xht manor to which 
a tenant belongs ; hovarbetde or hoveri, 
duty work to which the tenant was bound ; 
kovdag, duty days on which he was 
bound to service for the Lord, &c. Money 
paid in lieu of this duty work is called 
koveri penge, corresponding to the aver- 
^«My of ourold records. ^ Aver-penny,\\,QZ 
est quicium esse de diversis denariis pro 
averagio Domini Regis.' — Rastal in Due. 

2. la [he second ^ace average is used 
in the sense uf ' a contribution made by 
sll the parties in a sea-adventure 
mg to tne interest of each to inake good 
a specific loss incurred for the benefit of 
all.' — Worcester. To average a loss 
among shippers of merchandise is to 
distrimite It among (hem according to 
their interest, and from this mercantile 
sense of the term it has come in ordinary 
language to signify a mean value. In 
seeking the derivation of average, with 
its continental representatives, Fr. avaris, 
avarie. It., Sp. avaria, Du. haverie, 


look lor its origin to the shores of the 
Baltic or the Mediterranean. Now 
cording to Mr Marsh (he word does 
occur in any of the old Scandinaviar 
Teutonic sea-codes, even in the chapters 
containing provisions for appiortioniiig 
the loss by throwing goods overboard. 
On the other hand, it is of very old stand- 
ing in the Mediterranean, occurring in 
the Assises de Jerusalem, cxlv. Assises 
de la Baisse Court. *£t sachies que 
celui aver qui est gete ne doit estre conte 
fors tant com u cousta o toutes ses 
averies:' and know that any goods that 
are thrown overboard shall only be 
reckoned at what it cost with all charges. 
The old Venetian version gives as the 
equivalent of avaries, dasii e spese. The 
derivation from OK. haf, the sea, or from 
it then be given up. 

The general meaning of the word is 
damage by accident or incidental ex- 
penses incurred by ship or cargo during 
the voyage. Fr. grosses avaries, loss by 
tempest, shipwreck, capture, or ransom; 
menues avaries, expenses incurred on 
entering or leaving port, harbour duties, 
tonnage, pilotage, &c. In a secondary 
sense avarie is applied to the waste or 
leakage of goods in keeping, the wear and 
tear of a machine, &c. — GaiteL S'ava- 
rier, to suffer avarie, to become dam- 
aged. In the Consulado del Mar of the 
middle of the 13th century the notary is 
authorized to take pledges from every 
shipper for the value of ' lo nolit 6 le» 
avaries:' the freight and charges. Marsh 
gives other instances in Spanish and 
Catalonian where the word is used in the 
sense of government duties and charges. 
' Lo receptor de les haueries de les com- 
positions que fa la Kegia Cart, y lo re- 
ceptor dels salaris dels Doctors de la 
Real Audiencia,' &c. — Drets de Cata- 
lunya,A.D. 1534. In the Genoese annals 
of the year 1413, quoted by Muratori, it 
is said that the Guelphs enjoyed the 
honours and benefices of the city, ' se- 
cundum ipsorum numerum, et illud quod 
in publicis solutionibus, quie Averia 
dicuntur, expendunL' 

Marsh is inchned to agree with Santa 
Rosa in deriving the word from the 
Turkish avattia, properly signifying aid, 
help, but used in the sense of a govern- 
ment exaction, a very frequent word in 
the Levant. The real origin however is 
Arab, "dwar, a defect or fiaw, which is 
the technical term corresponding to Fr. 
avarie. Kazomirski renders it 'vice, 
defaut,' and adds an example of its use 
as applied to * marchandise qui a des 
defauts.' The primary meaning of the 
word would thus be that which is under- 
stood by grosses avaries, charges for ac- 
cidental damage, from whence it might 
easily pass to other charges. 

To Avoid. Properly to make void or 
empty, to make of none effect. To avoid 
a contract, to make it void, and hence to 
escape from the consequences of it. To 
confess and avoid, in legal phrase, was to 
admit some fact alleged by the adversary, 
and then to make it of none eflect by 
showing that it does not bear upon the 

Tell me yourfayth, doe you l>eleeTethal (hero 

a living God \htX is mighty 10 punish bis 

lemies ? If you bcleeve it, say Mpla me, can 

you devise fur to tivoytU bys vengi:aDce "i — Baiucit 



Here the word may be interpreted 
either way ; Can you devise to make void 
iiis vengeance, or to escapre his vengeance, 
showing dearly the transition to the 
modern meaning. So in the followiiig 
passage from Milton : — 

Not di<Bdent of Ihee do I dissuade 
Thy absence from my sighl, but lo avoid 
Tbe allempt itself inlended by out foe. 

To avoid was also used as Fr. vuidar, 
vider la maison, Piedm. void^ na ci, to 
clear out from a house, to make it empty, 
to quit, to keep away from a place. 

Anno H. VII, it was enacted that all Scots 
dweiiingwilhlnEngiand and Wales should au>^ 
the realm withia 40 days of proclamatian made. 
— Rastal. in R, 

It is singular that we should thus wit- 
ness the development within the E. lan- 
guage of a. word agreeing so closely in 
sound and meaning with Lat. evitare, 
Fr. iviter; but in cases of this kind it 
wilt, I believe, often be found that the 
Latin word only exhibits a previous ex- 
ample of the same line of development 
from one original root. 1 cannot but 
believe that the radical meaning of Lat. 
vitare is to give a wide berth to, to leave 
an empty space between oneself and the 
object. Fr. vuide, vide, empty, waste, 
vast, wide, free from, not cumbered or 
troubled with. — Cotgr. To shoot wide of 
the mark is to miss, to avoid the mark ', 
OHG. wU, empC^ : wUi, vacuilas.— Graff. 

AToir-du-poue. The ordinary mea- 
sure of weight OFr. avoirs de pais, 
goods that sell by weight and not by 

To Atow. ^Avouch. Under the 
feudal system, when the right of a tenant 
was impugned he had to call upon his 
lord to come forwards and defend his 
right. This in the Latin of the time was 
called advocare, Fr. voucher it pnraniie, 
to vouch or call to warrant. Then as 
the calling on an individual as lord of 
the fee to defend the right of the tenant 
involved the admission of all the duties 
implied in feudal tenancy, it was an act 
jealously looked after by the lords, and 
advocare, or the equivalent Fr. avouer, 
to avow, came to signify the admission 
by a tenant of a certain person as feudal 

Nihil ab eo se leneie in feodo ajit quoquo 
Ihodo alio tidvotabai. — Chron. A. D. 1390. Ita 
tamen quod diclus Episcopus e( successorea sui 
nos e[ successores nosltos Comites Flandrix qui 
pro tempore fuerint, si indijuerint auxilio, advo- 
ealit. nee alium dominum secularem poleiunt 
advBtart. — Cliarta A. D. 1350. Donee advocalus 
fueril ut burgensis Dosler.— ^lat. Lonis le Hulin. 

1315. — aatW be shall l>c ackoowle^cd ta oar 

bvirgesa. Reoognoscendo seu profitendo ab Eli* 
ea tanquam a superioribus se (eocfe seu at ifiii 
eadtfH advocando, prout in quibusdam pamboi 
Gallicanis vulgaritei dicitui adtiouer. — CcodL 
Lugdun. A. D. 1374. A persoois laicii caaqnam 
k superioribus ca qua: ab Ecclesia (enent adtrem- 
anlisae tenere. — A. D. 1315, in Due. 

Finally, with some grammatical con- 
fusion, Lat. advocare, and E- aruow or 
avouch, came to be used in the sense o< 
[>eifonning the part of the vouchee tx 
person called on to defend the right im- 
pugned Et predict! Vice-comites advo- 
cant (maintain) prsedictum attachion- 
amentum justum, eo quod, &c. — Libi 
Alb. 406. To avow, to justify a. thing 
already done, to maintain or justify, to 
affirm resolutely or boldly, to assert. — 

With barefaced power sweep him from my sight, 
And bid my will aveuck il.— Macbeth. 

Arowtery, ATOwterer. The very 

common change of d into v converted 
LaL adulterium into It. avolUrio, aval- 
leria, avoltero. Hence avolleratort. 
Pro v. avoutrador, OE. avowterer, an 
adulterer. A (/was sometimes inserted ; 
OFr. avouUre, advouttre, avetre, OE. 
advoutry, adultery. 

Award. The primitive sense of own/ 
is shown in the It. guardare, Fr. re- 
garder, to look. Hence Rouchi es- 
warder (answering in form to e. avrard), 
to inspect goods, and, incidentally, to 
pronounce mem good and marketable ; 
erwardeur, an inspector. — Hecart. 

An award is accra-dingly in the first 
place the taking a matter into considera- 
tion and pronouncing judgment upon it, 
but in later times the designation has 
been transferred exclusively to the con- 
sequent judgment 

In like manner in OE. the verb to look 
is very often found in the sense of con* 
si deration, deliberation, determination, 
award, decision. When William Rufus 
was in difficulties with his brother Robert, 
about the partition of the Conqueror's 
inheritance, he determined to go to the 
King of France to submit the matter to 
his award. He says (in Peter Langtoft, 
p. 86) : 

Theifore am I comen to wile at yow oar bened 
Tbe kindes thai we have nomen to whom tbey 

shall be leued. 
And a( your jugemeni I will stand and do 
With (hi that il be eat (ended) ibe strif tilnien a 

Philip said. Uilhely, and sent his mesaenfen 
Tille Inglond to the clergy, erles. barons, thcrpei^ 
And askid if Ibei wild sduid to thee tokyng. 


—wbcre looking is used exactly in the 
sense of the modem award. 

These senses of look are well exempli- 
fied in a passage from R. G. p. 567. 

To chese six wise men hii lataii there 

Thice bishops and three banms Che wisest that 

Aod boC liii might accoidj, that hii the legate 

And SirHeniyof Almainerighland \avi to Mt — 
Tho let tho king someni age the Tiwesdav 
Next Iiefore AU Hallow tide as his council bisai. 
Bishops and Abbots aiid Priors Ihento, 
Erks and Barons and Knigbtes also. 
That hii were al Northamploa to bear and at 

To the Ming of these Iwdve of the state of (he 

— to the award or determination of these 



le should of high men desheriled be 

That had ibolde age the King bat the Eii of 

Leloetreone ; 
Ac thai all the olhere had agen all bor load, 
Other hor beiis that dede were, but that the King 

In his hand 
II hulde to an tenn that there iJMaf wai. 
Fire Jar some and aotae four, ever np his 

Albus. I. 119. Sifut-v'i'^V Willanw.ftc— 

Comeillez md, si csgarda 

Qa' en seireit al regne honorable, 

BeDwt. Chroo. Noun. 6135. 
Awe. Fear, dread, reverence ; then 
transferred to the cause of fear, assuming 
the signification of anger, discipline, chas- 

But her Aeis servant (Una's Lion) full of kingly die 
And high dlsdaine, whenas his soveraine dome 
So rudely handled by her foe he saw. 
With gaping jaws full gndy at him isme. 

AS- <?'■ og^, 'gisa, Goth, agis, fear, 
dread^ ogan, to fear, ogjan, to threaten, 
terrify, ON. agi, discipline, agtr, terrible ; 
agia, to be an object of wonder or fear ; 
mtr agir, I am amazed, I am terrified ; 
o^, terror ; Sw, dial, aga, fear ; agasam, 
fnghtfiU, awsome j Dan, ave, chastise- 
ment, correction, awe, fear, disciplin 
At staae under eens ave, to stand in av 
of one ; at holde i string ave, to keep 
strict band over. Gr. dyt), wonder, ajae- 
jMi, ayaEDfui, to wonder at, to be angry. 
Awgrim. Decimal arithmetic. 

Then sane summa 
As aiphre doth in avgrym. 
That nolith a place 
And no thing svanith. 
Political Poem*, Cun. Soc p. 4(4. 

I rdcen. I unnte by cyfers of 'grym : je en- 
chiffie. I shall reken it syxe tyntes by aulgoiisnu^ 
or you can cast it ones by counters.— Palsgr. 
Sp. alguarismo, from Al Kkoiodraini, 
the surname of the Arabian algebrist, the 
translation of whose work was the means 
of introducing the decimal n 
Europe in the 12th century. 

Awhape. To dismay ; property, 10 
take away the breath with astonishment, 
to stand in breathless astonishment. 

Ah my dear gosdp, answered then the ape. 

Deeply do your sad words my wils awhapi. 
Mother Hubbaid's tale in Boucher. 

choke, to suffocate ; Goth, a/kvafinan, 
ON. kafna, to be choked ; Sw. guaf, 
choking, oppressive. 

Awk. — Awkward. Perverted, per- 
verse, inditect,lelt-handed, unskilful To 
ring the bells awk is to ring them back- 

They with tti^iiBard judgment put the chief 
. >int of godUness in outward things. '' '~ *' — 
choice of meals, and neglect those tt 

Dint of godUness in outward things. Oi 
and neglec- - " ■^■- 
-Udal in R. 

That which we in Greek call dpimpSii, that 
is to say, on the awt at left hand, they say in 
Latin sinbtnun.— Holland, Pliny in R. 

The word seems formed from Ott. a/, 
Lat. ab,-!, off, of, signifying deviation, 
error, the final k being an adjectival 
termination. Thus, on. af-gata, iter de- 
vium, divortium ; af-krokr, diverticulum, 
a side way j Sfugr, inversus, sinister ; 
ofug-ftdri, a fiat-fish with eyes on the 
left side ; ejug-ne/ni, a name given from 
antiphrasis ; o/ug-ord, verbum obfiquum, 
impertinens, offensum ; iJ/^i, to change, 
degenerate. Sw.q^u^, inside out, averse, 
disinclined, awkward uitskilful ; a/wig- 
hand, the back of the hand. Dan. avet, 
crooked, preposterous, perverse. 

G. ai in composition indicates the con- 
trary or negation ; abgrund, ahyss, bot- 
tomless pit ; abgott, false god ; lAhotd, 
unkind ; ablemen, to unlearn ; aber- 
glaube, fidse belief ; aber-papst, aber- 
koitig, felse pope, false king: In aben, 
inside out. — Scnmeller. In Flemish we 
see the passage towards the u or a/ of 
awk ; aue saghe, absurda narratio, sermo 
absonus ; aue gaen, auc hangketi, &c. ; 
auer gheloove, ^etventi belief, supersti- 
tion ; auer-kands, ouer-kands (as Sw, 
afmig-kand), manu aversS, pr^osterl ; 
aver-recht, over-reckt, contrarius recto. 

The different O, forms are very numer- 
ous j OHC.itJ»it,it^,aversus,pervenus, 

,i,.,.,i.:, Google 

sinister ; G. dial abkh, aiech, SHckt, 
abechig, aweck, a-wechi {aiUs thut tr 
awtckt, he does everything aivkly), affig, 
ajffik, aft, aftik, and again aisck, dpisck, 
^uh, verkehit, linkiscb, link, and in 
Netherlandish, aves, atfs, obliquus ; 
aa/sck, atfsch, aafsckilyk, aversus, pre- 
posterus, contrarius. — KiL 

AwL ON. air ;0. afUe, ohg. alaasa, 
alasna, Du. else, Fr. alesne. It. lesina. 

Awn, A scale or husk of anything, 
the beard of com. on. ogn, agnir, chaff, 
straw, mote ; Dan. avnej Gr. axva, 
Esthon. a^aa, chatT. 

• Awmng. Awning (sea term), a sail 
or tarpawlin hung over any part of a ship. 
Traced by the Rev, J. Davies to the 
PI. D. kavenung, from haven, a place 
where one is shehered from wind and 
rain, shelter, as in the lee of a building 
or bush. But it should be observed that 
kavenung is not used in the sense of 
awning, and it is more probable that it 
is identical with Fr. auvent. Mid. Lat. 
auvanna, a penthouse of cloth before a 
shop- window, &c. — Cot. 

Ax«. AS. aease, eax, Colh. aguisi, 
UHG. aches, G. dckes, ax, axt, on. oxi, 
Cr. dKi>/n, Lat. ascia for a^sia. 

Axiom. Gr. iilai^, a proposition, 
maxim, from it4iJw, to consider worthy, 
to postulate. 

Axle. Lat. axii, Gr. aEuv, the centre 
on which a wheel turns or drives. Gr, 
afH, \^t. ago, to urge forwards. 

Aye is used in two senses ; 

1. Ever, always, as in the expression 
for ever and aye ; and 

2. As an aftirmative particle, synon- 
ymous -wfhyea xrtAyes. 


The primitive image seems to con«st 
in the notion of continuance, duration, 
expressed in Goth, by the root aiv. Arvs, 
time, ^e, the world ; us-aivjan, to out- 
last ; du aiva iit aivin, for ever ; tU in 
aiva, niaiv, never. Lat. ovum, a-tat; 
Gr. oiti, dti, always ; ifiiiv, an age. OHG. 
to,io; G.Je, ever, always; as, dva, a; 
OSwed. a, all, ever. 

The passage from the notion of con- 
tinuance, endurance, to that of a: 

the G. je, ja; je und f 
ever ; voHJe her, from all time j wer hat 
es je geseken, who has ever seen it. Dot 
istje wahr, that is certainly true ; «■ ist 
j€ nieht reckt, it is certainly not right ; 
es kann ja einen irrtn, every one may 
be mistaken ; thut es dock ja nickt, by 
no means do it. In the same way the 
Italian gia; nongia, certainly not. From 
this use of the word to imply the un- 
broken and universal application of a 
proposition, it became adopted to stand 
by Itself as an affirmative answer, equiv- 
alent to, certainly, even so, just so. In 
like manner the Lat. etiam had the force 
of certaitdy, yes indeed, yes. 

In Frisian, as in English, are two 
forms, ae, like aye, coming nearer to the 
original root aiv, and ea, corresponding 
to G. je, ja, AS. gea, E. yea. In yes we 
have the remains of an afhx, se or si, 
which ia AS. was also added to the 
negative, giving nese, no, as well as jese, 

Azar«. It. axxurro, axxuoloi Sp. 
Port. asul. From Pers. lazur, whence 
lapis lazuli, the sapphire of the ancients. 


To Babbls. Fr, babiller, Du. babeten, 
bcbelen, confundere verba, blaterare, gar- 
rire; Gr. ^n^altw.— Kil. From the syl- 
lables ba, ba, representing the movement 
of the lips, with the element Wot /repre- 
senting continuation or action, Fris. 
bdbeln or bSbbU is when children make a 
noise with their lips by sounding the 
voice and jerking down the underlip with 
the finger.— Outien. The Tower of Babel 
was the tower of babblement, of confused 

On the s 

e meaning with babble w 
the syllable mo. 

iciple a verb of the 

) formed o 

And lat softly adown 

And seid my byleve 

And so 1 batledt on my bedes. 

They broughte me aslepe — 

On this maleie I might 

AfanullH full long.— P. P. 

See Baboon. 

Babe, The simplest articulations, and 
those which are readiest caught by the 
infant mouth, are the syllables formed by 
the vowel a with the primary consonants 
of the labial and dental classes, especially 
the former ; ma, ba, pa, na, da, la. Out 
of these, ^lerefore, is very generally 
formed the limited vocabulary required 
at the earliest period of infant Ufe^ com- 


prising the names for father, motlier, In- 
taiit, breast, food. Thus in the nursery 
language of the Nonnan English fafia, 
mamma, iaba, are the father, mother, 
and infant respectively, the two latter of 
which pass into mamm^ and b^by, iafy, 
baie, while the last, with a nasal, forms 
the IL dambino. 

In Saxon English father is dada, daddy, 
dad, answ^rms to \he Goth, atta, as /a^a 
to Hebrew oMa. 

Lat. mamma is applied to the breast, 

Pt^ was in Latin the word with which 
infants demanded food, whence £.pafi. 

Baboon. The syllables ia,pa, natur- 
ally uttered in the opening of the lips, are 
used to signify as well the motion of the 
lips in talking or otherwise, as the lips 
themselves, especially large or movable 
lips, the lips of a beast. Thus we have 
G. aiaL babbeln, boMern, bappem (San- 
ders), b&btrlm (Schmidt), to babble, talk 
much or imperfectly ; e. baberlipped, 
having laige lips ; G. dial, bappe, Fris. 
bi^bt, Mantuan babbi, babbio, the chops, 
mouth, snout, lips ; Fr. baboytr, babiner, 
to move or play with the lips, babine, the 
lip of a beast; badion, baboin, It. bai- 
buino, a baboon, an animal with large 
ugly lips when compared with those of a 

Bachelor. Apparently from a Celtic 
root w. bachem, a boy, backgems, a 
young girl, baches, a little darling, bach- 
igyit, a ven' little thing, from bach, little. 
From the foregoing we pass to the Fr. 
bacelh, bacelote, baauU,bacheUiie, a young 
girl, servant, apprentice ; bacelltr, to 
make love, to serve as apprentice, to 
commence a study ; baceltrie, youth ; 
bachela^e, apprenticeship, art and study 
ofchivi^. Hence by a secondary form- 
ation bacheler, bachelard, bacMur, young 
man, aspiiant to knighthood, apprentice 
to arms or sciences. A bacheler of oris 
is a young man admitted to the degree of 
^>prentice or student of arts, but not yet 
a master. In ordinary E. it has come to 
signify an unmarried man. Prov. bacalar, 
bachallier, was used of the young student, 
young soldier, young unmarried man. 
Then, as in the case of many other words 
signifying boy or youth, it is applied to a 
KTvant or one in a subordinate condition. 

Vos e inl'n fewlz per toll Inumr, 
Vos com seDhei e ml com bacalar : 
— jrOD and I made omse1i«s pisiiei] among all, 
yoa as Lord, and I as servant or squire. 

The functions of a knight were com- 



plete when he rode at the head of his re- 
tainers assembled under his banner, 
which was expressed by the term ' lever 
banniire.' So long as he was unable to 
take this step, either from insufficient age 
or poverty, he would be considered oiJy 
as an apprentice in chivalry, and was 
called a knight bachelor, just as the outer 
barrister was only an apprentice at the 
law, whatever his age might be. The 
Aw^a/arfiof the south of France andnorth 
of Spain seem quite unconnected. They 
were the tenants of a larger kind of farm, 
called baccalaria, were reckoned as nts~ 
tici, and were bound to certain duty work 
for their lord. There is no appearance 
in the passages cited of their having had 
any military character whatever. One 
would suspect that the word might be of 
Basque origin. 

Back, 1. ON. bai,- IaOl pakali. The 
part of the body opposite to the face, 
turned away from the face. The root 
seems preserved in Bohem. paJiti, to 
twist; VtA. pacsy^ se, to warp (of wood), 
to bend out of shape ; wispah, wrong, 
backwards, inside outwards ; pakas4, 
malice, spite, perversity ; opak, the wrong 
way, awry, cross ; opactny, wrong, per- 
verted ; Russ. Q^ako, naepaho, wrong ; 
Paii in composition, equivalent to Lat, 
re, again i paki-buitU, regeneration. So 
in E. to give a thing back is to give it 
again, to giye it in the opposite direction 
to that in which it was formerly given, 
and with us too the word is frequently 
used in the moral sense of perverted, 
bad. A back-friend is a perverted friend, 
one who does injury under the cover of 
friendship ; to back-slide, to slide out of 
the right path, to fall into error; on. 
bak-radudur, ill-counselled ; Esthon. 
pakha-poal, the back side, wrong side ; 
rfnAAo, bad, ill-disposed; Y'la.La.^. paha, 
bad ; OUG. abahf abuh, apah, apuh, aver- 
sus.perversus, sinister; oioAnn, aversari, 
abominari ; Goth, ibiiks, backwards. 

Baok, 2. A second meaning of Back 
is a brewer's vat, or large open tub for 
containing beer. The word is widely 
spread in the sense of a wide open vessel. 
Bret, bac, a boat ; Pr. bae, a flat wide 
ferry boat ; Du. back, a trough, bowl, 
manger, cistern, basin of a fountain, Hat- 
bottomed boat, body of a wagon, pit at 
the theatre ; Dan. bakke, a tray. Of this 
the IL bacino is the diminutive, whence 
E. basin, basonj It. bacinetto, a bacinet, 
or bason-shaped helmet. 

Baoket. In the N. of E. a coal-hod, 
from back, in the sense of a wide open 



vessel ; Rouchi, bae d earbon. — H^cart. 
The Fr. baquet is a tub or pail. 

Backgammon. From Dan. hakke 
(also bakke-bord), a tray, and gamnuit, a 
game, may doubtless be explained the 
game of Back-gammon, which is con- 
spicuously a tray-game, a game played 
' OD a tray-shaped board, although the 
word does not actually appear in the Dan. 
dictionaries. It is exceedingly likely to 
have come down to us from our Northern 
ancestors, who devoted much of their 
long winter evenings to games of tables. 

To make or leave a blot at Backgam- 
mon is to uncover one of your men, to 
leave it liable to be taken, an expression 
not explicable by the E. sense of the word 
bloL But the Sw, tlotl, Dan. blot, is 
naked, exposed ; blatu sig, to expose 
oneself ; Sw. gora htott, at Backgammon, 
to make an exposed point, to make a blot- 

Baooa. OFr. bacon; bacguier,^ sty- 
fed hog ; ODu. ba^cki, backe, a pig ; 
baccktn-vleesch, baeck-vleesck, pork, ba- 
con. The term seems properly to have 
been applied to a fatted hog and his flesh 
cured for keeping, ' ptorcus saginatus, 
ustulatus et salitus, et petaso aul pema.' 
— Due. in V. Baco. The word may ac- 
cordingly be derived from Bret, paska, 
to feed, W. fasg, feeding or fattening, 
fasg-diBTch, pasg-hwch, a fatted hog. 
The s is .lost in Fr. pacagt, pasture or 
feeding-ground, Mid.Lat. pacata, pnga- 
gium, pagnagium (Carp.), pannage or 
pawnage, duty paid for feeding animals, 
especially hogs, in the Lord's forests. 

On the other hand, there is a suspici- 
ous resemblance to Du. baggele, bigge, 
P^. bacoro, a young pig, Piedm. biga, a 

Bad. G. bose, Du.Jc^j, malus,pravus, 
perversus, malignus. Pers. bud, bad. 
Unconnected, I believe, with Goth. 
bauths, tasteless, insipid. 

Bad^. A distinctive mark of office 
or service worn conspicuously on the 
dress, often the coat of arms of the prin- 
cipal under whom the person wearing the 
badge is placed. Du. busse, stadt-wapen, 
spinther, monile quod in bumeris tabel- 
larii et caduceatores ferunt. — Kil. Bage 
or iagf^of armys— banidium. — Pr. Pm. 
Perhaps the earliest introduction of a 
badge would be the red cross sewed on 
their shoulders by the crxisaders as a 
token of their calling. 

But on his breast a bloody ( 



resemtriance or his absent Lord, 

wboie sweet soke lluU glorious imtgi be 

Cnicein aimniere dicebantiiT (nyi I _ , 
qui Rd sacra bella priffecturi Cnicii sjmbolaoi 
palliis suis aisutianl et affigebaat in sienum 
votlvse illiuscxpedillonLs.— FrandaudicntBtalift 
eloquia protiaas in dextra fecerc Cnuzs inert 

The sign of the cross, then, was in 
the first instance, ' assumentum,' a patch, 
botch, or bodge ; bottsen, interpolarc, 
omare, ang. botcke, bodge. — Kii G, batx, 
batte, botxen, a dab or lump of something 
soft, a coarse patch — Sanders ; Bav. 
patichen, to strike with something flat, as 
the hand, to dabble or paddle in the wet. 
G. batten, to dabble, to patch. — Sanders. 
The radical notion of patch, badge, will 
thus be something fastened on, as a dab 
of mud thrown against a wall and stick- 
ing there. Hence we find bodged used 
by Shakespeare in the sense of dabbled. 

Tbeii hands and faces wan all tadrid with 
blood.— Macbeth. 

The Sc. form baugie, however, does not 
well agree with the foregoing deriva- 

His schinvng scheQd with hia iamgie (iasiga^ 
tuhe he. — D, V. 50. 13. 
Badgar. This word is used in two 
senses, apparendy distinct, viz. in that of 
a corn-dealer, or carrier, one who bou^ 
up com in the market for the purpose of 
selling it in other places ; and secondly, 
as the name of the quadruped so called. 
Now we have Fr. bladier, a corn-dealer 
(marchand de grain qui approvisionne 
les marchft k dos de mulcts — Hiaal.), 
the diminutive of which (according to the 
analogy of bltdier, blaier, belonging to 
com, blairie, terre de blairit, com coun- 
try) would be blaireau, the actual desig- 
nation of the quadruped badger in the 
same language, which would thus signify 
a little com.^ealer, in allusion doubtless 
to some of the habits of that animal, with 
which the spread of cultivation has made 
us little familiar. 

But further, there can be little doubt 
that E. badger, whether in the sense of a 
corn-dealer or of the quadruped, is di- 
rectly descended from the Fr. blmdier, 
the corrupt pronunciation of which, in 
analogy with soldier, solger, sodgtr, 
would be bladger; and though the 
omission of the / in such a case is a 
somewhat tmfamiliar change, yet many 
instances may be given of synonyms 
differing only in the preservation (or in- 
sertion as the case may be) or omission 
of an /after an initials or ^. Thus Du. 
baffen and bla^en, to bark ; paveien and 
plaveUm, to pave ; pattijH and plattijm, a 



■kait or patten ; butse and blutse, a bruise, 
boil ; B. botck, or blotch; babtr-lipped, 

and blabbtr-li^ed, having large ungainly 
lips ; fagged, tired, hota flagged, Fr. betle 
and bUtte, beets ; Berri, baitt de pluie, a 

Eating shower of rain, Sc, a bladfi weet ; 
ouchi, basser, Fr, blasser, to foment. 
To B&ffle, 1. 7*1) iJ^ir, to foil or 
render ineffectual the efforts of another, 
must be distinguished from Fr. bafouer, 
OX. bajitl, to treat ignominiously. Baffle, 
in the former sense, is one of a series of 
similar fonns, baffle, faffle, kaffle, maffle, 
/amble, signifying in the first instance 
imperfect speaking, stammering, then 
'mperfect action of other kinds, trifling, 

) fumble, 

trifle ; haffle, to stammer, falter ; maffli 
to stammer, to mumble ; the term seem 
to be applied to any action suffering from 

sily, — Forby, Swiss baffeln, maffeln, 
chatter, taUc idly ; Rouchi b^ier, 
slobber, stammer, talk idly. 

We pass from the notion of imperfect 
speech to that of imperfect, ineffectual 
action, when we speak of light baffling 
winds, changeable winds not serving the 
purpose of navigation. ' For hours pre- 
viously the ill-fated ship was seen baffling 
with a gale from the N.W. ; ' i. e. strug 
gling ineffectually with it. — Times, Fel 
37, i86a ' To what purpose can it be t 
* gle and baffle for a time :' to trifle.- 




Finally, in a factitive sense, it signifies 
to cause another to act in an ineffectual 
manner, to foil his efforts. To boffle, 
stammer, to change, to vary, to prevent 
any one from doing a thing, — Hal. So 
to habblt, to stammer, to speak con- 
fiisedly, and, in a factitive sense, to reduce 
to a state of perplejdty. To be kabbUd, 
be perplexed or nonplussed, foiled in any 
tmaertaking. — Jam. Sup. 

3. OE. baffltl, Fr. bafouir, to hood- 
wink, deceive, bafde, disgrace, handle 
basely in terms, give reproachful words 
tmto. — Cot The Fr. verb may be actu- 
ally borrowed from the e. bagul, which 
seetns to have been applied to a definite 
mode of di^iacing a man, indicated by 
Hall as in use among the Scots. 

And fiinherrnore the erle bad Ihe heiauld 
tsj to hli master, that if he Tor his pan kept i 
Ml ■ppointnwnt, then he nai content that Ihe 
Scots ihonld bafful him, which is a great re- 
proach among the Scots, and ii usod when 

Dian li openly perjured, and then Ihey make o( 
him an image painted reversed with the heels 
upwHid, wilh his name, wondering, ciying and 

despiteful manner lliey can. In tolien Chat he to 
to be exiled the company of all good creatures. 

Again, in the F. Q. 

First he his beard did shave and IbuUy sbent, 
Then from him refi his shield, and it r'enretst 
And blotted out his arms with falshood blent. 
And himself iagkld. and his armes unheisl, 
And broke his sword in twayn and all his armour 

Now the Sc. has bauch, btatgh, baack 
(cA guttural), repulsive to the taste, bad, 
sorry, ineffective. A baucA tradesman, a 
sorry tradesman ; 

Without estate 
A youth, (hough sprung from Idngs, loola laiigi 

aod blate, — Ramsay in Jam. 
Beauty but bounty's but bauch. Beauty 
without goodness is good for nothing. 

To bauchle, backle, baskle, is then, to, 
distort, to misuse ; to bauchle shoon, to 
tread them awry ; a bauchle, an old shoe, 
whatever is treated with contempt or 

One who is set up as the butt of a 
company or a laughing-stock is said to 
be made a bauchle of; to bauchle, to treat 
contemptuously, to vilify. 
Wallace lay still quhilt forty dayis was gayn 
And fyve atour, ixJl peranoe saw he nayn 
Baltaill till haifT, as thair promyss was maid 
He gin display again his tianer braid : 
Rapreiflyl Edward rycht gretlye of this thing, 
Bawthyllyl his seyll. blew out on that fab king 
As a tyrand ; tumd bak and luk his gait. 

If this passage be compared with the 
extract from Hall, it will be seen that the 
affront put by Wallace on the king's seal 
in token of his having broken his word, 
was an example of the practice which 
Kali tells us was used in Scotland under 
the name of baffltUing, the guttural ch 
being represented in English by an /, aa 
in many other cases. The G. has bafel, 
bofel,pofel, synonymous with Sc. bauchle, 
spoiled goods, refuse, trash — Kiittn. ; 
verba/eln, to make a ba/el of, to bauchle. 
— Sanders. 

Bagr. Gael, bolg, balg, bag, a leather 
bag, wallet, scrip, llie belly, a blister, 
beUows ; Golh. balgi, a skin, a leather 
case ; G. balg, tlie skin of an animal 
stripped off whole ; Brescian baga,et\X\K 
skin of an animal for holding oil or wine ; 
the belly. See Belly, Bulge. 

Bagfag«. Derived by Diez from 
Sp., Cat. baga, a noose, tie, knot, rope by 
which the load is fastened on a beast of 
burden. From baga was formed OFr. 
baguer, to truss or tuck up (Cot), to tie 




on, to bind. ' lb firent trousser et baguer 
leur tr^sor et richesses sur chevaubc et 
tnules,chan)eou1xetdroinadaires.' 'Aprds 
ce qulls eurenl bagui teurs bagues.' — 
GilioD de Trasjgnie in Marsh. ' Pour 
veoir amener le B^arnois prisonnier en 
triomphe, li^ et bagui' — Satire Menipp^; 

From baguer was formed bagage, the 
canii^e of an army, as it waa called, the 
collective goods carried with an army, or 
the beasts wliich carry them. The re- 
semblance to bagues, goods, valuables, i: 

not be explained as signifying the collec- 
tion of bags belonging to an army. 

Bail.— BulifF. The Lat bajulus, a 
bearer, was applied in later times to a 
nurse, viz. as carrying the child about. 
Mid. Lat. bajula, II. bdlia. Next it was 
applied to tne tutor or governor of the 
children, probably in tbe first instance to 
the foster-father. 

— VitaUs de Reb. Aragon. in Ducange. 

When the child under the care of the 
Bajulus was of royaJ rank, the tutor 
became a man of great consequence, and 
the ^rof (3aiouXoc was one of the chief 
officers (Estate at Constantinople. 

The name was also applied to the 
tutor of a woman or a minor. Thus the 
husband became the Bajulus uxoris, 
and tbe name was gradually extended to 
any one who took care of the rights or 
person of another. In this sense is to be 
understood the ordinary E. expression of 

g'ving bait, the person who gives bail 
ling supposed to have the custody of 
him whom he bails. From bajulus was 
formed It. bailo, balivo (bajulivus); Fr. 

of the person charged, and engage to 
produce him when required. 

Tutorea vel bajvli respondcant pro pupillis. — 
Usadd Barcinonenses. El le roi la refue en 
•on hommage et le due son baron eomme bail 
d'ellc— Chron. Fbuidr. El milto ilium (li!ium| 
et onineni tneam terram et meum honurEra et 
meos vlros qufe Deus mihi dedit in bajttUa de 
Deo et de suis Sanctis. &c. Ut sint in iaynliam 
Dei et de Sanclft MariS, &c.— Testament. Regis 
Afragon. A. n. 1099, in Due. 

Fr. bailUr, to hand over, is from baju- 
lare, in the sense of making one a bail 
or keeper of the thing handed over, 
giving It into his bail or control. 

Filially, every one to whom power was 
intrusted to execute not on bis own be- 

half was called a bailiff, ba/ulitu or bai^ 
livus, from the regent of the empire (as 
we find in the case of Henry of Flandeis : 
' Principes, barones et miiites exercitus 
me imperii Ballivum elegerunt to the 
humble bailiff in husbandry who has the 
care of a fann, or the officer who executes 
the writs of a sheriff. 

Bui, a. Bail is also used in the sense 
of post or bar. The bails were the ad- 
vanced posts set up outside the solid de- 
fences of a town. Fr- iaille, barrier, 
advanced gate of a city^ palisade, barri- 
cade. — Roquefort, It is probably the. 
same word as paling or pale. Fr. balites, 
finger-posts, posts stuck up in a. river to 
mark the pass^e. Balle, barriire — 
H^cart. Bald, poste, retrachemeni ; 
revatir A ses b'aus, to return to one's 
post, at the game of puss in the comer, 
or crickeL Hence tbe bails at cricket, 
properly the wickets themselves, but now 
the cross sticks at the top. 

Bailiwick, Properly the office of a 

bailiff or executive officer, then the dis- 
trict over which he has jurisdiction. Tbe 
element -wUk is probably from Lat. 
vicis, the turn which something serves, 
function, office. 

— jef me swa betauede hit w«e sone ibudd lo 
tlve kinge. ant he me walde wamen ut of n 
wiJu [would cast tne out oriny office], a 
me to dcalhe. — St Juliana, p. 34. 

Goth, ■wiko; in vnken kunjis sinis, in 
ordinc vicis suae. — Luc i. 8. Levins has 
baylywick, villicatura ; baylyrick, villica- 
tus ; bishopTvick, episcopatus, diocesis ; 

bishoprick, episcopatus. 

Bait. The senses may all be ex- 
plained from the notion of biting. ON. 
beita, Sw. betj bete, as. bat (EttmiiUer), a 
bait for fish, is what the fish bites at, or 
what causes him to bite. on. beita, as. 
baton, to bait a hook. Du. btte, a bit, a 

ON. bita, to bile, is specially applied to 
the grazing of cattle, whence belt, Sw. 
bet, bete, pasture, herbage ; ON. beita, Sw. 

Bait-poke, a bag to carry provisions in ; 
bait, food, pasture.— Hal. 

Sw. beta, to bait on a journey, is to feed 
the horses, in accordance with Fr. rt- 
paitre, to feed, to baiu 

ON. beita, Sw. beta, G. beitxeit, to hunt 
with hawk or hare, must be understood 
as signifying to set on the hawk or hound 
to bite the prey. ON. beita einn hundum. 




to cause one to be worried by' dogs, to 
set bis dogs on one. To bait a bear or a 
bull is to set the dogs on to bite it. 

The ON. beila, Sw. beta, to harness 
oxen to a sledge, or horses to a carriage, 
must probably be explained from AS. 
batt, N. bit, the bit of a bridle taken as 
the type of harness in gener^. Ongan 
tha his esolas baton : he then began to 
saddle his asses.— Oedm. p. 173. zj. 

Baize. Coarse woollen cloth. For- 
merly bayts. Du. boMy, baai, Ft. Iiaye. 
' Les bayes seront composes de bonne 
laine, non de flocon, lanelon . . . ou autres 
mauvaises ordures.' — Reglement de la 
draperie in Hfcart. According lo this 
author it took its name from its yellow 
colour, given by ' graincs d' Avignon ; ' 
from baie, beny. 

To Bake. To dress or cook by dry 
beat ; to coolc in an oven. ', 
heat ; peku, picy, to bake, roast, &c. ; 
ptkar, a baker; Pol. piec, a stove ; picf, 
to bajce, to roast, to parch, to bum ; 
pieczywo, a batch, an oven-full ; piekam, 
a baker. 

ON. baia, to warm. Kongur bakade 
siervid elld, the King warmed himself at 
the fire. — Heimskr. £. dial, to btak, beke, 
to bask, to warm oneself; Du. zig baker- 
en, PLD. bactem, to warm oneself. C. 
b&hen, to heat ; semmeln bahen, to toast 
bread ; krankt glieder bdhtn, to foment a 
limb. Hohs oaken, to -beath wood, to 
beat wood for the- purpose of making it 
set in a certain form. Gr. jQw, calefacere. 
Lat. baja, warm baths. See Bath. The 
root is common to the Finnish class of 
languages. Lap. pak, paka, heat ] paktt, 
to melt with heat ; paiestet, to be not, to 
iasi/ paketet, to heat, make hot 

BaUnce. Lat. lanx, a dish, the scale 
of a balance ; bilanx, the implement f 
weighing, composed of two dishes 
scales hanging from a beam supported 
the middle. It. bilanda, Sp. balanea, 
Prov. balani, balanza, Fr. balance. 

The change from (' to a may be through 
the influence of the second a, or it may 
be from a false reference to the OFr. 
ialer, baloier, VeneL balare, to move up 
and down, to see-saw. 

Balcony. It. balco, balcone, an out- 
jutting comer of a house, by-window, 
bulk or stall of a shop \ialco, palcem, 
palcora, any st^e or scaftold, roof, floor, 
or ceiling j palcare, to plank, stage, 
scaffold.— Fl. The radical idea seems to 
be what is supported on balks or beams. 

Bald. Formerly written balled, ballid, 
whence Richardson explains it as if it 

signified made round and smooth like a 
balL The root, however, is too widely 
spread for such an explanation. Finn. 
Esthon. Ai^iir, naked, bare, bald ; Lap. 
puoljas, bare of trees ; Dan. baidet, un- 

Besides signifying void of hair, bald is 
used in the sense of having a white mark 
on the face, as in the case of the common 
sign of the bald-faced sta^, to be com- 
pared with Fr. cheval Mleface, a horse 
marked with white on its fece. Bald- 
faced, white-faced. — Hal. The bald-coot 
is conspicuous by an excrescence of white 
skin above its beak. 

The real identity of the word bald in 
the two senses is witnessed by a wide 
range of analogy. PoL Bohem. ^jf, bald, 
manced with a white streak ; Pol. lysina, 
Bohem. lysyna, a bald pate, and also a 
white mark on the face. Du. blesse, a 
blaie on the forehead, a bare forehead, 
bles, bald. — KiL Fin. paljas, bald, Gr. 
^\tliq, ^Xi^c, bald-faced, having a white 
streak on the face. Gael, ball, a spot or 
mark ; BreL bal, a white mark on an 
animal's face, or the animal itself, whence 
the common name Ball for a cart-horse 
in England. The connection seems to 
lie in the shining look of the bald skin. 

Lith. ballas, white ; balti, to become 
white ; balsis, a white animal. Fin. 
pailaa, to bum ; pah, burning, on. 
bdl, a blaie, beacon-fire, funereal pile. 

Balderdaah. Idle, senseless talk ; to 
balder, to use coarse language. — Halli- 
weU. w. baldorddi, to babble, prate, 
or talk idly. Du. balderen, to bawl, 
make an outcry, to roar, said of the roar 
of cannon, cry of an elephant, &c. ; bold- 
eren, bulderen, blaterare, debacchari, 
minari — Kil. ON. buldra, blaterare; 
Dan. buldre, to make a loud noise, as 
thunder, the rolling of a waggon, &c. ; 
also to scold, to make a disturbance, N. 
baldra is used of noises of the same kind 
in a somewhat higher key. £. dial, to 
galder, to talk coarsely and noisily; ti> 
gulder, to speak with loud and dissonant 
voice. — Hal. Da. dial, bialder, foolish 
talk, nonsense ; bialdre, to tattle. The 
final syllable seems to express a continu- 
ation of the phenomenon; Da. d\3i.ilask, 
chatter, talk ; dav-dask, chatter fit to 
deave one. Bav. ddtsck, noise of a blow 
with the open hand ; ddtscken, to clapj 
smack, tattle; Gael, ballart, noisy boast- 
ing, clamour ; ballartaick, baiardaich, a 


4a BALE 

l3ud noise, shouting, hooting. The same 
termination in lil^ manner expresses 
coDtinuance of noise in plaiariaich, a 
continued noise or waves gently beating 
on the shore, unintelligible talk ; clapar- 
taich, a clapping or flapping of wings. 
From the same analogy, which causes so 
many words expressive of the plashing 
or motion of water to be applied to rapid 
or confused talking, balderdash is used 
to signify washy drink, weak liquor. A 
similar connection is seen in Sp. cAa- 
pu»ar, to paddle in water ; chapurrar, to 
speak gibberish ; ekampurrar, to mix 
one Uquid with another, to speak an un- 
connected medley of languages. 

B&la. I. Grief; trouble, sorrow, as. 
iealo, gen. beahves, torment, destruction, 
wickedness ; Goth, balva-vesei, wicked- 
ness ; balveins, torment ; ON. bol, ca- 
lami^, misery ; Du. bai-daed, malefac- 
tum, maleficiuro. Pol. bol, ache, pain ; 
boleii, Bohcm. beleli, to ail, to ache, to 
grieve ; bolaviy, sick, ill. w. bail, a. 
plague, a pestilence. Perhaps on. bola, 
a bubble, blister, a boil, may exhibit the 
original development of the signification, 
a boil or blain being taken as the type of 
sickness, pain, and evil in general Russ. 
bolyaf, to be ill, to grieve ; bolyatckka, a 
pustule. See Gall, 3. 

3. A package of goods. Sw. b^j It. 
holla; Fr. balh, bal, a ball or pack, i. e. 
goods packed un into a round or compact 
mass. ON. ballr, a ball ; baila, to pack 
together in the form of a balL 

To Bale out water. Sw. balja, Dan. 
balle, Du. baalie, Bret, bal, Gael, ballan, 
a pail or tub ; G. balge, a washing-tub, 
perhaps from balg, a slun, a water-skin 
being the earliest vessel for holding 
water. Hence Dan. balle, Du. baaliin, 
to empty out water with a bowl or pail, 
to bale out In like manner Fr.^^»;j^, 
in the same sense, from bacqugt, a paiL 

* Balk. The primary sense seems to be 
as in G. balketi, on. bjdlki, OSw. balMer, 
bolker, Sw. bUlki, Sw. dial, balk, a bean). 
Fr. bau, the beam of a ship, the breadth 
from side to side ; Rouchi ban, a beam. 
We have then iLpaUare, to plank, floor, 
roof, stage or scaffold ; Sw. aflalka, to 
separate by beams, to partition off \ Sw. 
dial, balk, a cross beam dividing the 
stalls in a cow-house, a wooden par- 
tition ; ON. balkr, bilkr, a partition, 
whether of wood or stoite, as in a bam 
or cow-house, a separate portion, a di- 
vision of the old laws, a climip of men ; 
veSra bdlkr, n. uveirs bolk, as we say, a 
b^ of foul weather. Sw, diaL b^ka. 

to heap ; iaika hipar, balia hinge, to 

Twenty thousand men 
Baited in thefr blood on Holmedou's plain. 

In the sense of a separation a. baliem. 
Da. dial, balk, E. bali, are applied to a 
narrow slip of land left unturned in 
ploughing., £i»<M« of land, separaison. — 
Pal^r. A balk, says Ray, ' is a piece 
of land which is cither casually over- 
slipped and not turned up in plowing, 
or mdustriously left untouched by the 
plough for a boundary between lands.' 

Hence /i^Ai/iiis topassoverin plough- 
ing, or figuratively in any other proceed- 

His toi^, that wnn time in jape 
Him may some Ught woid ovoscafie. 


Brinirv.o..., e —J ■■- 

«BT for deaLh ai large to walke. 
Da. dial, at giore en bali, to omit a 

Ktch of land m sowing. To baulke the 
iten road, to avoid it — Sir H. Wotton. 
In modem speech to balk is used in a 
factitive sense, to cause another to miss 
the object of his expectation. 

Ball.— Balloon.— Ballot, on. dUllr 
(gen. ballar), a globe, baU, Sw. boll, ball. 
Da. bold, OHG. polio, O. ball. It. balla 
(with the augm. ballone, a great ball, a 
balloon, and the dim. ballotta, a ballot), 
palla, Sp. bala, Fr. baUe, Or. iroUa 
(Hesych.), a ball. Fin. paUo, with the 
dim. pallukka, pallikka, a ball, globule, 
testicle ; moan pallikka, a clod of earth ; 
palloilla, to roll. From the same root 
probably Lat. pila, filula, a ball, a pill, 
which seem eoually related to the fore- 
going and to toe series indicated under 
Bowl, Ball 

BalL— Ballad.— BaUrt. It ballare, 
to dance, from the more general notion 
of moving up and down. Mid.LaL bal- 
lare, hue et illuc incllnare, vacillaie. — 
Ugutio in Due. VeneL balare, to rock, 
to see-saw. OFr. baler, bolster, to wave, 

Job ae fut cokes (a kei or leed) ne roslau 

It ballart, to shake or jog, to daiKe. 
Hence, ballo, a dance, a bail, BaJiata, 
a dance, also a song sung in dancing 
(perhaps in the interval of dancing), a 
ballad. Fr. ballet, a scene acted in 
dancing, the ballet of the theatres. 



It is probably an old Celtic word. 
Bret. balAi, to walk, baU, the act of 
walking, or movement of one who walks. 

Ballaat. Dan. bag-Ust, Du. ballast, 
Fr. Ust, Ustaee, It. lastrn, Sp. lasfre. 
The first syllable of this word has pven 
a great deal of trouble. It is explained 
baci by Adelung, because, as he says, the 
ballast is put in the binder part of the 
ship. But the hold is never called the 
tack of the ship. A more likely origin is 
to be found in Dan. dial , bag-iiEs, the back- 
load, or comparatively worthless load 
one brings back from a. place with an 
empty waggon. When a ship dischai^es, 
if it la.ils to obtain a return cargo, it is 
forced to take in stoikes or sand, to pre- 
serve equilibrium. This is the back- 
load, or ballast of a ship, and hence the 
name has been extended to the addition 
as heavy materials placed at the bottom 
of an ordinary cargo to keep the balance. 

The whole amount carried by the canal lines 
hi 1854 was leu Ihan 35,000 tons, and this was 
chiefly cairied as bach-hading, for want of other 
frdgbl.— Report Pennsjlv. R. 1854. 

Mr Marsh objects to the foregoing 
derivation, in the first place, that home- 
ward'bound ships do not in general sail 
without cargo or in ballast, more £re- 

Juentlvthan outward-bound, and there- 
>re tnat backloading is not an appro- 
priate designation lor the heavy ma- 
terial which is employed to steady sea- 
goii^ vessels. But how appropriate 
the designation would really be, may 
be judged by the following illustration 
from practical life. ' The object of the 
company is to provide the excellent ore 
of ue southern counties as a return 
cargo for the colliers of the North. By 
this means the colliers will ensure an 
additional profit by carrying a ballast 
for which they will receive some freight- 
age.' — Mining Journal, Sept. i, i860. 
hsA Kit explains ballast, inutilis saicina, 
inutile onus, a useless load. 

A more serious objection is that the 
word in earlier Danish is always iarlast, 
as it still is in Sweden and Norway. 
But because baglast is not found in the 
written documents, it by no means fol- 
lows that it was not always lo^lly cur- 
rent. And it is certain that barlast 
could never have passed into baglast by 
niere corruption, while it would be an 
easy transition from baglast through W- 
l^t to barlast. 

Mr Marsh even calls in question 
whether the last syllable is the Du. last, 
a load. But Fr. lester is to load a ship 



as well as to ballast it— Cot. Ltst, like 
Teutonic last, was used for a load or 
definite weight of goods (Roquef), and 
MiALat. lasiagium signified not ojJy 
ballast, but loadage, a duty on goods 
sold in the markets, paid for the right of 


luatep. Fr. hallttstrts, ballisters 
(corruptly AiRMuj^rj when placed as guard 
to a staircase;, little round and shoK 

pillars, ranked on the outside of cloisters, 
terraces, galleries, &c. — Cotgr. Said to 
be from balausUa, the flower of the 
piomegranate, the calyx of which has a 
double curvature similar to that in which 
balusters are commonly made. But such 
rows of small pillars were doubtless in 
use before that particular form was given 
to them. The Sp. barauste, from bara or 
vara, a rod, seems the original form of 
the word, of which balauslre [and thence 
the Fr. ballustre) is a corruption, anal- 
<^ous to what is seen in 1 L bcrttsca, Bal- 
trtsca, a battlement ; Lat vriica, Venet, 
oltriga, a nettle. 

Sp. baranda, railing around altars, 
fonts, balconies, &c. ; barandado, series 
of balusters, balustrade ; barandilla, a 
small balustrade, small railing. 

Balm, BaUam. Fr. baunu, from Lat. 
balsamum, Gr. ^oAffo/ioy, a fragrant gum. 

B&ltio. The ,5iz//iV sea, mare Balticum. 
In OSw. called Bait, as two of the en- 
trances are still called the Great and 
Little Belt The authorities are rot 
agreed as to the grounds on which the 

To Bam. To make fiin of a person. 
A bam, a false tale or jeer. Bret, oamein, 
to enchant, deceive, endormir par des 
contes. Samour, enchanter, sorcerer. 

To BamboOEle. — To deceive, make 
fiin of a person. 

There are a set of fellows Ihey call banleren 
and bambooileii that play such liicka. — Arbath- 

It, Sambolo, bamboccio, bambocciolo, a 
young babe, b^ met an old dotard or 

babish gull ; tmbantdolare, to blear or 
dim one s sight, also with Aatteries and 
blandishments to enveagle and make a 
child of one. — FI. If bambocciolart were 
ever used in the same sense it might have 
given rise to bambooxU, 

Sc. bumbaaed, puuled. astonished. 

To Baxu To proclaim, command, 
forbid, denounce, curs& 

The primitive meaning of the word 
seems to have been to summons to the 
army. In the commencement of the 


feudal times all male inhabitants were in 
general required to give personal attend- 
ance when the king planted his banner 
in the field, and sent round a notice that 
his subjects were summoned to join him 
against the enemy. 

__ He askyt of (he Kyng 

Til have the Tawaid of his bafayl, 
Quhalever thai ware vald il assayle, 
That he and his suld have always 
Quben that the king nild Banarc rays. 
Wjnioun, V. 19. 15. 

Now this calling out of the public force 
was called bannire in kosiem, batinirt in 
exerdlum, pofiuium in hoslem convomre 
banmre exercitum, in Fr. baair Voust; 
AS. theodscipe ut abannan. In Layamon 
we constantly find the expression, he 
bannedt hisfirdt, he assembled his host. 
The expression seems to arise from bann 
m the sense of standard, fl^, ensign 
(see Banner). The raising of the King's 
banner marked the place of assembly, 
and the primitive meaning of bannire 
was to call the people to the bann 
Standard, The term was then applied 
to summoning on any other public — 
casion, and thence to any proclamati 
whether by way of injunction or 1 

Car 1 ai de raon p*re congif 

De [aire ami et d'etre aimfe.— R. R. 

Never maiden of high birth had such 
power or freedom of loving as I have. 
Les saiges avail et les (bis 
Commiminieal d soa iandini.—R. R. 
Translated by Oiaucer, 

Great loos bath Largesse and great prise, 
For both the wise iiiDc and unwise 
Weie wholly it ktr ianJou traught, 

i.t were brought under her power or 


Bond, 1. That with which anything 
bound. AS. band, Goth, bandi, Fr. 

■nde. It. banda. "Ftqjr the verb to 
bind, Goth, bindan, band, bundun. Spe- 
cially applied to a narrow strip of cloth 

similar material for binding or swath* 

" ■" stripe or streak of different 



Car, Mag. , 

quis legibus in odmatem Regis sive In hoste 
cBl or aimy) ^ve in reliquam utililatem 
■fiuril, ele— Leg. Ripuar. Eiercitur 
im Sisenardi de tolo regno Burguadit 
prascepil Fredegarius.— Si quis cun 
— ■'"- '"-"• - -- ■.— CapituI 

813. Se il a 

5t que le Roy 

._ -inemis de 
-- — Jemsalem. Fece tamdir, 
»osh geoerale per tutto '1 ragno.— John ViUani 

In like manner we find bannire adplacita, 
admolendinum,&c., summoning to serve 
at the Lord's courts, to bring com to be 
ground at his mill, &c. Thus the word 
acquired the sense of proclamation, ex- 
tant m Sp and It. baneU), and in e. banns 
of marri^e. In a special sense the term 
was applied to the public denunciation 
by ecclesiastical authority; Sw, bann, 
excommunication ; bann-lysa, to excom- 
municate {fysa, to publish) ; banna, to 
reprove, to take one to task, to chide, to 
curse, E. tti ban. 

In Fr. bandon the signification w:is 
somewhat further developed, passing on 
from proclamation to command, permis- 
sion, power, authority. 'A son bandon, 
at his own discretion. OE. bandon was 
used in the same sense. Sec Abandon. 

Oncqoe* Purelle de paralge 

N'eut d'almer lei iaadim que j"ai, | 


r or matenal In It banda the 
term is applied to the strip of anything 
lying on the edge or shore, a coas^ side, 

region, c, bande, border, margin. 

Bsjtd, S.^To Baiid7. In the next 
place Sand is applied to a troop of 
soldiers, a number of persons associated 
for some common purpose. IL Sp. banda, 
Fr, bande. There is some doubt how 
this signification has arisen. It seems 
however to have been developed in the 
Romance languages, and cannot be ex- 
plained simply as a body of persons 
bound tc^ether for a certain end. It has 
plausibly been deduced fi'om MidL^ 
bannum or bandum, the standard or 
banner which forms the rallying point of 
a company of soldiers. 

Bandus, says Moratori, Diss. 36, tunc l^a the 
9th cenluiy) nuncupalMtur l^io a iaiuh, hoc est 

So in Swiss, fahne, a company, from 
/uAjm, the ensign or banner. S^. bandera 

also used in both senses. Fr. enseigne, 
the colours under which a band or com- 
pany of footmen serve, also the band or 
company itself.— Cot. But if this were 
derivation it would be a singular 
change to the feminine gender in banda. 
The real course of development I believe 
to be as seen in Sp. banda, side, then 
party, faction, those who side together 
(bande, parti, ligue— Taboada). Band- 
' form parties, to unite with a banil. 
dare, to side or to bandy (Florio), 

bandy bein^ explained in the other 
part of the dictionary, to follow a faction. 
To bandy, tener da alcuno, 1 
partito dalcuno. — Torriano, 




Levied lo sidt wilh wniriog winds, and pidse 

Their lighter wings — MQtoii in R. 

Kings had need beware hooj Uuji lide thtm- 

ahrti, and make Ibemselvea aj of a faclion or 

party, for lesguea within the state bte ever pemi- 

dotis to mot^aichy. — Bafoo in R. 

Fr. bander, to join in league wilh others 
i^ainst— Cotgr., se reunir, s'associer, se 
joindre> — Roquefort. It is in this sense 
that the word is used by Romeo. 

Draw, BenvogUo, beat down their weapons : 

Gentlemen, for shame, forbear this outrage, 

Tilwll, Mercutio, the Prince expressly bath 

Forbidden bandyiitg in Veiona streets. 

The prince had forbidden faction Agbt- 

ing. Sp. bandear, to cabal, to fomeot 

bctioQS, follow a party. 

The name al bandy is given in English 
to a game in which the players are di- 
vided into two sides, each of which tries 
to drive a wooden ball with bent sticks 
in opposite directions. 

The zodiac is the line : (be shooting stars, 
Which in an eyebrighl evening seem to IkU. 
Are DOthing but the balls Ibey lose at bandy. 
Brewer, lingua, in R. 

Fr. bander, to drive the ball from side 
to side at tennis. Hence the expression 
of bandying words, retorting in lan^age 
like players sending the ball firom side to 
side at bandy or tennis. 

Banditti See Banish. 

Bandog. A large dog kept for a 
guard, and therefore tied up, a hand-dog. 
Du. band-kond, canis vinculis assuetus, 
Ct canis pecuarius, pastoralis. — KiL 

To Bandf. See Band, 2. 

Bandy. Bandy legs are crooked legs. 
Ft. bander un arc, to bend a bow, &c ; 
band/, bent as a bow. 

Bane. Goth, banja, a blow, a wound ; 
OHG. bana, death-blow ; Mid.HG. biaie, 
destruction ; as. bana, murderer. ON. 
bana, to slay, bana-sott, death-sickness, 
bana-sdr, dealh-wound, &c. 

Ban(r. A syllable used to represent a 
loud dull soimd, as of an explosion or a 
blow. The child cries bang I tire, when 
he wishes to represent letting off a gun. 
To bang the door is to shut it with a loud 

With many a stiff thwack, many a hang. 

Hard cratitree and old iron rang. — Hudibras. 
ON. b^ig, hammering, beating, disturb- 
ance ; biatga, to beat, knock, to work in 
wood. Sw. bang, stir, tumult ; battgas, 
to make a stir ; banka, to knock, Dan. 
banke, to knock, beat, rap ; banke et som 
i, lo hammer in a naiL The Siisu, a 
language of W. Africa, has bang-bang, to 
drive in a naiL 

To Banisli. — Bandit. From Mid. 
Lat. bannire, bandire, to proclaim, de- 
nounce, was formed the OFr. compound 
for-baitnir {bannire foras), to publicly 
order one out of the realm, and the simple 
bannir was used in the same sense, 
whence E. banish. 

From the same verb the It, participle 
bandito signifies one denounced or pro- 
claimed, put under the ban of the law, 
and hence, in the same way that E. out- 
law came to stmily a robber. It. banditti 
acquired the like signification. Forban- 
nilus is used in the Leg. Ripuar. in the 
sense of a pirate. — Diei. The word is in 
E. so much associated with the notion of 
a ^and of robbers, that we are inclined 
to understand it as signifying persons 
banded together. 

Baniatar. See Balluster. 

Bank.— Bench. The latter form has 
come to us from AS. bance, the former 
from Fr. bane, a bench, bank, seat ; banc 
de sable, a sand-bank. G, bank, a bench, 
stool, shoal, bank of river. Bantte, a desk. 
— Vocab. de Vaud. It. banco, panta, a 
bench, a table, a counter. 

But natheless I took unto our dame 
Your wife at home the same gold again 
Upon your iench — she wot it well certain 
By certain tokens that I can here lell. 

Shipman's Tale. 

From a desk or counter the significa- 
tion was extended to a merchant's count- 
ing-house or place of business, whence 
the mod. E. Bank applied to the place of 
business of a dealer in money. The 
ON. tlistlnguishes bekkr, N. benk, a bench, 
a long raised seat, and bakki, a bank, 
eminence, bank of a river, bank of 
clouds, back of a knife. Dan. bakke, 
banke, bank, eminence. The hack is a 
natural type of an elevation or raised ob- 
ject. Thus Lat. dorsum was applied to 
a sand-bank ; dorsum jugi, the slope of 
a hill, a rising hank. The ridge of a hill 
is AS. hricg, the back. 

Bankrupt. Fr. baaqueroute, bank- 
ruptcy, from banc, bench, counter, in the 
sense of place of business, and OFr. roupt, 
Lat. ruplus, broken. When a man foils 
to meet his engagements his business is 
broken up and his goods distributed 
among his creditors. It. banca rotia, 
banca/alliia, a bankrupt merchant.— FI, 

Bounw. The word Ban or Band was 
used by the Lombards in the sense of 
banner, standard. 

I appe 


In the same place is quoted from the 
Scoliast on Gregory NazUnzen : 

Ti KaXei^iva rapi 'Pasfiafon vlym «! 

fiaiita TovTo i An-irrf^av ravOinrTa ml <n)- 

Hence It. banditra, Ft. ianniire, E. ioM- 

The origin is in all probability Goth. 
itaidtw, battdva, a sign, token, an intima- 
tion made by bending the head or hand. 
ON. bmda, to bend, to beckon ; banda, 
to make signs ; banda htndi, manu an- 
nuere. The original object of a standard 
is to serve as a mark or sign for the 
troop to rally round, and it was accord- 
ingly very generally known by a name 
having that signification. ON. nurki, 
LaL signum, Gr. aq^iov, OHG. heri-pau- 
chan, a war-beacon or war-signal ; Fr. 
tnseigne, a sign or token as well as an 
ensign or banner ( Prov. senh, senhal, a 
sign ; stnkal, senkeira, banner. 

According to Dier the It. bandiera is 
derived from banda, a band or strip of 
cloth, and he would seem to derive Goth, 
btindva, a sign, from the same source, 
the ensign of a troop being taken as type 
of a sign in general, whioi is surely in 
direct opposition to the natural order of 
the signification. Besides it must be by 
no means assumed that the earliest kind 
of ensign would be a flag or streamer. 
It is Quite as likely that a sculptured 
symbol, such as the Roman Eagle, would 
first be taken for that purpose. 

Banneret Fr. banneret. A knight 
banneret was a higher class of knights, 
inferior to a baron, privileged to raise 
their own banner in the field, either in 
virtue of the number of their retinue, or 
from having distinguished themselves in 

Qui tantce erant nobilitatis ut eomra quilibet 
vexilLi ^uderet Insigiiibus. — LiJe of Philip Au- 
gust, in Due 

They were called in the Latin of the 
period vexillarii, milites bannarii, bantu- 
rarii, bannireti. 

BaJiquet. \\.baMckcttOfdxa\.o{ banco, 
a bench or table ; hence a repast, a ban- 

To Banter. To mock or jeer one. 

When wit faalh any mixture of raillery, It is but 
calling it banttr. and tbe work is done. This 
polite word of (heirs was Sral borrowed fiom [be 
bullies in While Fiiara, then fell among (he ibot- 
nen, and at last retired (o the pedants— but if 
tUe ianttring, as ihey caJlit, be so despicable a 
tUmg, &c.— Swift in R. 

Baatliag. A child in swaddling 
clothes, from the bands m which 


wrapped. So on. reiflingr, a bantliag, 
from re^a, to wrap. In a Mmilar manner 
are formed yearling, an animal a year 
old, neilliHg, a young bird still in (he 

(St, &e. 

B&ptise. Gr. ^tth, Pmrriliu, to dip, 
to wash. 

Bar. A rod of any ri^d substance. 
It. barra, Fr. barre, and with an initial s. 
It. sbarra, ohg. ^arro, Sw. sfarre, E. 
ipar, a beam or long pole of wood. The 
meaning seems in the first instance a 
branch; Celtic bar, summit, top, then 
branches. Bret barrmi-gwe*, branches 
of a tree (^"ztusnt, a tree). Gael. ^iTWil, i 
branches, brushwood. Hence Fr, barrrr, 
to bar or stop the way as with a bar, to ' 
hinder ; barriire, a barrier or stoppage ; | 
barreau, the bar at which a criminal 
appears in a court of justice, and from 
which the barrister addresses the court. 

Barb. I. The barb of an arrow is the 
beard-like jag on the head of an airo« 
directed backwards for the purpose of 
hindering the weapon from being drawn 
out of a wound. Lat. barba, Fr, barbe, a 
beard. Flcsche barbeUe, a bearded or 
barbed arrow.— Cot. 

3. Fr. Barbe, E. Barb, also signified a 
Barbaiy horse. G, Barbar, OFr. Bar- 
bare. — LeduchaL 

3. The term barb was also applied to 
the trappings of a horse, probably cor- 
rupted from Fr. bardt, as no correspond- 
ing term appears in other languages. 
Bard£, barbed or trappied as a great horse. 

Barbsroiu. The original import of 
the Gr. pdp0ap<it, LaL barbarus, is to 
designate one wtuise lan^age we do not 
understand. Thus Ovid, speaking tX 
himself in Pontus, says, 

Baitmrus bic ego 5V 

in tntdligor uHJ. 

speaking a foreign 
langu^e. Then as the Greeks and 
Romans attained a higher pitch of civil- 
isation than the rest of the ancient world, 
the word came to signify nide, uncivilised, 
cruel The origin of the word is an 
imitation of the confused sound of voices 
by a repetition of the syllable bar, bar, 
in the same way in which the broken 
sound of waves, of wind, and even of 
voices is represented by a repetition of 
the analogous syllable mur, mur. We 
speak of the murmur of the waves, or of 
a crowd of people talking. It may be 
remarked, indeetl, that the noise of voices 
is constantly represented by the same 
word as the sound made by the move* 


ment of water. Thus the ON. skola, as 
well as thvKttta, are each used in the 
sense both of washing or splashing and 
of talkir^. The E. twtUilt, which was 
formerly used in the sense of taitle, as 
well as the modern twaddle, to talk much 
and foolishly, seem frequentative forms 
of Sw, tmalla, to wash. G. ■waschen, to 
tattle. It guattare, to plash or dabble, 
guassalare, to prattle. — FL In like 
manner the syllable bar or bor is used in 
the fonnation of words intended to repre- 
sent the sound made by the movement 
of water or the indistinct noise of talk- 
ing. Hindost. barbar, muttering, barbar- 
kama, to gurgle. The verb borrelen 
signifies in Du. to bubble or spring up, 
and in Flanders to vociferate, to make 
an outcry ; Sp. borbolar, borbollar, to boil 
or bubble up ; barbulla, a tumultuous as- 
sembly; Port, borbulhar, to bubble or 
boil; It, borbogiio, a rumbling, uproar, 
quarrel ; barbueliare, to stammer, stutter, 
speak confusefiy. Fr. barbeter, to gnmt, 
mutter, murmur; barboUr,Ko mumble or 
mutter words, also to wallow like a seeth- 
ing pot — Cot The syllable bar seems 
in the same way to be taken as the 
representative of sound conveying no 
meaning, in Fr. baraeouin, gibberish, 
jargon, 'any nide gibbTe-gabble or bar- 
bariDus speech.' — Cot Mod. Gr. ^p- 
/Jipa:-, to stammer; (Sop/Siprfw, to nim- 
ble, boil, grumble (Lowndes, Mod. Gr. 
Lex.); Port berborinha, a shouting of 

BftrbaL A river fish having a beard 
at the corners of the mouth. Fr. barbel, 
iarbeau. — Cot. 

Baj'lMr. Fr. barbier, one who dresses 
the beard. 

BaLrborry. A shrub bearing acid 
berries. Fr. dial, barbe/in. — Diet Etym. 
Barbaryn-fnite, barieum, — tree, barbaris. 
— Pr. Pm. 

BftrhiouL An outwork for the de- 
fence of a gate. It barbacaite, a jetty 
or outnook in a building, loophole in a 
wall to shoot out at, scouthouse.— FL 
Perhaps from Pers. Bdb-khdnaA, gate- 
house. CoL Yule, in 'Ocean Highways,' 
remembers seeing a new double-towered 
gateway or gatehouse before a native 
mansion in Cawnpore (exactly corre- 
sponding to the barbican of a castle], on 
which was written in Pers., 'BdA-khdnah 
is Mahomed Baksh,' the gate-house of 
M. B. 

Bard. i. v. bardd, Bret, bar^, the 
name of the poets of the ancient Celts, 
whose office it was to sing the praises of 



the great and warlike, and hymns to the 

Bardus Gallic^ cantalorappellatiir qui Tiroiuin 

hdpioi tiiif ^funjTal jiial xoittTaJ.— Stiabo, lb. 

El Bardi quidem forlia Tironim lllustriain 
facta henids composita TCrslbus cam duldbus 
lyrse modulis candUrunt. — Lucan, lb. 
Hence in poetic language Bard is used 
for poet 

2. Sp. barda, horse armour covering 
the front, back, and flanks. Applied in 
E. also to the ornamental trappings of 
horses on occasions of state. 

When immediately on the other part came in 
the fore eight knighli ready Hnned, their basMS 
hhiI iards of their horses green saliti embroidere4 
viib fresh devices of bramble bushes of Gue eold 

curiously mtoukIk, pawdBred all over Hall 


Fr. bardes, barbes or trappings for 
horses of service or of show. Bardtr, to 
barbe or trap horses, also to bind or tic 
across. Sarde, a long saddle for an ass 
or mule, made only of coarse canvas 
stuffed with flocks. Bardeau, a shingle 
or small board,3uch as houses are covered 
with, Bardelle, a bardelle, the quilted 
or canvas saddle wherewith colts are 
backed, — Cotgr, Sp. barda, coping of 
straw or farusawood for the protection of 
a mud wall; albarda, a pack-saddle, 
broad slice of bacon with which fowls 
are covered when they are roasted ; tU- 
bardilla, small pack-saddle, coping, 
border of a garden bed. The general 
notion seems that of a covering or pro- 
tection, and if the word be from a Gothic 
source we should refer it to OV. bard. 
brim, skirt, border, ala, axilla. Hatt-bara, 
the flap of a hat ; skialldar-bard, the 
edge of a shield ; kval-barS, the layers of 
whalebone that hang from the roof of a 
whale's mouth. But Sp. albarda looks 
like an Arabic derivation; Arab, al- 
barddak, saddle-cloth. — Diez. 

Bare. Exposed to view, open, un- 
covered, unqualified. G. boar, bar, ON. 
btr; G. baarei geld, Ttady money. Russ. 
bbs, Liih, bdsas, bdsus, bare ; baskojis, 
barefooted ; Sanscr. bkasad, die nalced- 

Bar§rain. OFr. barguigner, to chaf- 
fer, bargain, or more properly (says 
Cotgr.) to wrangle, haggle, brabble in the 
making of a bargain. The radical idea 
is the confused sound of wrangling, and 
the word was used in OE. and Sc. m the 
e of fight, skirmish. 
And mony (ymjpt iuhe thai wild 
And bargain at Itae bamiit haki. - 



And wound Ihali bjii ofi and sin. 

Barbour [a Jam. 

We have seen under Barbarous that 
the syllable 6ar was used in the con- 
struction of words e^tpressing the con- 
fused noise of voices sounding indistinct 
either from the language not being un- 
derstood, or from distance or simultane- 
ous utterance. Hence it has acquired 
the character of a root signifying con- 
fusion, contest, dispute, givmg rise to It. 
baruffa, liay, altercation, dispute; Prov. 
baralha, trouble, dispute ; Port, baralhar, 
Sp. barajar, to shuffle, entangle, put to 
confusion, dispute, quarrel ; PorL bara- 
funda, Sp. barahunda, tumult, confusion, 
disorder j PorL barajkslar, to strive, 
Struggle ; It. baratta, strife, squabble, 
dispute ; b&rattare, to rout, to cheat, also 
to exchange, to chop; C. barreior, one 
who stirs up strife. Nor is the root con- 
fined to the Romance tongues ; Litb. 
barii, to scold ; barnis, strife, quarrel ; 
ON. baratta, strife, contest; bardagi, 

From Fr. baragouin, representing the 
confused sound of people speaking a 
language not understood by the hearer, 
we pass to the verb barguigtur, to 
wrangle, chaffer, bargain. 

Ba^e.— Bark, 1. These words seem 
mere varieties of pronunciation of a term 
common to all the Romance as well as 
Teutonic and Scandinavian tongues. 
Prov. barca, barja, OFr. bargt, Du. 
barsie, OSw, bars, a boat belonging to a 
larger ship. 

Barca at quse cuncta navti comnu 
titlui poitat. — liidore in Rayn. Nuis 

The origin may be on. barki, the 
throat, then the bows or prow of a ship, 
pectus navis, and hence probably (by a 
met^hor, as in the case of Lat puppis) 
barkr came to be applied to the entire 
ship. So also on. kani, a beak, promi- 
nent part of a thing, also a boat ; skutr, 
the fore or after end of a boat ; skuta, a 

Bark, S. The outer rind of a tree ; 
any hard crust growing over anything. 
ON. borkr, bark ; at barka, to skin over; 
barkandi, astringent 

To Bark. as. beorcan, from an imita- 
tion of the sound. 

Bftiley. The Goth. adj. barizeais in- 
dicates a noun baris, barley; AS. bere. 
W. barlys {bare, bread, and llystau, Bret 
iousou, Ihfn, herbs, plants), bread-corn, 
barley. The older form io £. was iaritc, 


bar/ir, barlich, the second syllable of 
which is analogous to that of garltci, 
hemlock, charlock, and is probably a true 
equivalent of the fyi in w. barlys. See 

Barm, i. Yeast, the slimy substance 
formed in the brewing of beer. as. beorm, 
C. berm, Sw. berma. Dan, barme, the 
dregs of oil, wine, beer. 

2. As Goth, barms, a lap, bosom ; ON. 
barmr, border, edge, lap, bosom. See 

Bam. AS. berern, bam, coounonly 
explained from btre, barley, and ern, a 
place, a receptacle for barley or com, 
as bacei-em, a baking place or oven, 
lihies-ern, a lantern. (Ihre, v. am.) 
But probably dfnm is merely a misspell- 
ing, and the word is simply the Bret. 
iCTTi, aheap. Acervus, i^m. — Gl. Comub. 
Zeuss. So ON. hladi, a heap, a stack, 
hlada, a bam. Du. baenn, berm, a 
heap;iCT7« Aoyj, metafceni.— Kil. Swab. 
baam, bam, hay-loft, corn-shed, bam. 
Dan. dial, baaring, baarett, btuum, a 
load, so much as a man can bear or cairy 
at once. On the other hand, mhg. bam, 
the rack or manger, prassepe ; hHudam, 

Banutole. A conical shell fixed to 
the rocks within the wash of the tide. 
Named from the cap-like shape of the 
shelL Manx baym, a cap ; bamagh, a 
Umpet, a shell of the same conical shape 
with barnacles. Gael, baimeach, bar- 
nacles, limpets; w. brenig, limpets. 

*Bamaclea. Spectacles, also irons 
put on the noses of horses to make them 
stand quiet. — Bailey. Of these meanings 
the second is probably the original, the 
name being given to spectacl^ which 
were made to hold on the nose by a 
spring, from comparison to a farrier's 
barnacles. The name of barnacles is 
given by Joinville to a species of torture 
by compression practised by the Sara- 
cens, and may therefore be an Eastern 
word. Camus, fernat.— Vocab. in Nat. 
Antiq. Bemiques, spectacles. — Vocab. 
de Bern. 

Baron. It. barene, Sp. varon, Prov, 
bar (ace. barS), OFr. btr {ace. baron), 
Fr. baron. Originally man, husband, 
then honoured man. 

Lo iar non es creat per ta femna mas la fcmna 
per lo tara. Tba man was not created for the 
vroman, iMit the woman for the man.— Rayn. 
Tarn baranm quam feminam. — Let. Ripuar. 
BaruM vcl feminam, — Leg. Alam. 

,.,.d.:,C00glc . 

barotui are tbe nobles or vassajs of the 

Bare, Envb et authenticus tIt,— toha de Gai^ 


In our own law it was used for married 
man, Baron andfemme, man and wife. 

We have not much light on the pre- 
cise fonnarion of the wora, which would 
seem to be radicaUy the same with Lat. 
vir, Goth, vair, AS. wtr, w. gwr, Gael. 

Baraoet. Tbe feudal tenants next 
below the degree of a baton were called 
barenetti. baronuli, baronculi, baroncelli, 
but as tne same class of tenants were 
also termed banHerets, the two names, 
from their resemblance, were 
confounded, and in several ii 
■where baronefti is written in the printed 
copies, Spehnan found bantureti in the 
MS. rolls of Parliament Still he shows 
conclusively, by early examples, that 
baronettus is not a mere corruplioa of 
banneretus, but was used in the sense of 
a lesser Baron. 

Banmeulns— a t»ronet.~-NomliuiIa of the 
I51h CcdL la Nat. Aatiq. 
It was not until thetune of James I. that 
the baronets -wete established as a format 
order in the state. 

Barraok. Fr. baroque. It. baracea, 
Sp. barraca, a hut, booth, shed. Tbe 
Sp> word is explained by Minshew 'a 
souldiere tent or booth or suchlike thing 
made of the sail of a ship or suchlike 
stuff. - Dicitur proprie casa ilia piscatorum 

The original signification was probably 
a but made of the branches of trees. 
Gael, barrack, brushwood, branches ; 
barrtuhad, a hut or booth. Bargus Or 
bareui in the Salic laws is the branch of 
a. tree to which a man is hanged. 

Before the gates of fiari be lodged in a miser- 
able hut or harroik. composed 01 diy bmnclies 
and thatched "with straw. — Gibbon. 

It should be observed that, whenever 
soldiers' barracks are mentioned, the 
word is always used in the plural number, 

nlnting to a time when the soldiers' 
Igings were a collection of huts. 

• Barragui. Sp. baragan, Fr. bara- 
gani, bouracan, a kind of coarse camlet. 
A passage cited by Marsh from the 
Amante Liberal of Cervantes implies 
that barragans were of Moorish manu- 
&Cture, and Arabic barkan or barankan 
is the name of a coarse, black woollen 
garment still used in Morocco. 

La mercanda del baxel era de harragaius j 


IS qae de Betteiia 


alqulceles y de otroi o 
eleia'baa a Levante. 

On the other hand, G. barcheni, har- 
ehet (Schmeller), calico. Bombicinus, 
parchanus, parchantiusck. — -Vocab, A. D. 
1445 in Sdtmeller. ' Ut nullus scarlatas 
aut barracanos vel pretiosos burellos,qui 
Ratisboni fiunt, habeanL' — Op. S, Bern. 
ibid. MHG. barkdn, barragdn. 

Barratry.— Barrator. See Barter. 

Barrel. It. barile, Sp, barril,barrila, 
Fr. barrigKc, a wooden vessel made of 
bars or staves, but whether this be the 
true derivation maybe doubtful. 

Barren. Bret, brei^kanj OFr. brt- 
haigm, baraigne ; Picard, breim; Du. 
braeck, sterilis, semen non accipiens ; 
braeckland, uncultivated, fallow. — KiL 

Barrioade. Formed firom Fr. barre, 
a bar ; as cavalcade, &om cavallo, a 
horse ; and not &i)m Fr. barrigite, a 
barrel, as if it signified an impromfitu 
barrier composed of barrels filled with 
earth. It is hard to separate barricade 
from Fr. barri, an obstruction, fortifi- 
cation, barrier. 

Bamer. See Bar. 

Barrister. The advocate who pleads 
at the Bar of a court of Justice. 

Barrow, 1. An implement for darry- 
ing. AS. berewe, bam biran, to cany. 
1l bara, a litter, a bier or implement for 
carrying a dead body, G. bakre, a bor- 
row, tadUniakre, or simply bakre, abler. 
This word introduced mto Fr, became 
bidre, perhaps through Frov. bera, whence 
E. bier, alongside 01 barrow. 

Borrow, fl. A mound either of stones 
or earth over the graves of warriors and 
nobles, especially those killed in battle, 
as the barrow at Dunmail-iaise in West- 
moreland. AS, beorg, beork, a hill, mound, 
rampart, heap, tomb, sepulchre, from 
beorgan, OE. berwen, to shelter, cover. 

Worhton mid stonuin anne steapne iierh him 
ofer. They made with stones a steep movnd 
orerbhn. — Joshua viL aS. 

Barrow-hog. AS. bearg; Bohem, 
braw, a castrated hog ; Russ. 6oroif, a 

Barter. Barter or trafficking by ex- 
change of goods seems, like bargain, to 
have been named from the haggung and 
wrangling with which the bargam is con- 
ducted. It is shown under Bargain how 
the syllable bar acquires the force of a 
root signifying confused noise, squabble, 
tumult. From this root were formed 
words in all the Romance languages, 
signifying, in the first instance, noisy 
contention, strife, dispute, then traffick- 




ing for profit, then cheating, ovcr-reach- 
iqg, unrighteous gain. 

AI a dai, n' 13 ther no night 
Ther a' is iarti nolher strif. 

Kickes in Ricb. 
They nui like Bedlcm barrettrs into (he street. 
— HolUnshed, ibid. 

OFr. Ureter, to deceive, lie, c<^, foist 
in bargaining, to cheat, beguile, also to 
barter, trucl^ exchange. — Co^. mho. 
pArdt, PLD. baraet (from Fr.), barter, 
deceit. MHG. parUerea, to eheat,^«t- 
tierir, a deceiver. Sp. baratar, to truck, 
exchange; baraUar, to bargain; bara- 
Uria, frauc^ cheating, and especially 
fraud conunitted by the master of a ship 
with respect to the goods conunitted to 

Baratry is when the master of a ship cheats 
the ownen or insurers, by imbenling their gogds 
01 ruDDlngaway with the ship.— Bulejr. 

toe offence of stirring up 
quarrels and suits between parties. 

Bartizan. See Brattice; 

Barton. A court-yard, also the de- 
mesne lands of a manor, the manor- 
house itself, the outhouses and yards. — 
HalliwelL as. beretun, beortun, bertvnc, 
a court-yard, corn-farm, from bere, barley, 
and fuH, inclosure, or wk, dwelling. — 

BitM. It basso, Fr. bat, low, mean ; 
Sp. baxo; w. and Bret Mf, shallow, low, 
flat. The original meaning, according 
to Diez, would be, pressed down, thick. 
* 5iuj!«, crassus, pinguis.' — Gl. Isidore. 
'fiiWj*j,curtus, humiSs.' — Papias. '.Ele 
a basses hanches et basses jambes.' 

Baailiak. Gr. PatMatut, from /Sa- 
nXi^c, a king. A fabulous serpent, said 
to kill those that look upon it. 

There is not one (hat looltefh upon his eyes, 
but be dieth praaenlly. The like property hsth 
like iasilisi. A white spot or star it caileth on 
the bead and sellitb it out like a coronet 01 
diadem. If be but hiss no oihet leipent daie 
come near.— Holland's PUny In Rlcb. 

Late sibi submovel omne 
' Vnlgns et in Tacut regnal Basiliscus arenJL 

Probably from reports of the cobra capel, 
which sets up its hood when. angty, as 
the diadem of the basilisk. 

To Bask. To heat oneself in the sim 
or before a fire. See Bath. 

Basket, w. basg, netting, plaiting of 
Splinters ; basgi4, basgod, a brisket ; inasg, 
a mesh, lattice-work. 1 1 is mentioned as 
a British word by Martial. 

Bartjara de pictii veni iaicauda Britannis, 
Sed me jam mavult dicere Roma suam. 


Bacon, tit. Ai£«w, Ft. basHk, dw. 
diminutive of the word coirespondiiw to 
E. baek, signifyii^ a wide open vessel, 

Baw. It. basso, the low part of the 

Lend me yoiu' hands. Hit me above ParBasm, 
With youc loud trebles help my lowly iaaia. 
Sylvester's DubaitB^ 
Basaoon. It bassoHe, an augment- 
ation of basso,- an instrument of a very 

Baat.— Baas. Du. basl, bark, peel, 
husk ; bast van koren, bran, the thin skin 
which covers the grain; Dan. Swed. 
Ger. bast, the inner bark of the lime-tree 
beaten out and made into a material for 
mats and other coarse fabrics. Dan. 
bast-maatte, bass-matting; bast-rtb, a 
bass rope. Du. bast, a halter, rope for 
hanging, ok baste. 

Bot ye ssUe take a stalworthe hasit 
And binde my baades behind me facta. 
Dan. baste, Sw. basta, to bind, commonly 
joined with the word binda, of the same 
sense. Sw. ai basla og binda, to Und 
hand and foot. Dan. lagge ten i baamd 
og bast, to put one in fetters ; and it is 
remarkable that the same expiessicm is 
found in Turkish ; besst, a tying, binding, 
bessl-u-bendel, to bind. Lap, basU, the 
hoops of a cask. 

Baatsrd. Apparently of Celtic ori|^ 
from Gael Aitw, lust, fornication. OFr. 
^ de bast,fih de bos. 

R, G.S16. 

Thismanwas ion to John of Gannt, descended 
of an honorable line^e, but bom in basU. 
more noble in blood than notable in leaining. — 
HaU in HaUiwell. 

So Turk, chasa, fornication, eh/tsa ogli 
{ogli ■=. son), a bastard. — F, Newman. 
Rfalay anak-baudrek (child of adultery), 
a bastard. 

To Baste, i. To stitch, to sew wiA 
long stitches for the puipose of keenpiw 
the pieces of a garment in shape white it 
is permanently sewn. IL Sp. basta, a 
long stitch, preparatory stitching, the 
stitches of a quilt or mattrass. Sp. 
bastear, embaitir. It- imbastire. Ft. iditr, 
to baste, to stitch ; Fris. Sicamb. besten, 
leviter consuere.— Ka OHG. bestan, to 
patch, as It. imbastire, to baste on a 
piece of cloth. 


and the guards are but sUsbtlr toilnf on nelltKr. 
— Modi Ado aboul Nothisg;. 
Derived by Diei from Aw/, as if that 
were the substance originally used in 
sdtcbing, but this is hardly satisfactory: 

It seems to me that the sense of stitch- 
ing, as a preparation for the final sewing 
of a garment, may naturally have arisen 
fixtm the notion of preparing, contriving, 
setting up, which seems to be the general 
sense of the verb basttre, bastir, in the 
Romance languages. 

Thus we have Sp. bastir, disposer, pre- 
parer (Taboada) ; It. imbastire, to lay the 
cloth for dinner, to devise or begin a 
business (Altieri). Fr. bastir, to build, 
make, frame, erect, raise, set up, also to 
compose, contrive, devise. Bastir a 
guelgi^un sen roulet, to teach one bcfore- 
Ii^ia what he shall say or do. — -Cot 
Prov. guerra bastir, to set on foot a war ; 
<^ait bastir, to lay an ambush. — Rayn, 
Sp. bastimenta, victuals, provisions, 
things prepared for future use, also the 
basting or preparatory stitching of a gar- 
ment, stitching of a quih or mattrass. To 
^te a garment would be to set it up, to 

Bit it together, and from this particular 
nd of stitching the signification would 
seem to have passed on to embrace 
.stitching in general. 

A silver nedll fonh I drove — 
Aod BUD Ibis nedill threde anone, 
For ou( of (oune me lisl to gone— 
With a Ihrede iasling my slevis, 

Chaucer, R. R. 
— Sitze ucd tail mlr dea ermel wider in. 

Minnesinger in Schmid. 
It is probably from the sense of stitch- 
ing that must be explained the It basto, 
imiasto, a packsaddle, pad for the head 
to carrya weight on; Fr.&w/, ^/(whence 
the E. military term of a bat-horse),basline, 
a pad or packsaddle, which was origin- 
ally nothing but a quilted cushion on 
which to rest the load. Thus Baretti 
explains Sp. bastear, to pack a saddle 
with wool, i. e. to quilt or stitch wool 
into it ; and Cot. has bastine, a pad, 
packsaddle, the quilted saddle with which 
colts are backed. 

3. To beat or bang soundly. — Bailey. 
This word probably preserves the form 
irom whence is derived the Fr. bastan, 
idUn, a stick, an instrument for beating, 
as well as bcsteait, the dapper of a beli. 
ON. beysta, to beat, to thrash ; Dan. bestg, 
to dnib, to belabour; Sw. diaL basa, 
baska, basta, to beat, to whip. Perhaps 
in the use of the E. tenn there is usuaUy 
an eiToneous feeling of its being a meta- 



phor from the notion of basting meat — 
To baste one's hide ; to give him a sound 

3. The sense of pouring dripping over 
meat at roast or rubbing the meat with 
fat to prevent its burning is derived from 
the notion of Ideating in the same way 
that the verb to stroke springs from the 
act of striking. Sw. sfryk, beating, 
blows; sttyka, to rub "gently, to stroke, 
to spread bread and butter. Fr, frotter, 
to rub, is explained by Cot. also to cudgel, 
baste or knock soundly. 

Bactinado. Sp. bastonada, a blow 
with a stick, Sp. Fr. boston, Fr. baston- 
naJe, a cudgelling, bastonner, to cudgel. 
In English the term is confined to the 
beating on the soles of the feet with a 
stick, a favourite punishment of the Turks 
and Arabs. For the origin of boston see 
Baste, 2. 

Bastion. It. bastia, bostida, bastiont, 
a bastion, a sconce, a blockhouse, a bar- 
ricade. — Florio. Fr. bastilU, baslilde, a 
fortress or castle furnished with towers, 
donjon, and ditches; bastion, the fortifi- 
cation termed a bastion or cullion-head. 
—Cot All from bastir, to build, set up. 

• Bat. I. Sc. baek, bak, bakie-birJ; Sw. 
nattbako, Dan. aftonbakke, the ivinged 
mammal. It. vipistrello, the night-bat. 
— Fl. Boifce, flyinge best, vespertilio. 
— Pr. Pm. Mid.Lat. biatta, blacla, 
baita lucifuga, vespertilio, vledennus. — 
DiefT. Supp. to Due. Chaufc-soriz is 
glossed a halke (for blake ?) in Bibeles- 
wodh (Nat. Antiq. p. 164), and blak 
probably signifies a bat in the following 
passage : 

But at (hat yche breyde 

That she furthe her ^nne seyile. 

Come fleyng mite bX her moulhe a ilah: 

That yche ilak y dar wel telle, 

That Lyt was a fende of helle. 

Manuel des Pecch^ iie&4. 
It is true the original has comeille, which 
was probably changed in the E, trans- 
lation to a bat, as a creature peculiarly 
connected with devilry and witchcraft. 

The name seems to be taken from on. 
biaka, blakra, blakto, to flap, move to 
and fro in the air with a light rapid 
motion ; whence USrblaka, the bat ; Sw, 
dial, blakka, natt'blakka,^t night-jar or 
goat-sucker, a bird which, like the owl 
and the bat, seeks its insect prey on the 
wing in the evening. For the loss of the 
I in back, bat, compared with blakka, 
biatta, comp, E. badger, from Fr. bladier. 
2. A staff, club, or implement for 




striking. In some parts of England it is 
the ominary word for a slick at the 
present day. A Sussex woman speaks 
of putting a elum: bat, or a dry sticl^ on 
the fire. In Sufjolk batlias are loppings 
of trees made up into fagots. Bret baz, 
a stick; Gael, bat,^ staff, cudgel, blud- 

feon, and as a verb, to beat, to cudgel. 
Igy. bot, a stick. The origin of the 
word is an imitation of the sound of a 
blow by the syllable bat, the root of E. 
beat. It. battere, Fr. battre, w. baeddu. 
Bat, a blow,— Hal. The lighter sound 
of the p in pat adapts the latter syllable 
to represent a gentle blow, a blow with a 
light instrumenL The imitative nature 
of the root bat is apparent in Sp. bata- 
caso, baquttaso, representing the noise 
made by one in falhng. 

Batch. A batck of bread is so much 
as is bakedix one time, Q. geback,^ebackt. 

Bate. Strife; makebate, a stirrer-up 
of strife. Ja/yw, or make debate. Jui^or, 
vel seminare discordias vel discordare. — 
Pr. Pm. Fr. debat. Strife, altercation, 
dispute. — Cot. 

To Bate. i. Fr. abajtre, to fell, beat, 
or break down, quell, allay ; Sp. batir, to 
beat, beat down, lessen, remit, abate. 

2. A term in falconry; to flutter with 
the wings. Fr. battre les aSIes. 

Bath.— To Batlie.— To Bask. on. 
badd, G. baden, to bathe. The primary 
meaning of the word seems to be to 
warm, then to warm by the application of 
hot water, to foment, to refresh oneself in 
water whether warm or cold. Sw. dial. 
$asa, hada, badda, to heat ; soUh baddar, 
the sun bums ; solbau, the heat of the 
sun ; badfish, fishes basking in the sun ; 
basa, badda, bada vidjor, as E. dial, to 
beath wood, to heat it before the fire or 
in steam in order to make it take a 
certain bend. 

Faine in the sonde (□ ialkt tier merrily 
Lieth Perttlotte, and all her sustirs by 
Ayenst the sun ne.— Chaucer. 

seems related to baden as Fr. trahir to 1 1. 
tradire. Holx bd/ien, to beath wood ; 
brot bdhen, to toast bread. Hence pro- 
bably may be explained the name of 
Baize, as signityjng warm baths, to which 
that place owed its celebrity. 

It can hardly be doubted that bask is 
the reflective form of the foregoing verbs, 
from ON. badask, to bathe oneself, as E. 
buik, to betake oneself, from ON. buask 
for bua sik. ' 1 baski, I bathe in water 
or in any licoure.' — PaJsgr, Sw. dial, at 

' basa sig \ solen, to bask in the sun. Da. 
dial b^tte sig, to warm oneself at the 
fire or in the sun. 

Perhaps the above may be radically 
identical with ON. baka, E. bake, to heat, 
Slav, pak, heat. Baka sik vid elld, to 
warm oneself at the fire. PLD. sich ba- 
kint, E. dial, to beak, to warm oneself. 

To Batten. To thrive, to feed, to 
become fat Goth, gabatnan, to thrive, 
to be profited, ON. batna, to get better, to 
become convalescent Du. bat, bet, bet- 
ter, more. See Better. 

Batten. In carpenter's language a 
scantling of wooden stuflf from two to 
four inches broad, and about an inch 
thick.— Bailey. A battm fence is a fence 
made by nailing rods of such a nature 
across uprights. From bat in the sense 
of rod i perhaps first used adjectivally, 
bat-en, made of bats, as -wood-en, made of 

Batter. Eggs, flour, and milk beaten 
up together. 

To Batter.— Battery. Battery, a 
beating, an arrangement for giving blows, 
is a simple adoption of Fr. batterie, from 
battre, to beaL From battery was pro- 
bably formed to batter under the con- 
sciousness of the root bat in the sense of 
blow, whence to batter would be a regular 
frequentative, signifying to give repeated 
blows, and woiUd thus seem to be the 
verb from which battery had been formed 
in the internal development of the English 

Battle.— Battalion. It. battere, Fr. 
battre, to beat ; se battre, to fight, whence 
It. battaglia, Fr. bafaille, a battle, also a 
squadron, a band of armed men arranged 
for fighting. In oe. also, battle was used 
in the latter sense. 

Pilckis, howis, and 

To itk lord and his halaill. 

Wea ordanyt, qubar he suU assailt. 

Baihour id Jam- 
Hence in the augmentative form It. bat- 
taglione, a battalion, a main battle, a great 
squadron. — Florio. 

Battledoor. The bat with which a 
shuttlecock is struck backwards and for- 
wards. Sp. batador, a washing beetle, a 
flat board with a handle for beating the 
wet linen in washing. Bntyldoure or 
washynge bctylle.^ — Pr. Pm. 

Battlement. From OFr. basttUe, a 
fortress or castle, was formed bastiiU, 
:ed for defence, 
, by projections 
which sheltered the defenders while they 


shot through the indentures. Mur ias- 
tili/, an embattled wall, a wall with such 
notches and indentures or battlements. 
Batylment of a wall, propugnaculum. — 
Pr. Pm. 

Bauble, i. Originally an implement 
consistii^ of lumps of lead hanging from 
the end of a short stick, for the purpose 
of inflicting a blow upon dogs or tne like, 
then ornamented burlesquely and used by 
a Fool as his emblem of of&ce. ' Ba- 
bulle or bable — UbriUa, pegma,' ' Librilla 
dicitur instrumentum librandi — a bable 
or a do^e malyote.' * Pegma, baculus 
cum masScL plumbi in summitate pen- 
dente.' — Pr. Pm.,and authorities in note. 

The origin of the word is bab or bob, a 
lump, and as a verb to move quickly up 
and doira or backwards and forwards. 
GaeL M^, a tassel or hanging bunch ; £. 




bablyn or waveryn, UbrilTo, vacillo. — Pr. 

2. Baublt in the sense of a plaything 
or trifle seems a different word, from Fr. 
iaiioU, a trifle, whimwham, guigaw, or 
small toy to play withal.— Cot. IL 6ab- 
bolare, to play the babby, to trifle away 
the time as children do ; babboU, child- 
ish baubles, trifles, fooleries or fond 
toys. — FL Swiss baben, to play with dolls 

Bftodrick. — Bcddrick. Vxov.baudrat, 
OFr. iaudrij ohg. baldetich, a belt.— 
Diez. Baudrick in OE. is used for a 
sword-bdlt, scarf, collar. 

Bavin. A brush fa^ot. OFr 6a^, 
faisceau, fagot— Lacomte. An ana]<^ous 
form with an initial g instead of a * is 
seen in Fr. javelle, a gavel, or sheaf of 
corn, also a bavin or bundle of dry 
sticks. — Cot. The word may perhaps be 
derived from the above-mentioned bai or 
bob, a lump or cluster j Gael, btziatt, 
babkmd, a tassel, cluster; Fr. bobint, a 
bobbin or cluster of thread. 

Bawdekln. Qoth of gold. Ii. bal- 
daechins, %. %., also the canopy carried 
over the head of distinguished persons in 
a procession, because made of cloth of 
gold. The original meaning of the word 
IS Bagdad stuff, from Baldacca, Bagdad, 
because cloth of gold was imported from 
Bawd?. Filthy, lewd ; in OE. dirty. 
His overest ilop it is not worth b. mite- 
It is all btnedy, and to-lore also. — Cbaucer. 

Swiss. baUt dung; bane, to manure the 
fields, w, baw, dirt, filth, excrement. 
To baw, to void the bowels. — Hal. Sc. 
touch, disgusting, sorry, bad. — Jam 
From Bow! an interjection of disgust, 
equivalent to Faugh ! being, a represent- 
ation of the exspiration naturally resorted 
to as a defence against a bad smelL 

By Jbesu for all your janglynge 
With SpiriiusJusUdffi.— P. P. 

for they beth as bokes teD >is 

Abore Goddes vroikes. 

' Ye baai for bokes ' quod OOQ 

Was broken out of Helle.— P. P. 

The It. oibo / fie ! fie upon (Altieri), Fr. 
bah / pooh ! nonsense I and Sp. baf/ 
expressive of disgust, must all be referred 
to the same origin. ' There is a choler- 
icke or disdainful interjection used in 
the Irish language called Boagh ! which 
is as much in English as Twish !' — Hol- 
linshed, DescripL IreL c. 8. To this 
exactly corresponds Fr, pouac I faugh ! 
an interjection used when anything filthy 
is shown or said, whence pouacre, rotten, 
filthy.~~CoL In tike manner Grisons 
buak ! buh ! exclamation of astonish- 
ment, leads to bua (in children's lan- 
guage), nastiness, hlth. 

To BawL Formed from bow, the 
representation of a loud shout, as Fr. 
miauier, E. to mewl, to make the noise 
represented by the syllable miau, m£w. 
The sound of a dog barking is repre- 
sented by ban, bow (as in our nursery 
bow-woiv, a dog). Lat. baubare, Piedra. 
fi bau, to bark ; bauU, to bark, to talk 
noisily, obstrepere. — Zalli. Swiss Rom. 
bouala, bouaila, to vociferate, lo cry. — 
Bridel. ON. baula, to low or bellow as 

Bawion. A name of the badger, from 
the streaks of while on his lace. It bal- 
nano, a horse with white legs. Fr. bal- 
zan, a horse that hath a white lee or foot, 
the white of his leg or foot, also more 
generally a white spot or mark in any 
part of his body. — O)^. Prov. bausan, 
OFr. baugant, a horse marked with 
white. Beaus^nt, the famous standard 
of the Templars, was simply a field 
divided between black and white. £. dial. 
bawsoned, having a white streak down 
the face. From Bret, bal, a white mark 
on the face of animals, or the animal so 
marked, whence the E. name of a cart. 
horse. Ball. GaeL ball, a spot, a plot of 
ground, an object. Ballsarc, a beauty- 
spot, ^nJKn;^ i^totted, speckled. t.fU' 




iald, marked like a pie. Probably con- 
nected with PoL hialo, Russ. bielo, 
Bohem. 6jly, white. Serv, 6ijel, white, 
hilyega, a mark, iilyejiH, to mark. See 

Bay, 1. A hollow in the line o( coast 
Fr. Saii, It baja, Sp. bakia. Catalan 
badia, from badar, to open, to gape, 
divjdere, dehiscere ; badarse, to open as 
a blossom, to split. From Cat. badia to 
Sp. boAia, the step is the same as from 
It. tradire to Fr. trahir, to betray. See 
At Bay. 

Bay, S. ^Say-window. The same 
fundamental idea of an opening also 

tves rise to the application of the term 
ay {In Arehiteaure) to ' a space left in 
a wall for a door, gate, or window ' — (in 
Fortification), to ' holes in a parapet to 
receive the mouth of a cannon.' — Bailey. 
A bam of two bays, is one of two di- 
visions or unbroken spaces for stowing 
com, &c., one on each side of the thresh- 

]^ Nature made to trll. that bjr ibe yearlr birth 
Tlie iargt-iayid bam doth fill,— Drayton in R, 

In great public tibrajies cases may be erected 
Bbulting JDIo the apartmenl from the pieis <A the 
windows, as Ihey do not obstmcl the Ughl or air, 
and afTotd pleasant iayi in which to study in 
quiet,— Journal Soc, Arts, Feb. a;, 1859, 

A bay^mindo-w then is a window con- 
taining in itself a bay, or recess in an 
apartment; in modem times, when the 
architecttual meaning of the word was 
not generally understood, corrupted into 
Bow-window, as if to signify a window of 
curved outline. Fr. bie, a nole, overture, 
or opening in the wall or other part of a 
house, &c. — Cot Swiss beie, baye, win- 
dow; bayen-sUin, window-si IL—Stalder, 
Swab, bay, large window in a handsome 
house . — S chmid , 

Bay. Lat, badius, Sp. bayo, It, baio, 
Fr. bai. Gael, buidht, yellow ; buiakt- 
ruadh, buidhe-dhonn, bay. 

To Bay. To bark as a dog. IL ab- 
baiare, Fr. babayer, Lat. baubari, Gr. 
Ba£!(ir, Piedm. // bau, from an imitation 
of the sound. See Bawl, 

At Bay. It has been shown under 
Abie, Abide, that from ba, representing 
the sound made in opening the mouth, 
arose two forms of the verb, one with and 
one without the addition of a final d to 
the root, ist. It. badare, having the 
primary signilieation of opening the 
mouth, then of doing whatever Is marked 
by involuntarily opening the mouth, as 
^ing, watching intently, desiring, wait- 
mg ; and zndly, Fr. baher, haer, bier. 


Azvr, to open the mouth, to stare, to be 

intent on anything. 

From the former verb is the It O^ires- 
sion Unere a bada, to keep one waiting, 
to keep al a bay, to amuse ; stare a bada 
duno, to stand watching one. 

Tal parve Anieo a tne, che stava a hada di 
vederlo chlnaiE. Such AntEeus seemed to wt, 
who stood waiching him stoop. Nod d (an> 
TOD verso lungo et dubbii discorsi a bada. I win 
not keep you waiting with a long stoiy, ftc I 
Pisani si mosOarooo di toIqeU assalire di qoeDa 
pane e coDimiDciaiano vi liaalto per tenen i 

Ne was there man so strone but be down bote 
Ne woman yet so faire but he her brought 
UtitB his bay and captived her thought. — P. Q. 
he brought her to stand listening to him. 
So well he wooed her and so well hewniagbtha 
With faire entreaty and swete btandishment 
That at the length unto ahayt« brou^l ber 
So as she (o bis speeches was contenl 
To lend on ear and softly to relent— F. Q. 

The Stag is said to stand at bay, when, 
weary of running, he turns and faces his 
pursuers, and keeps them in check for ■ 
while. As this cnsis in the chase is ex- 
pressed in Fr. by the term rendre la 
abois, the term at bay has been supposed 
to be derived from Uie Fr. aux dernitrs 
abois, at his last gasp, put to his last 
shifts, which however, as may be seen 
from the foregoing examples, woidd give 
but a partial explanation of the exprts- 

Bayonet, Fr. baionetti, a dagger. — 
Cot. Said to have been invented al Bay- 
onne, or to have been first used at the 
siege of Bayonne in 1665.— Diei, 

Bay-tree, The laurus nobilis or true 
laurel of the ancients, the laurel-bay, so 
called from its bearing bays, or berries. 

The royal laurel is a very tal! and trie tree — 
and the baiii or Ijenies (baecat) which il bears 
are nothing biting or unpleasant in taste. — Hd- 

A garland of bays is commonly repre- 
sented with berries between the leaves. 

The word bay, Fr. baie, a berry, is per- 
haps not directly from Lat bacca, which 
itself seems to be from a Celtic root. w. 
bacon, berries. Gael, baeaid, a cluster of 
grapes or nuts, Prov. baca, baga, OSp. 
baca, Mod. Sp. baya, the cod of peas, 
husk, berry. It. baccello, the cod or nusk 
of b^ns or the like, especially beans. 

• To Be. AS. beotts Gael, beo, alive, 
living ; beotkach, a b^st, living thing ; 
Ir. bioth, life, the worid ; Gr. ^fo^ life. 


It is not until a somewhat advanced 
stage in the process of abstraction that 
the idea of simple being is attained, and 
a verb with that meaning is wholly want- 
ing in the rudest languages. The ne^o 
who Speaks imperfect English uses in- 
stead the mcffc concrete notion of living. 
He says, Your hat no Hi that place you 
put him in. — Farrar, Chapters on Lang. 
p, J4. A two-year old nephew of mine 
wcmld say. Where it livet where is itf 
Now the breath is universally taken as 
the tvpc of life, and the syllable pu oxju 
is widely used in the most distant lan- 
guages to express the notion of blowing 
or breathing, and thus may explain the 
crimn of the root/« in haLfiii,/uisse, or 
of Sanscr. bkH, be. 

Beaeh. The immediate shore of the 
sea, the part overflowed by the tide. 
Thence applied to the pebbles of which 
the shore often consists. 

We baled our baric over a bar of iiath, or 
pAble stoDCli Into a small river. — Hackluyt in R. 

Perh^ a modification of Dan. baike, 
Tf. iakije, Sw. backe, a hill, bank, rising 
gnmnd. In Norfolk bank is commonly 
used instead of feofA.— Miss Gumey in 
Philolog. Trans, vol. vii. 

Beacon.— Baok.— Beckon, ono.bau- 
haH, OSax. bokait, AS. biacm,a. sign, a 
nod ; OHG. fora-bauhan, a presage, pro- 
digy; bauhnjoH, ON. bdkna, AS. beacnian, 
nutu signiiicare, to beckon. The tens 
beacon is confined in £. to a fire or some 
conspicuous object usqd as a signal of 

Toe origin seems preserved in E. beck, 
to bow or nod ; Catelan hecm; to nod ; 
Gael beic, a curtsey, perhaps from the 
s of a bird peckmg ; GaeL beic, a 



m^age c 

Thimpelae I me to stretdien forth my nedi, 
And East nod West iqion the peple 1 iKkt, 
As doth a dove Siting upon a bern. 

Paidoner's Tale. 
He (Hatdicannte) made a law (bat every Inglis 
man sal bck and discover bis lied qnhen be met 
azK Dane. — Bellenden in Jam. 
Esthoa nokkima, to peck as a bird 
tiokiutama pead, to nod the bead. 

B«ad. A ball of some ornamental 
material, pierced for hanging on a string, 
and originally used for the purpose of 
heljung the memory in reciting a certain 
tale of prayers or doxologies. AS. bead, 
gebed, a prayer. See To Bid. To bid 
one's bedes or beads was to say one's 


AS. h^h "^ messenger of i 

court, officer in attendance on the d^ni- 

taries of a university or church. Fr, 
bedeau. It bidello. 0£. budel, OHG. butil, 
putil, the officer who executes the orders 
rfa court, from Goth. biudan,a¥iG.piolaH 
'ich piutu, pret. ick pot, wir putumes, 
xc), to order, bid. 

Bsagle. A small land of hound 
traclcing by scent ' The Frenchmen 
stil like good begeUs following their 

Sirey.' — Hall's Chron. Conmionl^ re- 
erred to Fr. Beugler, to bellow, which is, 
however, not appliM to the yelping of 
dogs. Moreover the nam^ according to 
Men^e, was introduced from England 
'nto France, and therefore was not Ukely 

,o have a French origin. 
Beak. A form that has probably de- 

icended to us from a Celtic origin. Gael, 
beic. 'Cui Tolosas nato cognomen in 
pueritia, Becco fuerat ; id valet gallinacei 
rostrum.' — Suetonius in Dici. It. becco, 
Fr, bee, Bret, bek, W. pig. It forms a 
branch of a very numerous class of words 
clustered round a root pik, signifying a 
point, or any action done with a pointed 

Beam. — Boom, Goth, bagms, ON. 

badmr, G. baum, Du. boom, a tree, as. 

which the sail is stretched, coming f 
us, like most nautical terms, fromXthe 
Netherlands or North Germany. 

'lean. G. bohne ; ON. bauH. Gr. 

iva£, icdapic, LaL foba, Slavon. bob. 

ffa, beans, ffaen, a single bean, the 

Rtion of a final en being the usual 
mark of individuality. BreL JA xtr fau, 
beans, or the plant which bears them ; 
faen ot/aven, a single bean, plur/ai/wi- 
nou or faennou, as well as J& or fav. 
Thus the final en, signifying individuality, 
adheres to the loot, and Lat faba is 
connected through Oberdeutsch boba 
(Schwenck) with g. bohne, e. bean. 

Bear. The wild beast G. bar, ON. 

To Bear. Lat./w,/w-«y Gr. ^iput-; 
Goth, bairait, to carry, support, and also 
to bear children, to produce young. The 
latter sense may have been developed 
through the notion of a tree bearing fruit, 
or from the pregnant mother carrying 
her young. It is singular, however, that 
the forms cotresponding to the two sig- 
iiifications should be so distina in Latin, 



fero, to cany, znd^ario, to bear children, 
produce, bnng forth. 

From tear in the sense of carrying we 
have Goth, baurthsi, ON. byrdi, E. bur- 
den; from the same in the sense of bear- 
ing children, Goth, gahauriks, birth. The 
ON. burdr is used in the sense of a car 
rying, bearing, and also in that of birth. 

Beard, g. bart, Russ. boroda. Bo 
hem. brada, the beard, chin. LaL barba, 
w. barf. Perhaps radically identical 
with ON. bard, a Jip, border, edge. See 

Beast. Lat. hestia; Gael, blast, an 
animal, perhaps a living thing, beo, 
living ; w. byw, living, to live. 

Beat. AS. beataa; It. batten, Fr. 
battre; from a root bat, imitative of the 
sound of a sharp blow, as pat imitates 
that of a more gentle one. See Bat 

Beanty. Fr. beauts, from beau, bel, 
IL belle, Lat. bellus, pretty, handsome, 

Beavar. i. The quadruped. G.biber, 
\jiX. fiber, Lith. bebrus, Slav, bobr, Fr. 
biivre. Secondarily applied to a hat, 
because made of the fur of the beaver. 
Perhaps from Pol. babra^. to dabble ; 
bobrowai, to wade through the water 
like a beaver. 

when down occupied the place of a child's 
bib or slobbering cloth. Fr. baviire, 
from bavir, to slobber. IL bava, Sp. 
baba, Fr, b^e, slobber. The OFr. ba-ue 
expressed as well the flow of the saliva 
as the babble of the child, whence baveux, 
bavard, Prov. bavec, talkative.^Diei. 

Beck, I.— Beckon. A nod or sign. 
See Beacon. 

Back, 9. ON, bekkr, Dan. bah, o. 
bach, a brook. As rivus, a brook, is 
connected with ri^a, a bank, while from 
the latter are derived It riviera, a bank, 
shore, or river ,'nd Fr. riviire, formerly a 
bank, but now a river only; and ON. 
feASr, signifies both bench (= bank) and 
brook ; It is probable that here also the 
name applied originally to the hank then 
to the brook itself. Sec Bank. 

To Beoome. i. To attain to a certain 
condition, to assume a certain form or 
mode of being, as. becuman, to attain 

"Vhmt thu nis?e iccvman to tham gessltban 
the ece thurhwunialh. Thai thou mayesi atlain 
to those goods which endiin; for ever. — Boeth. 

G. bekommen, to get, receive, obtain, 
acquire- — Kiittner. It will be observed 
that we often ■ •— 

e indifferently becoau or 

get; ' He got very angry,' ' He became 
very angry,' are equivalent expressions, 
implying that he attained the condition 
of being very angry. 

a. In a second sense to became is to be 
fitting or suitable. G. bequem, convenient, 
*fit, proper; E.«iH(*/f, pleasing, agreeablfc 
This meaning is to be explained fram 
AS. becuman, to come to or upon, to 
befall, to happen. He becom on iceatAan, 
he fell among thieves. Th<r»i goditm 
becymth an/eald yvel, to the good hap- 
pens unmixed evfl. — Bosworth. Now the 
notion of being convenient, suitable, fit- 
ting, rests on the supposition of a purpose 
to be fiilfilled, or a teeUng to be gratified. 
If the accidents or circumstances of the 
case happen as we would have them, if 
they fall in with what is requhed to satisfy 
our taste, judgment, or special purpose, 
we call the arrangement becoming, con- 
venient, proper, and we shall find that 
these and simiWnr'' — "" ""'" 

Tying to happen. Thus oe. fall i 
constantly used in the sense of falling or 
happening rightly, happening as it ought 

Do no favour. I do thee pray, 
\tfallilk nothing (o Ihy name 
To make'birsemblant where thou mayest blame. 
Chaucer, R. R, 

Ick of Consoeooe. 
i. e. of that that belongeth to right know- 
ing. So in ON. ' all-vel til HofOingia 
/allinn,' every way suited to a prince, o. 
gefalUtt, to please, to fall in with our 
taste, as _faU itself was sometimes used 

Wth shepherd sits oot following flying fome. 
But feed his flock in fields -vtiaefalU him best 

On the same principle, AS. limftian, to 
happen, to apftertain, limpiice, fitly ; ge- 
limpan, to happen, gelimfilic, opportune. 
AS. tifnan,getiman, to happen, G. lianen, 
to become, befit, E. seemly, suitable, 
proper ; OSiv. tida, to happen, tidig, fit, 
decent, decorous, E. tidy, now confined 
to the sense of orderly. In like ntanneT 
Turk, duskmak, to faU, to happen, to faU 
to the lot of any one, to be a part of his 
dutv, to be incumbent upon him. 

Bed. A place to lie down, to sleep on- 
Goth. badi, ON. feifr-, o. belt. 

BediEen. To load with ornament, to 
dress with unbecoming richness ; and to 
dUtn out was used in the same sense. 
Probably fr(»n oe. dixi or diMtn, to ciotbe 



a distaff with flax, though the metaphor 
does not appear a striking one to our ears. 
I dysyit a dystaffe, J put the flax upon it 
to spin,— Falser. But possibly bedixen- 
may be from Fr. badigeonnir, to rough- 
cast, to colour with lime-wash, erroneously 
modified in form, by the analogy of be- 
daivb, as if it were derived from a simple 
verb to diien, which latter would thus 
be brought into use by felse etymology. 
The passage from a soft ^ to a is of fre- 
quent occurrence, as in IL prigiene, Fr. 
prisoB; Venet. eogioHnre, E. cosen; It. 

To plaister or bedawb with ornament 
is exactly the image represented by bi- 
distn. The same metaphor is seen in 
Fr, crtspir, to parget or rough-cast ; 
fettime crespie de comeurs, whose face is 
all to bedawbed or plaistered over with 
painting. — Cot 

Bedlam. A madhouse, from the hos- 
pital of St Mary, Bethlehem, used for 
that puipose in London. 

Beoouin. Arab. bidavA, a wandering 
Arab ; an inhabitant of the desert, from 
bedim (in vulgar Arab.), desert. 

Bed-ridden. Confined to bed. as. 
bedrida, PLD. bedde-rcdir; OHG. bet- 
iiriso, from risan, to fall. — Grimm. Pett- 
ris, qui de lecto sui^ere non potest ; 
pettiriso, paralyticus. — GL in Sciimeller. 
So Gr. cXivoTiri^, from irir-, fall. 

Bee. The honey-producing insecL AS. 
beo; ON. ^-Jluga; G, biene, Bernese, 
beji. Gael oeach, a bee, a wasp, a stinging 
fly ; beach-eack, a horse-fly ; speaek, a 
blow or thrust, also the l»te or sting of a 

Beeoh. A tree. G. buckt, ON. beyki, 
Slav, buk, buka, bukva, Lat. fagui, Or. 




Beer. i. Originally, doubtless, drink, 
from the Tootpi, drink, extant in Bohem. 
piii, to drink, imperative pi, whence 
pi-wo, beer. The LaL bibere is a re- 
duplicated form of the root, which also 
appears in Gr. iriw, irltw, to drink, and in 
Lat. poculum, a cup or implement for 
drink ; polus, drink. GaeL oior, water. 

In OE. beer seems to have had the 
sense of drink, comprehending both wine 
and ale. 

RymeQlId ros of benche 

The tar al for te sbencbe 

Afler mete in sale, 

Btthe tnyn and alt. 

An bom hue her an Rood, 

For (bat wai law of iMid, 

Hue drone of the tiere 
To luiyght and skyere.— 1. 1114. 
Hue fiilde the. bora ofvyiu 
And dronk to that pelmie. 

K. Horn, 1156. 

2. A jnllow-betr, a pillow-case. Dan. 
vaar, a cover, case, pude-vaar, a pil- 
low case. G. kussea-biere. Pl.D. biireti, 
kiissen-buren, a cushioii-cover ; beds- 
biiren, a bed-tick. Properly a cover that 
may be slipped on and off. Fin. ■waarin, 
I turn (a garment), Estbon. pohrdma, to 
turn, to twist ; peorma, to turn, to change ; 
padjorpoor, a pillow-case or pillow-beer 
[paddi, a pad or cushion). 

• Beeatmgs. The first milk after a 
cow has calved, which is thick and 
cloth', and in Northampton called cherry- 
curds, c. biest-milck, also bienst, briest, 
briesch-milck; as. beost, byst. The mean- 
ing of the word b curdled. Fr. calle- 
boutS, curded or beesfy, as the milk of a 
woman that is newly delivered. — CoL 
Prov. sang vermeilh bttait^ red curdled 
blood. — Rom. de Fierabras m Diez. The 
earth was in the Middle Ages supposed 
to be surrounded by a sea of so Uiick a 
substance as to render navigation im> 
possible. This was called mer biUt in 
Fr. and lehermer in G., the loppered sea, 
from Uberen, to ' curdle or lopper. ' La, 
mars betada, sela que environna la terra.' 
In a passage of. an Old Fr. translation 
cited by Diei, 'ausi com ele (la mer) fiist 
butie^ the last word corresponds to eo- 
agulaium in the original Latin. Let. 
bees, thick, close together as teeth in a 
comb, trees in a forest ; beesi, to become 
thick, to coagulate. 

Beet. A garden-herb. Fr. bette or 
bUlUj Lat beta, Mefumj Gr. e>^iTtni, 

Beetle, i. The general name of in- 
sects having a homy wing-cover. Pro- 
bably named from the destructive quali- 
ties of those with whic-i we are most 
familiar. AS. biiel, the biter. ' Mordi- 
cuius, bitela.'— GL ..tlfr. in Nat. Ant. 

2. Beetle, boytle,a. wooden hammer for 
driving piles, stakes, wedges, &c. — B. 
AS. bytl, a mallet. PI. D. beUl, b'oUl, a 
clog for a dog ; baUln, to knock, to flatten 
sods with a beater. G. beuiel, a mal- 
let for beating flax. Bav. bosseK, to 
knock, to beat ; bossel, a washing beetle 
or bat for striking the wet linen. Fr. 
bale, a paviour's beetle ; batatl. It. bat- 
toglio, 3 clapperj the knocker ot a door. 

But besides signifying the instrument 
of beating^ btttlt also signiAed the im- 


58 BEG 

plement driven by blows, afitone-cutter's 
chisel, a wedge for cleaving wood. ohg. 
steinbozil, lapidicinna. — Sehm. G. btis- 
sel, beutel, Du. beitel, a chisel, a wedge. 

—a grete olte, which he had begonne to cleve, 
■nd as men be wooed he had smciea two biltli 
tiierehi, one after that other, in mche wyse that 
Ok oke wu wide open.— Cuton'i Rejraanl die 
Fox, chap. viti. 
In the original 

So bad he daer twee Itiitb ingheslagen. 

N. & Q. Nov. a, 1S67. 

When b; tbe help of wtd^ and ietlUs as 
Image is cleft out of the trunk.— StiUingfleet. 
The C. idsstl., Du. beitel,^ chisel, is com- 
monly, but proba.bly erroneously, referred 
to the notion of biting. 

To Beg. Skinner's derivation baraiag, 
although it appears improbable at first, 
carries conviction on fiirther 

The Flem. Ar^ow/fDelfortrie) probably 
exhibits the original form of the word, 
whence the E, oegger, and sulwequently 
the verb to beg. Beghardus, vir mendi- 
cans. — Vocab, 'ex quo,' A.D. 1430, in 
Deutsch. MundarL iv. Hence the name 
of Begard given to the devotees of the 
13th & 14th centuries, also called Bigots, 
Lollards, &c It must be borne in mind 
that the bag was a universal character- 
istic of the beggar, at a time when all his 
ahns were given in kind, and a beggar is 
hardly ever introduced in our older writers 
without mention being made of his b^. 

Hit ia btggam ribte voite beren baggc on bac 
Mid biujdses for to beien pluses.— AncrenRiwle, 

liiaoh aucb lorelles 9l< 


FKEte aboat yede 
With hire beUes & here iaats 
Of btede full yaMnmed.-— P. P. 
BaggaasA btmatg\tt bad hisIbllE Icven. 

P. P. Creed. 
And yet these bilderea wol biggtH a bag full of 

Of a pure poor man.— P. P. ■ 

And thns gale 1 heggt 
Without bagge other bolel 
But my vrombe one.— P. P. 
That maketh btggat go with bordona and 
h^. — Political Songs. 

So from GaeL bag {baigean, a little 
bag), baigeir, a beggar, which may per- 
haps be an adoption of the £. wora, but 
in the same language from poc, a b:^ or 
poke, is fonned pocair, a beggar ; air a 
pftoc, on the tramp, begging, hterally, on 
the bag. Lith. krapsaas, a scrip ; m 
krapstsais apUnk eiti, to go a begging. 
Front W. ytgrtpan, a Gcrip, ysgr^amt, to 

go a be^:iQg. It. bertola, a wallet, such 
as poor be^ng friais tise to beg withal ; 
bertolare, to siuft up and down for scraps 
and victuals. — Fiona Dan.^;;, abagj 
posi-pilU, a b^[gar-boy. Mod. Gr. 
SvXoeoc, a bag, a scrip ; fluXaciCw, to b^. 
Fr. Mettre quelq'un a la baace, to re- 
duce him te b^igaty. 

To Bsgin. AS. aginnoM, omomum, 
beginnaM. Goth, duntman. In Luc vi 
25, the latter is used as an auxiliary cf 
the future. ' Unte gaimon jah gretaa 
duginnid,' for ye shall lament and weq>. 
In a similar manner ^on or eon was m- 
quently used in OE. 'Aboutin undem 
gan this Erie al^ht'— Oerk of Oxford's 
tale. He did alight, not began to alight, 
as alighting is a momentary operation. 
The totber seand tbe dint cum, gan provjik 
To eschew swtftlie, and sane li4> on tjie 
That all hii tonx Entellus can a[^ly 
Into the are — D. V. 143. 40. 

Down diuchit tbe beist, ddd on the laod fo* ly 
'^iieuland and flycterand in tbedede thiawes. 
D. V. 
To Scotland went he then in by 
And all the land^s occopy. 

Barbour, Brace. 

The verb to gin or iegin appears to be 

le of that innumerable senes derived 
from a root gan, gat, keft, in all the las- 
gu^es of the Indo-Germanic stock, sig- 
nifying to conceive, to bear young, to 
know, to be able, giving in Gr. yi-pnpm, 
ylt«fuu, •^vo^t yiTtwoufi yviiaat, in Lat. 
gigno, genus, in e. can, ken, kind, &c 

The Amdamental meaning seems to be 
attain to, to acquire. To produce 
children is to acquire, to get children ; 
HgitoM in Ulphilas is always to fmd ; in 
AS. it is both to acquire and to b^fet, to 
get children. 

To begin maybe explained dther from 
the fundamental notion of attaining to^ 
seiring, taking up, after the analogy of 
the G. anfoHgett, and LaL indpera, from 
G, fangen and Lat capere, to take ; or 
the meaning may have passed through a 
similar stage to that of Gr. jlyvofm, 
ylyirat, to be bom, to arise, to be^; 
ylneic, yivir^, origin, beginning. 

It will be observed that^^^ is used as 

I auxiliary in a manner very similu' to 
the OE. gait, can, above quoted; 'to get 
beaien;'ON. 'aX.gela talad,' to be able 

talk; 'abouten iiodem gan this earl 
aUght,' about undem he got down. 

B^one. Cold-begone, ornamented 
with gold, covered with gold — D. V. j 
vioe-begone, oppressed with woe. Du. 
begaait, affectld, touched with emotu» ; 




hegaen Kijn met eenighe saeeke, premi 
curft alicujus rei, laborare, solicitum esse. 
— KiL 

To BehaTS. The notion of behaviour 
is generally expressed by means of verbs 
signifying to bear, to carry, to lead. 

Ye shaU dwdl here at your wiU 

But rotu itaring be fnll ill. 

K. Robert in Warton. 
It poriarn, to behave ; portarH da 
Paladino, for a man to behave or carry 
bimsdf stoutly. — FL G. betragen, be- 
haviour, from tragen, to carry. In ac- 
cordance with these analogies we should 
be inclined to give to the verb have in 
behave the sense of the Sw. kafma, to 
lift, to cany, the equivalent of E. heave, 
rather than the vaguer sense of the aux- 
iliary to have, Sw. hafwa, habere. But, 
in fact, the two verbs seem radically the 
same, and their senses intermii^le. Sw, 
hafwa in sad, to cany com into the 
bam ; kaf tig bort, Xxix yourself off; 
ha/uia ban, to take away, to turn one 
out ; hafwa fram, to bring forwards. AS, 
hoMan, to have, ftafjan, to heave ; vf- 
haban, us-haffan, to raise. G. gthaben, 
to behave, and (as Fr. se porter) to fare 

Mid hvm be had astrooeeaic — Sostrongasd 
ji other hit scBolde^jjf UDe£e. — 

—Heat. Command, mjunc- 
tion. AS. has, command; behas, vow; 
behal, gehai, vow, promise ; behalan, ge- 
hatatt, OE. behete, to vow, to promise; 
AS. hatan, to vow, promise, command; 
Du. hetten, to command, to name, to 
call, to be named; heeien •wiUekom, to 
bid one welcome, on. heita, to call, to 
be named, to vow, exhort, invoke. Goth. 
hat tan, to call, to command. The 
general meaning seems to be to speak 
out, an act which may amount either to a 
promise or a command, accordii^ as the 
subject of the announcement is what the 
speaker undertakes to do himself, or 
what he wishes another to do j or t' 
object of the speaker ma^ be simply 
indicate a particular individual as the 
person addressed, when the verb will 
nave the sense of calling or naming. 

Behind. At the back of. The re- 
lations of place are most naturally ex- 
pressed by means of the different mem- 
bers of the body. Thus in Finnish the 
name of the head is used to express what 
is on the top of or opposite to, the name 
of tbe ear to express what b on the side 
vS anythipg. And so from hoH^, the 

R. G. 17. 

tail, are fomied hannassa, behind, hatt- 
nitiaa, to follow, kantyri, a. follower, and 
as the roots of many of our Words are 
preserved in the Finnish langus^es, it 
IS probable that we have in the F^miali 
hanla the origin of our behind, at the 
tail of. 

To Bebold. To look steadily upoiL 
The compound seems here to preserve 
what was the original sense of the simple 
verb to held. as. healdan, to regard, 
observe, take heed of, to tend, to feed, to 
keep, to hold. To hold a doctrine for 
true is to regard it as true, to look upon 
it as true ; to hold it a cruel act is to 
regard it as such. The LaL servare, to 
keep, to hold, is also found in the sense 
of looking, commonly expressed, as in 
the case of E. behold, by the compound 
observare. ' Tuus servus servet Venerine 
facial an Cupidini.' Let your slave look 
whether she sacrifices to Venus or to 
Cupid.— Plautus. The verb to look itsctf 
is u«quent1y found in the sense of looldi^ 
after, seeing to, taking notice or care erf 
(Gloss, to R. G.). "rtie It guardare, to 
look, exhibits the original meanii^ of 
the Fr. garder, to keen or hold, and the 
E. wari^ keeping. 

The supposition then that the notion 
of preserving, keeping, holding is origin- 
ally derived from that of looking, is sup- 
ported by many analogies, while it seems 
an arbitrary ellipse to explain the sense 
of i^^j/rfas 'tokeep or hold (sc.the eye» 
fixed upon any object).' — Richardson. 

Beholden in the sense of indebted ta 
the equivalent of Du. gekouden, G. ^ 
halten, bound, obliged. Aan iemand 

Cthouden lijn, to be obliged to one, to be 
eholden to him, G. zu etwas gehaltett 
seyn, to be obliged to do a thing. Wohl 
auf einen^rfa/fen seyn, to be well pleased 
with one's conduct — Killtn. 

• To Behove. To be expedient, to be 
required for the accomplishment of any 
purpose; behoof, what is so required, 
hence advantage, fiirtherance, use. as. 
bekoftan, to be fit, right, or necessary, to 
stand in need of; behefe, advantage, be- 

The expression seems to be taken from 
the figure of throwing at a mark. To 
heave a stone is used m vulgar langu^e 
for throwing it. N. hevja, to lift, to 
heave; hevJa, hove, to cast or throw; 
hdva, to hit the mark, to meet, adjust, 
adapt, to be suitable or becoming ; hovast, 
to meet, to fit. Sw. hSfwa, the distance 
vithin which one can strike an object or at- 


1 certain end, and, met. measure, 

it will 

bqunds, moderation. Det er ofwer 
•waf cela est audessus de votre port* 

be observed that the Fr. employs the same 
metaphor in the term portde, range, dis- 
tance to which a piece wiU cany. 

In the middle voice hofwas, to be re- 
quired for a certain purpose, to befit, 
behore. Det hofdes en annoM til at 
uiraita slikt, it behoved another kind of 
man to do such things, on. ?ue/a, to hit 
the mark ; ka/i, aim, reach, fitness, pro- 
portion. See Gain. 3. 

To Belay. Du. heUggen, to lay 
around, overspread, beset, garnish ; be- 
Ugiel, fiinge, border, ornament. 
AH in A woodman's jacket be was dad 
Of LliwalD gnen htlayti with golden Uce. — F. Q. 

Du. De kaiel ooh de beeHng beUggen, 
to lay the cable round the bits, to make 
it fast, in nautical language, to belay. 

To B«Ich. AS. bealcan, bealceUanj 
OE. to bolk, to boke, to throw up wind 
from the stomach with a sudden noise. 
Doubtless an imitation of the sound. 
Another application of the same word is 
in PLD. and Du. bolken, bulken, to bd- 

Beldam. Fair sir and Fair lady, Fr. 
btau sire and bet dame, were civil terms 
of address. Then, probably because a 
respectful form of address would be more 
frequent towards an elderly than a young 
person, beldam became appropriated to 
signi^ an old woman, and finally an ugly 
and decrepit old woman. 

B«Ury. Fr. beffroi, OFr. berfroi, bef- 
firoit, a watch tower, from MHg. btrcvrit, 
bervrit, a tower for defence ; OHC- frid, 
a tower, tuiris, locus securitatis — Schilter, 
aud bergoH, to protect. The word be- 
came singularly comipted in foreign lan- 
guages, appearing in Mid.Lat. under the 
forms beifredum, bertefredum, battefre- 
dum. It. bettijredo, a little shed, stand, 
or house, built upon a tower for soldiers 
to stand centind in; also a blockhouse 
or a sconce. — Fl. In England a blse 
etymology has confined the name of 
belfry, properly belonging to the church 
tower, to tne chamber in the uppier part 
of the tower in which the bells are hung. 

To Believe. It is not obvious how to 
liarmonise the senses of believing, prais- 
ing, pennitting or giving leave, promis- 
ing, which are expressed in the different 
Teutonic dialects by essentially the same 
wordor slight modifications of it; PLD. 

lovm, laven, to bdieve; Du. loven, to 
praise, to promise, orloveH, to give leave ; 
Dan. lov, praise, reputation, leave ; on. 
lo/a, ley/a, to praise, to give leave ; AS. 
lea/a, geUafa, belief ; gtlyfan, to believe, 
ly/an, aly/an, to give leave ; G. gloMbtn, 
to believe, loben, to praise, erlauhen, to 
permit, verloben, to promise or engage^ 

The fundamental notion seems to be 
to approve, to sanction an arrangement^ 
to deem an object in accordance with a 
certain standard of fitness. In this sense 
we have Goth, galauis, fiiu-galaubi, 
precious, honoured, esteemed; UHgaltmb 
ias, (Ie irifudv ativet, a vessd made for 
dishonour, for purposes of lowestimation; 
Pl.D. laven, Du. loven, to fix a price 
upon one's wares, to estimate them at a 
certain rate. To believe, then, Goth. 
laub^au, galaubjan, is to esteem an as- 
sertion as good for as much as it lays 
claim to ; if a narration, to esteem it true 
or in accordance with the fact it professes 
to describe ; if a promise^ to esteem it as 
in accordance with the intention of the 

The sense of praising may be easily 
deduced from the- same radical notion. 
Tofiraiu is essentially to f rise, to put a 
high price or value on, to extol the worth 
of anything, to express approval, or high 
estimation. Hence to simple approbation, 
satisfaction, consent, permissioD, is an 
easy progress. Pl.D. to der fwaren lave, 
to the approbation or satisfaction of the 
sworn inspectors ; mit en/ett la-ve, with 
the consent of the heirs. In Mid.Lat 
the consent given by a lord to the alien- 
ation of a tenant's fief was expressed by 
the term lam, and E. allow, which has 
been shown to be derived from latidart, 
is used in the sense of approving, esteem- 
ing good and valid, giving leave or per- 
mission, and sometimes in a sense dt^ely 
analogous to that of believe. 

The principles which all mankind alloa fcr 
true, are innate ; those thai men ot right uraico 
admit are the pijadples alloaied \tj all iwpnlHnH 

BeU. From AS. bellan, on. belja, 
boare, to resound, to sound loudly ; Sw. 
bola, to bellow; Northamptonshire, to 
bill, to make a loud noise, to cry out 
(Sternberg). A bell, then, on. bialla, is 
an implement for making a loud noise. 

Templonun campona boant. — Ducange. 
ON, bylja, resonare, and E. peal, are other 
modifications of the same imitative root, 
of which the latter is specially applied to 
the sound of bells. The same imil^ 


tion is found in Galb, bilbila, bell; bil- 
bil-goda, to make bUbil, to ring. — Tut- 

Bttllowa.— Belljr. The word iitlg, 
iolg, is used in several Celtic and Teu- 
tonic languages to signify any inflated 
skin or case. Gael, ialg, iolg, a. leather 
bag, wallet, belly, blister ; baleansnamha, 
the swimming bladder ; balgan-uiige, a 
water-bubble ; buUge, bags or liejlows, 
seeds of plants. Bret, bilai, bolck,polck, 
the bolls or husks of flax ; AS. balg, a 
bag, pouch, cod or husk of pulse, waSet ; 
blait-bals, a bellows ; G. balg, skin, 
husk, pod, the skin of those animals that 
are stripped off whole ; 6iase-balg, a blow- 
ing-skin, bellows. ON. belgr, an inflated 
skin, leather sack, bellows, belly. Sw. 
A?/f, a bellows, vulgarly the belly. 

The original signification is probably 
a water-bubble (still preserved by the 
Gaelic diminutive balgan), which affords 
the most obvious type of inflation. The 
application of the term to the belly, the 
sack-like case of the intestines, as well as 
to a bellows or blowing-bag, needs no ex- 

Slanation. It seems that bulga was used 
}r womb or belly by the Ramans, as a 
fragment of Lucilius has : 



la. u 

9 In 

It is probable that Gr. jSoA^q, Lat 
volva, vulva, the womb, is a kindred 
. form, from another moditicaiion of the 
word for bubble, from which is also bul- 
bus, a round or bubble-shaped root, or a 
root consisting of concentric skins. 

In E. bellows, the word, like Irowsers 
and other names of things consisting of a 
pair of principal members, has assumed 
a plural fonn. 

To Belong. Du. langen, to reach, to 
attain ; belangen, to attain to, to concern, 
to belong, attingere, attinere, pertinere, 
pervenire.— KiL G. gclangen, to arrive 
at, to become one's property ; zum KS- 
nigreicht gelattgen, to come to the crown ; 
beiangen, to concern, to touch. Was das 
Manget, as concerning that 

To belong is thus to reach up to, to 
touch one, expressing the notion of pro- 
perty by a similar metaphor to the Lat. 
attinere, pertinere, to hold to one- 
Bolt. ON, beltij Lat, balleus; Gael. 
ball, border, belt, welt of a shoe ; w. 
gwald, gwaldas, a border, hem, welt of a 

Bench. See Bank. 

To Bend. on. benda; AS. bendati. 
Ft. bander unarc, to bend a bow ; bence | 

to exert force, se bander, to rise against 
external force ; iandoir, a spring. 

To bend sails is to stretch them on the 
yards of the vessel ; to bend cloth, to 
stretch it on a frame, G. Tuck an einen 
Rahmen spannen. See Bind. 

Beneath. See Nether. 

Benediction. Lat. bcnediclio (bene 
well, and dica, I say), a speaking well ot 
one. Benedico, taken absolutely, means 
to use words of good omen, and with an 
accusative, to hallow, bless. 

Benefice. — Benefoctor. — Benefit, 
Lat. bene/acere, to do good to one ; bene- 
factor, one who does good ; benefaetum. 
Ft. bien/ait, a good deed, a benefit. The 
LaL bcneficium, a kindness, was in Mid, 
Lat. applied to an estate granted by the 
king or other lord to one for life, because 
it was held by the kindness of the lord. 
'Villa quam Lupus quondam per bene- 
fidum nostrum tenere visus fuiL' ' Simil- 
iter villa quam ex munificentii nostri 
ipsi Caddono concessimus.' ' Quam fide- 
lis noster per nostrum benefidum habere 
videtur.' The term had been previously 
applied in the Roman law to estates con- 
feired by the prince upon soldiers and 
others. — Ducange. The same name was 
given to estates conferred upon clerical 
persons for life, for the performance of 
ecclesiastical services, and in modem 
times the name of benefice is appropriated 
to signify a piece of church preferment. 

Benign.^ Benignant. Lat. benig- 
Hus (opposed to malignus), kind, gener- 
"■13, disposed to obh^. 

BenisDiL. OFr. beneison, Senaifott, 

blessing, from benedictio. Lat bene- 
dicere. Ft. benir, to bless. 

Bent. The flower-stalks of grass re* 
maining uneaten in a pasture. Bav 
bimaissen, bimpsen, binssen, a. binsen, 
rushes. OWG. pinas, pintte. 

To Bannm. See Numb. 

Benzoin. Gum benjamin, Ptg. ben- 
j'oim. Ft. benjoin, from Arab, loubin 
djaiiil, incense of Java. By the Arabs it 
is called bakkour djdvA, Javanese per- 
fume, or sometimes louban, by ilseU, or 
ply djawt. — Dozy. 

fo Bequeath. To direct the dispo- 
)n of property after one's death, as. 
becviaihan, from cwathan, to say. See 

,To Bera7. To dirty. 'I beraye, I 
fyle with ashes. I araye, or fyle with 
myre, J'emboue. I marre a thyng, i 
soyle it or ar<^e it.' — Palsgr. From OFr. 
ray, dirt. ' Hie fimus, fens ; et hie limus, 
r-iy.'— Conunentaiy on Neccbain in Nat. 



Antiq. p. 1(3. WaU. ariUr, to dirty. 

Esthon. roe, Fin, roju, dirt, dung j roju, 
roisio, rubbish, sweepings, dust ; rojahlaa, 
to tattle down, fall with sound. So ro- 
pakka, mud, dirt ; ropahtaa, to fall with 

To Bereave, as. rtafian, bireafian, 
to deprive of, to strip. See Reave, Rob. 

Beny. A small eatable fruit AS. 
beria; Goth, basjaj Du. besje- Sanscr. 
bhakshya,biod.,iTom.bhakih,tQfXi. Hence 
on the one side Lat bacca, a berry, and 
on the other Goth, basya, G. Beere, E. 
berry. —YXimt Zeitschr. vol. vi. p. 3. 

• Berth. The proper meaning of the 
word is shelter, but it is specially applied 
to the place boarded on in a ship for a 
person to he in, or the space kept clear 
for a ship to ride or moor in. It is the 
same word with the provincial barth, a 
shelter for cattle.— Hal. 

Devon, barthless, houseless. Warm 
barth under hedge is a succour to beasL 
— Tusser. The origin is as. ieorgan, 
E. dial, bfraie, buraie, to defend, pro- 
tect ; burrow, sheltered from the wind. 
The final th in bartk may be either the 
termination significative of an abstract 
noun, as in growth, from grovi, lewtk, 
shelter, from lew, stealth from steals or, as 
I think more probable, barth may be for 
barf, a form which the verb takes in 
Yorkshire, bar/ham, compared with 
bargham, berwham, a horse collar, what 

Kotecls the neck of the horse fiTim the 
mes. So too Yorkshire arf, fearful, 
from AS. earg, eark, OE. arwe. 
To Besaeoh. Formerly heseek. 
His heart is hard that will not meke 
When luen of mekcTiess him btseke. 

Chaucer, R. H. 

To seek something from a person, to 
entreat, solicit So Lat. fiete, to seek, 
and also to entreat, beseech. 

Besom, as. besem, btsmj Pl.D. bes- 
seit, C. besen. as. besmas, rods. In 
Devonshire the name bissatn or bassam 
is given to the heath plant, because used 
formaking besoms, as conversely a besom 
is called iroowt, from being made of broom- 
twigs. The proper meaning of the word 
seems twigs or n>ds. Du. bran-bessen, 
broom twigs, scopas spartia:. — Diglott(»i. 

Beat. See Better. 

Baateod. as. stede^' place, position. 
Hence stead is appliM to signify the 
influences arising from relative position. 
To stand ix ste^ of another is to perform 
the offices due from him ; to stand 
in good stead, or to bestead one, ii 
petfonn_ii serviceable office to him. 

Thfldiy fish wu ea newBud food u it did 
veiy Kreaujr haUadia ia the whole coum of our 
vofagc. — Drake, 

On the Other hand, to be hard bettead 
is to he placed in a position which it is 
hard to endure. 

To Beetov. as. stow, a place; to 
bestow, to be-place, to give a place to, to 
lay out, to exercise on a defimte object. 

To Bet. From abet, in the sense of 
backing, encouraging, supporting the sde 
- which the wager is laid. 
' To Bete, Beit, Beet. To help, to 
iply, to mend.— Jam. To bete his 
e, to remedy his misfortune ; to best a 
mister, to supply a want To beet, to 
make or feed a fire. — Gl. Grose, as. 
betan, to make better, improve, amend, 
restore ; /yr belan, property to mend the 
fire, but m practice, to make it. Tha het 
he micel fyr betan, then ordeted he a 
great fire to be lighted. OSw. eld t^- 
bota, to Ught the fire ; bal oppb'ota, to fiie 
a funeral pile ; botesward, the gtianliau 
of a beacon-fire ; fyrbotare, one who 
sets fire to, an incendiary. Du. boet4%, 
to amend, repair, make lietter; ket iniur 
boeten, to kindle the fire. The sense of 
mending the fire or supplying it with fiicl 
might so easily pass into that of making 
or lighting it, that we can hardly doulM 
that the use of as. betan, Sw. bota. On. 
boeten, in the latter sense is only a special 
application of the same verbs in the 
general sense of repairing or making 
better, the origin of which is to be found 
in ON. bdt, reparation, making better, 
Du. baete, advantage, profit, amendment, 
baet, bat, bet, more, better, preferably, — 

last of which the verbal clement must 
certainly be It. buttare, to cast, to thrust, 
Fr. bouier, to thrust, put, put forth. Bou- 
ter feu would thus be to set fire to, as 
boater selle, to put on the saddle. Sw. 
bota was also used in the sense of parry- 
ing or pushing aside a thrust aimed at 
one. — Inre. The question then arises 
whether both derivations may not be 
reconciled by supposing that ON. bit, 
reparation, and Du. baete, advantage, 
amendment, may be derived from Uie 
notion of pushing forwards. Gotlt,, kfa 
boteith mannan, what does it boot, what 
does it better a map, mif^t have b^ 



translated, what does it advance a man, 
yfiat does it ferward him. 

It i> naught honest, it aajt mil advance 

Fer to have dealing wlih luch base poiallk. 
Chaucer, FMai's ProL 
The word advantage literally signifies 
furtherance, the being pushed to the 
front, and the same idea b invoh^ in 
the word profit, from Lat. proficere, to 
make forwards, advance, progress. To 
boot in coursing (i. e. to give something 
over and above in an exchange) is trans- 
lated by Palsgrave, bouter davantaige. 
Thus the radical meaning of ^^/rrwould 
be more in advance, and to bete or repair 
would be to push up to its former place 
something that bad fallen back. 

To Beteem, to Teem. To vouchsafe, 
deign, afford, deem suitable, find in one's 

Yet could he not btUm (dienetm) 
The ih^M of other bdrd than ea^e for to seem. 

'Ah, nid he, thou hast cooieued and be- 
wiwedall, I could I«H it to rend thee in pieces,' 
—Dialogue on Witches, Percy Soo. x. SB. 
In a like sense OH. iima, PI.D. taemett, 
tamtn, Ober D. itmtn. on. Tima eigi 
at laia tit, not to have the heart to give 
up a thing. PI.D. Ik tame mi dal nig; 
I do not allow myself that. He Idmet 
sik een good glas wien : he allows him- 
self a good glass of wine, Bav. MicA 
timet, getimet eines din^, 1 approve of 
a thing, find it good, Goth, gatiman, O. 
litmen, gexiemen, Du. taemen, betaemen, 
to beseem, become, be fittii^ or suitable. 

The sense of being fitting or suitable 
swings from on. Uma, to happen, to iall 
to one's lot, in the same way that Schick- 
Uck, suitable, springs from sckicken, to 
appoint, order, dispose (whence schicksal, 
&te, lot). On the same principle ON. 
fallinn, fitting, suitable, as one would 
nave it fall, ivstn folia, to fall, to happen. 

To Betray. Lat. tradere, to deUver 
np, then to deliver up wliat ought to be 
kept, to deliver up in breach of trust, to 
betray. Hence It tradire, Fr. trakir, 
as envahir, from invadere. The inflec- 
tions of Fr. verbs in ir with a double ts, 
as trakissons, trakiisais, are commonly 
rendered in B. by a final sli. Thus from 
ibahir, tbakissais, E. abash ; from peiir, 
poUssais, E. polish, &c- In like manner 
from trakir we formerly had trash and 
betrask, as from obHr, obHssais, obeiih, 
la the water anon was seen 

Hb now, his moutb. his ejen sbeen, 

In theori^nal — 

EtiU _ _ _.._ 

Cor um nmbre ti k trahit. 
Her acquaintance ii pexilloua 
First soft and aftor.noious. 
She hath The trashid [trabie] wttboul wene. 

Probably the unusual addition of the 
particle be to a verb imported horn the 
Fr. was caused by the accidental resem- 
blance of the word to Du. bedriegen, G. 
betriigen, to deceive, to cheat, which are 
from a totally different root. From It 
tradire is traditor, Fr. trailre, a traitor j 
and from Fr. trakir, trahison, treachery, 

Better,— Beat. Goth, batisso, batistaj 
AS. betera, betest, bettt, better, best Du, 
bat, bet, baet, better, more, OE. bet, better. 
See To Bete. 

Between. — Betwixt, The AS. haa 
tweoh, a different form of two, two, and 
thence iwegen, twain. From the former 
of these are as. betwuk, betweoh, belweohs, 
betweox, betwuxt, by two, in the middle 
of two, which may be compared as to 
form with amid, as. amiddes, amidst, or 
with again, against. In like maimer 
from ^ain is formed between, in the 
middle of twain. 

The He of Man that me clep^th 
By twene us ajid Irionde.— R. G. 

Bevel Slant, sloped off, awry. Fr. 
beveau, an instrument opening like a 
pair of compasses, for measuring angles. 
Buveau, a square-like instrument having 
moveable and compass branches, or one 
branch compass and the other stiaight. 
Some call it a bevel.— Cot. 

Beverage. A drink. Lat. biiere, It, 
bevere, to drink ; whence beveraggioj 
Fr. beuvragt; E. beverage. 

Bevy, It. beva, a driuii^ ; a t>evy, as 
of pheasants. — FL Fr. fewt, a brood, 
flock, of quails, larks, roebucks, thence 
applied to a company of ladies especially. 

To Bewtay. Goth, vrohjan, Fris, 
•wTogia, niogia, wreia, G. riigen, to ac- 
cuse, 1. e. to bring an offence to the notice 
of the authorities, Sw. r£/'a, to discover, 
make manifest Dit tiitigomal rojtr dig, 
thy speech bewrayeth thee, i. e. makes it 
manifest that thou art a Galilean. Det 
rojer sig ijel/t, it bewrays itself, gives 
some sign of existence which attracts 
notice. Now the stirring of an object is 
the way in which it generally catches our 
attention. Hence C regen, to stir, is 
used for the last evidence of life. Kegt 
kein Uben mekrin dir, arc there no signs 



of life in you 7 Die litit regit tick bti 
ikm, love begins to stir in him, shows the 
Gist signs of life in bim. Pl.D. -wrogta, 
rogen ^n AlUnark rojeiij, to stir. ' Hi- 
ranne Iho hatidehude nak turoginge Shrer 
conscientien :'' herein to deal according 
to the stirring of their conscience. — Brem. 
Wtb. He rogt un bbgt sii nig, he is 
Slock stilL Uprbgen, to stir up ; bertgcn, 
sik beregen, to move, to stir.— Sehiitic. 

The train of thought is then, to stir, to 
give signs of life, make manifest his 
presence, to make evident, bring under 
notice, reveal, discover, accuse. ' Thy 
tongue bewrayetk thee :' thy tongue 
makes thy GaHlean birth to stir as it 
before the eyes, le fait sauter aujt yeux 
(according to the Fr. metaphor), makes 
it evident to sense, convicts thee of being 
a Galilean. 

E. dial roggt, roggle, Pl.D, wraggeln 
to shake. See Wnggle. 

BeseL— Bull. Sp. bitel, the basil 
edge of a plate of looking-glass, which 
were formerly ornamented with a border 
ground slantmg from the general surface 
of the glass. When the edge of a joiner's 
tool b ground away to an angle it is called 
a 6asil (Halliwell), in Fr. tailUen biseau. 
Biseau, a besU, besting or skueing. — Cot. 

The proper meaning of the word seems 
to be a paring, then an edge pared or 
sliced off, a sloping edge. 

Tayllet le payn ke esl par*, 
L«s hiaaia (the poringes) k ramoyne soyt doo^, 
BibeLworth in Nit. Ant. 172. 

Bezoar. A stony 
stomach of ruminants to which great 
medical virtues were formerly attached. 
Pers. p&dzakr, from p&d-, expelling or 
preserving against, and iohr, poison. In 
Arab, the word became bddixahr, bd»ahr. 

To Bflszle. To drink hard, to' tipple. 
Probably, like gueile, fonned from an 
imitation of the sound made in greedy 
eating and drinking. 

Yea. s'foot I wonder how the iostdeof a tav«nie 
looks DOW. Oh J when sbaU 1 Hale, iiuU t— 

Bi-. La.t. its, twice, in two ways; for 
Att, from ifuo, two,as beilum for duellum. 
In comp. it becomes bi-, as in Biped, two- 
footed, Bisect, to cut in two. 

Biiia. Fr. biais, bihais. Cat biax, 
Sardin. biaseia. It ibiescio, Piedm. ibias, 
sloped, slanting; Fr. biaiser, Sard. Ma- 
sciai, to do something aslant. The It 
iieco, sbieco, from obliquus, has a singular 
resemblance to sbiescio, used in precisely 

the same sense, though such a change of 
form would be very unusual. 

The true origin is probably from the 
notion of sliding or slipping. It i6iaa«, 
sbiessa, bending, aslope; sbiscian, bis- 
dare, sbrisciare, sbrissare^ to creep or 
crawl sideling, aslope, or m and out, as 
an eel or a snake, to glide or slip as upon 
ice ; sbriscio, sbrisso, sbiscio, oblique, 
crooked, winding or crawling in and out, 
slippery, shding; biascio, bias-wise. 

Bib. Fr. bavoK, baviere, baverole, a 
cloth to prevent a child drivelling over 
its clothes. Baver, to slaver or drivel 
Du. kwijlett, to slaver ; kwijl-bab, kwijl- 
lap, or kanjUslab, a slabbermg-bib. Fris. 
balibi, the mouth; Mantuan, babbi, bai- 
bio, snout, lips. 

To Bib,— To Bibble. Lat biio, to 
drink, whence Du.^^rrn, to drink much; 
biberery Fr. biberon, bibaculus, a lubber, 
one who drinks in excess, oe, bAbte^ 
Sc bebble, to sip, to tipple. ' An excellent 
good bibbeler, specially in a bottle.'~ 
Gascoigne. 'He's aye bebbiinr and 
drinking.' — Jam. DaiL dial, iiile, to 
trickle. ' Han er' saa beskjenket at 
brandevinet bibler oven ud av ham : ' he 
is so drunk that the brandy runs out of 
him. Dan. piUe, to purl, to well up with 
small bubbles and a soft sound. 

Bible. Gr, /3i'/3X(^, aboofc; originally, 

1 Egyptian plant, the papjirus, of ibe 
bark of which paper was first m^e. 

Bice. An inferior blue, OE. asure-Ha 
(Early E. Misc. HaL 78); Fr. bes-asur, 
the particle bes being often used in com- 

Ksition to signify perversion, inferiority, 
ov. beslei, perverted belief; barlumt 
(for bis-lume) weak light; Piedm. bet- 
anca, crooked; ber-laita (for bes-laiia), 
Fr. petit-lait, whey ; Cat bescotnpte, mis- 
count ; Fr. bestemps, foul weather. Diet 

To Bicker.— Bickering. To skirmish, 
dispute, wrangle. It is especially applie<i 
in Sc. to a fight with stones, and also sig- 
nifies the constant motion of weapons 
and the rapid succession of strokes in a 
battle or broil, or the noise occasioned by 
successive strokes, by throwing of stones, 
orbyanyrapidmolion.— Jamieson, The 
origin is probably the representation of 
the sound of a blow with a pointed in- 
strument by the svllable/i'ci, whence the 
frequentative picker or bicker would re- 

! resent a succession of such blows. To 
icker in ne. is explained to clatter, Hal- 
liwell Du. bickeler, a stone-hewer or 
stone-picker; bickelm, bicktn, to hew 
; bickel, bickel-steenken, i 


of stone, a chip, explaining the Sc. bkier 
in the sense of throwing stones. Bickelat, 
to start out, as tears from the eyes, from 
the way in which a chip flies from the 
pick. Hence Sc to Heker, to move 
quickly. — Jam. 

Yngtia archaiis that hanlj war and wjcht 
AmaoE the Scotlii Mnrit wilh oU Ibelr roycht 

The arrows struck upon them like blows 
from a stone-cutter's pick. 

It must be observed' that the word 

krowe u yoa. — Fa]^;ra<n in HalliveU. 

To Bid. Two verbs arc here con- 
foimded, of distina foim in the other 
Teutonic languages. 

1. To Bid m the obsolete sense <^ to 

For Bu- lenrbe badde wende 

And MdlA ys mete yf he ihulde ia a Btnuee loud. 

Bidders and beggars are used as sy- 
nonymous in P. P. 
For he (hat beggnh other biddeth but if be han 

He ialBlseand&ilouranddefraudelhlheneede. 
In this sense the word is the correla- 
tive of Goth, bidjan, bidan, bath, or bad, 
beduaj AS. biddan, had,geiedeH; G. bit- 
ten, bai; ON. biSJa, or, in a reflective 
foim, beiSast. 

2. To Bid in the sense of offering, 
bringing forwards, pressing on on^ 
notice, and consequently ordering or re- 
quiring something to be done. Goth. 
ojudan in anabjudan, faurbjuddn, to 
command, forbid ; as. becdan, bead, ge- 
bodenj O. bitten, to ofTer, verbielen, to 
forbid ; Du. bieden, poirigere, offerre, 
przbere, pr3estare.^Ku. 

To bid the baniu, G. eitt paar verloble 
aufbieten, is to bring forwards the an- 
nouncement of a marriage, to offer it to 
iniblic notice. Einem einen guten tag 
tielen, to bid one good day, to offer one 
the wish of a good day. To bid one to a 
dinner is properly the same verb, to pro- 
pose to one to come to dinner, although 
It might well be understood in the sense 
of the other form of the verb, to ask, to 
pray one to dinner. Analogous expres- 
sions are c. einen vor Gerickt bieten, to 
summon one before a court of justice; 
einen vor sick bieten lassen, to have one 
called before him. 

With respect to logical pedigree, the 
meaning of bid, in the sense of ask for, 
pray, may plausibly be derived from Goth. 

beidan, AS. bidan, abidan, to look for. To 
pray is merely to make known the fact 
that we look for or desire the object of our 

also used in the sense of asking for. The 
ON. to'/ais used in each sense (Ihre V. Leta), 
and the Sw. has ieta, to look for, aiUeta, 
to solicit, just as the two ideas are ex- 
pressed in E. by seek and beseech, for be- 
seek. The on. btSill, a suitor, from 
biSja, to ask, seems essentially the same 
word with AS. bidet, an attendant or 
beadle, from bidan, to abide or wait on. 

Bi^. Swollen, bulky. The original 
spelling seems to be Img, which is still 
used in the N. of Engmd for swollen, 
proud, ^w^gerii^. 
But when ber dicUng uearer down dolh pull 
T^es. gins ibe (well and wuen ii^wilb bom. 
More in Rjcbardson. 

' Bug as a Lord'^HaUiwelL ' Big-swol- 
len heart' — Addison. 'Big-uddered 
ewes.' — Pope in R. 

The original form (rf the root is pro- 
bably seen in the ON. bolga, a swelling, 
balginx, swoln, from belgia, to inflate; E. 
bulge, to bellj-, to swell, bilge or bulge, the 
belly of a ship, related to big or bug, as 
G. and Gael, balg, an entire skin, to E. 
bag. The loss of the / gives Dan. bug, 
beUy, bulge, bow; bugne (answering to 
ON, iolgnd), to bu^e,T>elly, bend. Com- 
pare also Sp. buque with K. bulk. w. bog, 
swelling, rising up 

To Big. AS. lyM'^'t ON. iyggia, to 
build, to inhabit; OSw. bygga, to pre- 
pare, repair, build, inhabit. A simpler 
and probaUy a contracted form is seen 
in ON. bua, OSw. boa, bo, to arrange, 
prepare, cultivate, inhabit; Du. bouwen, 
to cultivate, to build ; G. bauat to culti- 
vate, to dwell, to build. 

Bigiuny, FromGr.f>{,twice,becoming 
in Lat bis and in comp. &-,and ya/iiw, to 

Kght or Bought. A bend of a shore 
or of a rope. ON. bugt, a flexure, buga, 
to bend, to curve, as. bugan, biganj G. 
tiegen, to bend. 

Bigot. The beginning of the 13th 
century saw the sudden rise and maturity 
of the mendicant orders of St Francis and 
St Dominic These admitted into the 
ranks of Ibeir followers, besides the pro- 
fessed monks and nuns, a third class,c^led 
the tertiary order, or third order of peni- 
tence, consisting both of men and women, 
who, without necessarily quitting their 
secular avocations, bound themselves to 
a strict life and works of charity. The 


66 BIC 

same outburst of religions feeling seems 
to have led other persons, both men and 
women, to adopt a similar course of life. 
They wore a. similar dress, and went 
about reading the Scriptures and practis- 
ing Christian life, but as they suDJected 
themselves to no regular orders or vows of 
obedience, they became highly obnoxious 
to the hierarchy, and underwent much 
obloquy and persecution. Tbeyadopted 
the grey habit of the Franciscans, and 
were popularly confounded with the third 
order of tbiose friars under the names of 
Beguini, BegutUe, Bixocchi, Bittocari 
fm Italian BtgMni, BigUni, Bighiotlt), 
all apparently derived from It^ iigio, 
VeneL W«J, grey- 'Bizocco,' says an 
author quoted in N. and Q. voL ix. 560, 
'sia quasi bigicco e bigiotto, perch^ i 
Teniari di S. Francesco si veston di 
bigio.' So in France they were called 
Its pititi frirts bis or ft«/».— Ducange, 
From bigij), grey, was formed bigello, the 
dusky hue of a dark-coloured sheep, and 
the coarse cloth made from its undyed 
wool, and this was probably also the 
meaning of bighino or beguino, as well as 
btBocco. ' E che I'abito bi^'a ower beghiiw 
era comune degli nomini di penitenza,' 
where beghino evidently implies a de- 
scription of dress of a similar nature to 
that designated by the term bigio. Bi- 
toceo also Is mentioned in the fragment 
of the history of Rome of the 14th century 
in a way which shows that it must have 
signified coarse, dark-coloured cloth, such 
as is used for the dress of the inferior 
orders, probably from biso, the other form 
of bigio. ' Per te Tribuno,' says one of 
the nobles to Rienii, ' fora piu convene- 
vole che portassi vestimenta honeste da 
bituoco che queste pompose,' translated 
by Muratori, ' honesti plebeii amictus.' 
It must be remarked tnat bigocco also 
signifies rude, clownish, rustical, ap- 
parently irom the dress of rustics being 
Compo^A oi bixoico. In the same way Fr. 
bureau is the colour of a brown sheep, 
and the coarse cloth made from the un- 
dyed wooL Hence the OE. borel, coarse 
woollen cloth, and also unlearned com- 
mon men. In a similar manner from 
bigeilo, natural grey or sheep's 
homespun cloth, bightUotu, a dunce, a 
blockhead. — Flor. From bigio would 
naturally be formed bigiotto, MghiottopxiA 
as soon as the radical meaning of the 
word was obscured, corruption would 
easily creep in, and hence the variations 
bigutia, begutia, bigotta, beg/iino, which 
must -..■.. 

bigutta, bigotta, begktno. which 
it be confounded with oegardo. 

bigardo, G. heghat, signifying bagmat at 
beggars, a term of reproach apfriied to 
the same class of people. We find Boni- 
face VIII., in the quotations of Ducai^e 
and his continuat<HS, spealdng of them 
as ' Nonnulli viri pestileri qui vulgariter 
Fraticetli seu fratres de paupere vitft, ant 
BiiocAi sive BiMiti vel aiiis fiicatis no- 
minibus nuttcupantur.' Matthew Paris, 
with reference to A.D.ia43,says,'Eisdem 
tempioribus quidam in ^emannia prse- 
cipue se asserentes religiosos in utroque 
sexu, sed maxima in muliebri, habituro 
religionis sed levem susceperunt, conti- 
nentiam vitae privato voto profitentes, 
sub nullius tamen reguli coarctati, nee 
adhuc uUo daustro content!.' They wer« 
however by no means confined to Italy. 
' Istis ultimis temporibus hypocritalibiis 

flurimi mazimi in Italic et Aiemannift et 
rovincise provincij, ubi tales BegariU 
et Beguim vocantur, nolentes jugnm 
subire vers obedientise — nee servare re- 
gulam aliquam ab EcclesifL approbatam 
sub manu prasceptoris et ducis l^timi, 
vocati Fraticelli, alii de paupere vit9,alit 
Aposlolici, atiqui Begardi, qui ortum in 
Alemannia habuerunt.'— Alvanis Pela- 
^us in Due ' Secta quasdam pestifera 
lUorum qui Beguini vulgariter appellan- 
tur qui se fratres pauperes de tertio ordine 
S. Francisci communiter appellabanL' — 
Bemardus Guidoois in vita Job. tx, 
' Capellamque seu dusam hujusmodi 
censibus et redditibus pro septem per- 
sonis reljgiosis, £r^^/i!i videlicet ordtnis 
S. Augustini dotannt'— Chart. A,D, iJiS. 
* Beghardus et Seguina et Begutta sunt 
viri et mulieres tertii ordinis.*— Brevilo- 
quium in Due. 

They are described more at large in 
the Acts of the Council of Treves, a,d. 
1310, 'Item cum quidam sint laid in 
civitate et provincil Trevirensi qui sub 

Krtextu cujusdam religionis fictie Beg- 
rdos se appellant, cum tabardis et 
tunicis longis et longis capuciis cum ocio 
incedentes, ac labores manuum detest- 
antes, conventicula inter se aliquibus 
temporibus faciunt, seque fingunt coram 
simplicibus person is expos itores sa- 

qui extra religion em approbatam validam 
mendicantes discurrunt, &c.' ' Nonnul- 
laz mulieres sive sorores, Bigutta apud 
vulgares nuncupate, absque votorum re- 
ligionis emlssione.'— Chart a.d. 1499. 

From the foregoing extracts it will 
readily be understood how easily the 
name, by which these secular aspirants 
to superior holiness of life were desig' 

,.,i.Cooglc ■ 

nated, might be taken to express a hypo- 
'crhe, lalse pretender to religious reeling, 
Tartuflc. Thns we find in It bigotto, 
bitoceo, a devotee, a hypocrite; Pied- 
montese bigot, bisoch, Fr. bigot, in the 
same sense. Sp. bi^do, a name given 
to a person of reli^on leading a loose 
life, higardia, deceit, dissimulation ; G. 
beghart, gleischner (Frisch), a bigot or 
hypocrite, a false pretender to honesty or 
holiness. — Ludwig. * Bigin, bi^t, su- 
perstitious hypocrite.' — Speight in Rich- 

In English the meaning has received 
a further development, and as persons 
professing extraordinary zeal for religious 
views are apt to attribute an overweening 
importance to their particular tenets, a 
bigot has come to signify a person un- 
reasonably attached to paiticuUr opin- 
ions, and not havii^ his mind open to 
any argument in opposition. 

BUhorry. The fruit of the vaccinium 
Inyrtillus, while that of vaccinium, uligi- 
DOsum is called in the N. of E. bla-berry, 
frora the dark colour. Dan, blaa, blue ; 
Sw. blamand, a negro. In Danish the 
oaBies are reversed, as the fruit of the 
m^rtillus is called blaa-bar, that of the 
uliginosum bolU-bar. Perhaps the name 
may be a corruption of bull-berry, in ac- 
cord^ice with the general custom of 
naming eatable berries after some animal, 
as cranebtrry, cro-wberry, and the bil- 
berry itself was called by the Saxons 
Marl-berry. Aurelles, wfiottle -berries, 
biU-betries, bull-berries. — Cot. 

Bilbo. A slang term for a sword, now 
obsolete. A Bilboa blade. 

BilbOM. Among mariners, a punish- 
ment at sea when the offender is laid in 
irons or set in a kind of stoclcs. Du. 
iveye, a shackle. Lat boja, Frov. boia, 
oft. buit, fetters. Boja, genus vincu- 
lonim tarn ferrese quam lignex.- — Festus 
in Diei. This leaves the first sjdlable 
unaccounted for. The proper meaning 
oS bcfa, however, seems to be rather the 
c:tog to which the fetters are fastened than 
the fetter itself. NFris. bui, buoy fue. 
a floating log to mark the place of some- 
thing sunk], clog to a fetter. — Dcutsch. 
Mundart. Johansen, p. loi. 

BUga. The belly or swelling side of a 
ship. See Bulk. 

To Bilk. To defraud one of expected 
Fpmuneration ; a slang term most likely 
from an affected pronunciation of balk. 

Bill. I. An mstrument for hewing. 
C. beil, an aie ; as, bil, a sword, axe, 
weapon ; Sw. bila, an axe, plog-iill, a 


plongh-share ; Du. bilU, a ston^nason's 
pick ; billen deit moUHsteen, to pick a 
millstone.— KiL w. bwyell, an axe, a 
hatchet. Gael, buail, to strike. 

2. The bill of a bird roay very likely 
be radically identical with the foregoing. 
The Du. bicJun is used both of a bird 
pecldng and of hewing stone with a pick ; 
bicktn or billen den moletuteeit. as. bile, 
the bill of a bird, horn of an animal In 
the same way are related PoL dsiob, the 
beak of a bird, dmobai, to peck, to jol^ 
and dfiobas, an adze ; Bohem. top, a 
beak, tepaU, to strike, topor, an axe. 

Bill. 3.— Billet A bill, in the sense 
of a writing, used in l^al proceedings, as 
a bill of inthctment, Hll of exchange, bill 
in parliament, is properly a sealed tnstru* . 
roent, from Mid.Lal. bulla, a seal. See 
Bull A billet is the diminutive of this, a 
short note, the note which appoints a 
soldier his quarters. Du. bullet, billet, 
inscriptum, symbolum, syngraphum. — 

Billet, a.— Billiard. Fr. hUlot, a srick 
or log of wood cut for fiiel, an ingot of 
gold or silver. Bille, an ingot, a young 
stock of a tree to graft on — Co^rave ; a 
stick to rest on — Roquefort. Langued. 
bilio, a stick to tighti;n the cord of a 
package. Fr. bUlard or billart, a short 
and thick truncheon or cudgel, hence the 
cudgel in the play at trap ; and a billard, 
or the stick wherewith we touch the ball 
at billyards. OFr. billard also signified 
a man who rests on a stick in walking. — 
Roquet Billetie, a biUet of wood ; bil- 
Uttes ifun espieu, the cross bars near the 
head of a boarspear to hinder it from 
running too far into the animal. 

The origin of the term is probably from 
belt, the trunk of a tree, the o changing 
to an I to express diminution. A like 
change takes place in the other sense of 
bilUt from bulla, a seal. 

BUlcnr. Sw. b'olja, Dan. bSlge, on. 
bylgia, Du. bolghe, bulghe, fluctus maris, 
unda, procella — Kil_ from OSw. bulgja, 
to swell. Du. belghen, as. belgan, aoel- 
gan, to be angry (1. e. to swell with rage). 

The mariDer amK 'be iweUmgttai 
Who seeth hU back with uuoy a HUmo beaten. 
GasGoigns la R. 

' Had much ado to prevent one from 

sinking, the billowe was so great ' (Hack- 
luyt), where we see billo-w not used in 
the sense of an individual wave, but in 
that of swell. 


68 BIN 

'tumens xquor,' and the like, are com- 
monplaces. See Belly- 
Bio. — Bins'. The proper meaning is 

iJke aoU when ther do apoile the fia/ of coni. 
SuiTGy In R. 
Then as side boards or walls were 
added to confine the heap to a smaller 
space, the word was transferred to a 
receptacle so constnicted for storing 
, wine, &c Sw, binge, a heap, a 

The erete iing was upbeilded wele 

Of Hit trees aadfyrrenschydis dry,— -D.V. 

To Bind. — Bine. — Bindweed, as. 
bittdtat, Goth, birtdan, band, bundua. 
This word is I believe derived from the 
notion of a bunch or lump, expressed by 
Sw. buHf, Dan. bundt, G. otatd, a bunch, 
truss, bundle, the primary notion of 
binding being thus to make a bunch of 
a thing, to festen it together. In like 
manner from knot, Lat. nodus, a knob, I 
would derive the verb to knit, to bind 
tt^eCher, as when we speak of one's limbs 
"being firmly knit together. The idea 
which is expressed in E. by the verb knit 
or net, i. e. to form a knotted structure, is 
rendered in ON. by binda, to bind ; at 
binda nat, to knot nets for fish, to net- 
Ijth. pinnu, pinii, to wreathe, to plait. 
It seems more in accordance with the 
development of the understanding that 
the form with the thinner vowel and ab- 
stract signification should be derived 
from that with the broader vowel and 
concrete signification, than vice versS. 
Thus I suppose the Gr. tk^, to build, to 
be derived from tipoe, a house, Lat. pat- 
dere, to hang, from pondus, a weight, 
the last of these forms being identical 
with the word which we are treating as 
the root of bind, viz. bund, bundt, bunch. 
Lhh.pundas, a truss, bundle, abo a stone 
weight, a weight of 48 pounds. The 
original meaning of pondus would thus 
be simply a lump of some heavy ma- 
terial, doubtless a stone. 

The term bine or bind is applied to 
the twining stem of climbing plants. 
Thus we speak of the hop-bine for the 
shoots of hops. The -wood-bine desig- 
nates the honeysuckle in England, while 
bind-wood, bin-wood, or ben-wood, is in 
Scotland appUed to ivy. Here we see 
tbe root in the precise form of the Lith. 
pinnu, ptH-ti, to twine. 

Bimuuila. See Bittacle. 


Bio-. Gr. 0it, life. 

Biroh. AS. bircej Sw. bjbrk; Ijtb. 
derkas (i = Fr. j), Sanscr. bhUrja. 

Bird. AS. brtd, the young of birds ; 
earius brid, an ease's young ; G. brut, a 
brood or hatch of young. See Breed. 
We find the use of the word in thii 
original sense as late as Shakespeare. 

Bang fed bf us 70U used us so 
As (hat ungentle gull the cuckoo's bird 
Useth tbe sparrow. —H. IV., y. sc. i. 

The proper designation of the feathered 
creation is in E. fowl, which in course of 
time was specially apphed to the galli- 
naceous tribe as the most important Idn^ 
of bird for domestic use, and it ,wai 
perhaps this appropriation of tbe word 
which led to the adoption of the name of 
the young animal as the general designa- 
tion of Uie race. A similar transfer of 
meaning has taken place in the case of 
pigeon, from \%3X. ptppione,piccion£, pro- 
perly a young pigeon, and of Fr. pouU, 
a gallinaceous bird, E. poultry, from Lat. 
pullus, the young of an animal. 

Birth. AS. beorih, Sw. bord, a. ^e- 
burt, from as. beran, to bear, to bnng 
forth. See To Bear. 

Biscuit. Fr. biscuit. It biscoHo, Lat. 
bis-coctus (bis and coquo, to cook), twice 
cooked, or baked. 

Biahop. Lat. episcopus, from Gr. 
iirivniroc, an Overseer, overlooker. When 
compared with Fr. evtqve, it affords a 
remarkable proof how utterly unlike the 
immediate descendants of the same word 
in different languages may become. Epit- 
copus; IL vescovo, Fr. evesque, evtqu*. 

Bl«aon. — Biaom. — Biaen. — Blzened, 
Blind, properlj- near-sighted. Du. bij 
lien, propius videre ; bij siende, bij aen- 
igh, lusciosus et myops, qui nisi propiua 
admota non videt.— Kil. 

Bit The part of the bridle which ibJt 
horse bites or holds in his mouth. AS. 
bitol. ON. bitill, beitsl. Sw. betseL 

Bitoh. AS. biccej ON. bikkia, a little 
dog, a bitch ; applied also to other 
animals, and especially to a small poor 
horse. G. belMC, or peine, a bitclt in 
Swabia, a pig ; petz, a bear. Fr. bicke, K 
hind or female stag. Something of the 
same confusion is seen in G. hUitdinn, n 
female dog ; hindinn, a female stag. 
Lap. piitjo, a. bitch. 

To Bite. Goth, beitan, on. bita, a 

Bittacle or Bisaaole. A frame of 
timber in the steerage of a ship, where 
the compass stands. — Bailey. Fr. kabU- 
acle, Sp. bitacora. HabitacU, a habit* 


a'cle, dwelling or abiding place. — Cotgr. 
In Legrand's Fr. and Flemish dictionary 
habitacU ts explained a little lodge 
^(^emeDt) near the mizenmast for the 

Eilot and steersman, 'N^ huis, t 
uisje, "t kompas huis.' It would thus 
■eem to have signified, first, a shelter 
for the steersman, then the mere case in 
which the compass is placed. 

Bitt«r. Goth, btdtrs, on. beitr, bitr, 
apparently from its biting the tongue. 

Pepet EBT bitler och tritar bit. 
Pepper is Wtter and bites hard. — Hist. 
Alex. Mag., quoted by Ihre. Applied in 
Oil. to the shaipness of a weapon. ' Kin 
Sitrtuta sveril — the sharpest sword. 
When an edge is blunt we say it will not 

la a similar manner GaeL beum, bite, 
cut, and beum, bitter. 
' Bittern. A bird of the heron tribe. 
It. at/ore; Fr. Inttarj OE. bittour. Sp. 

. Bitt*. The KtU of the anchor, Fr. 
MUs, Sp. bitas, are two strong pMts 
standing up on the deck, round which 
the cabk is made fast on. bili, a beam 
in a bouse or ship, a. mast ; Sp. iUoius, 
pins of the cai^tem. 

' Bivouao. The lying out of an army 
in the open field without shelter, c. 6ei- 
v>Mhe,an additional watch, from woirAfM, 
to watch, corrupted in Fr. to bivouac, 
from whence we have adopted the term. 
But we formerly had the word direct 
from German in a sense nearer the 
OT^naL Biovac, bikovae, a night guard 
performed by the whole army when there 
IS apprehension of danger. — Bailey. Sp. 
vivac, town guard to keep order at night ; 
bivouac, night guard, sn^ guard-house. 
— Neumann. 

ToBlab— Blab1)er.-Blabb«r-lip. To 
ilab, to talk much, indistinctly, to chatter ; 
then to talk indiscreetly, to let out what 
should have been conceded. I blaber, as 
a childe dothe or he can speake, Je ' 

Why prmmiest tboa >o proudly la profede these 

And wost no more what thou blabtrtst than Ba- 
laam's asse.— Halliwril. 
Dan. bl^tbrt, to babble, gabble. Pl.D. 
blaibem, G. plapfiem, to speak quick, 
confusedly, tfiougntlessly ; Bohem, blep- 
tati, to babble, chatter ; Lith. bltbberis, a 
babbler ; Gael, blaiaran, a stammerer, 
Stutterer, b.'adhdack, babbling, garrulous. 
All founded on a representation of the 
sound made by collision of the lips in 
rapid talking. The Gad. piai is used to 


signify' a soft noise, as of a body falling 
into water, or water beating gently on 
the beach ; ' piairaicA, a fluttering noise, 
a flapping, as of wings ; plabartakh, a 
continued soft sound, as of water gently 
beating the shore, unintelligible talk ; 
piabair, a babbler. — Armstrong. 

The introduction or omission of an / 
after the labial in these imitative fonns 
makes little difference, as is seen in 
fuller and splutter. So Fr. baioyer, to 
blabber with the lips. — Cot To blabber 
out the tongue, to loll it out. — Hal. Blab- 
biT'lip, synonymous with baier-lip, a 
large coarse lip ; blob, parallel with Fris. 
babii, Mantuan babbi, a large lip, mouth, 

1 10 

Gael, blob, bloback, blubber-lipped. Bav. 
bleff, chops, mouth, in contempt — 
Deutsch. Mund. v. 332. 

Bl&ok, Bleak. The original meaning 
of ^/iir^ seems to have be«i eicactly the 
reverse of the present sense, viz. shining, 
white. It is m fact radically identical 
with Fr. blanc, white, blank, from which 
it differs otdy in the absence of the nasal, 
ON. blaiki, ahine, whiteness (candor sine 
maculi. — Hald.). It biacca, white lead. 

Then as white is contrasted with aiiy 
special colour the word came to signify 
pale, faded, as. blac-kleor ides, the pale- 
cheeked maid. Se mona mid his blacatt 
leohte ; the moon with her pale light. 
G. bleich, Du. bleek, Dan. bUg, pale. N. 
blakk, pale, faded, discoloured ; gulblakk, 
brunblakk, pale yellow, buff, pale brown ; 
Sw. black, whitish, yellowish, fallow ; ON. 
bleiir, light-coloured, whitish, pale, pale 
yellow; NE. blaie, yellow; 'as hlake as a 
paigle (cowslip).' 

A fildebre ful eerly Cok hir flihte, 

t' sang with hia fed: ... 
ydgate, Percy Soc. i 



Again, as colours fade away the aspect 
of the object becomes indistinct and ob- 
scure, and thus the idea of discolouration 
merges in that of dim, dusky, dark, on 
the one side, as in that of pale and white 
on the other, on. blackr is translated 
'glacus seu subalbus,' by Gudmund; 
'&$cus,obscurus,' by Haldorsen. In like 
manner E. bleak is used to siginify pale 
or light-coloured as well as livid or dark- 
coloured. Fr. blesmer, to wax pale or 
bUaked. — Hollyband. Fr. Afu/^r.tomake 
bleak or swart a thing by displaying it iu 



thebotsDn. — Cot f&oi of colour, pallido, 
livido ; to bUak in the sun, imbrumre. — 
Torriano. Sw. black, whitish, also tanned 
by the sun ; mus-bliukt, mouse-dun. When 
the idea of dimness or obscurity is pushed 
to its limit it becomes absolute Harimi-gQ 
or blackness. There is nothing more 
vaiiable than the signification of words 
deslgnatit^ colour. 

^bckgnord. A name originally given 
in derision to the lowest class of menials 
or hangers-on about a court or great 
household, as scullions, Unkboys, and 
others eng^^ in dirty work. 

A slave that within this twenty nsit nde 
with the Black Guard in the Duke s carriage 
H. e. with the Dnkc's baggage) mongst spiU and 
dripping-pans. — Webner. 

1 am d^iaded frnm s cocA, and I fear that 
the Devil himself will entenaln mc but for one 
of his blatignard, and he shall be sure M bave 
bis meat butiiL—O. Play in Naies. 

The word is well emilained in a pro- 
clamation of the Bou^ of Green Qoth 
in 1683, cited in N. and Q., Jan. 7, 1854. 

Whereas of lale a tort of vicious Idle and 
DiailericB boys aitd roeu*s, commonly called 
the Black-guard, with divas other lewd and 
loose fellows, vagabonds, vagrants, and wan- 
dering men and women, do follow the Court lo 
the great dishonour of the same— We do strictly 
charge all those so called the Blackguard as 
aforesaid, with all other loose idle mnsteriess n>en. 
bofs, rogues and wanderers, who have intruded 
Uiemselves inio his Majesty's court and stables. 
thai wilhin the space of 34 bours they depart. 

Bladder. AS, bladre, ON, blaSra, a 
bubble, blister, bladder ; Sw. bladdra, a 
bubble, G. */«/*»■, a pustule; ^a.\.6lalUr, 
bubble, blister, bladder. The radical 
image is the formation of foam or bubbles 
by Uie dashii^ of water, and the sense is 
carried on from a bubble to any bubble- 
shaped thing, a bladder or pustule. PL 
D. pladtUm, to dabble in water, and 
thence to babble, tattle. Oan. pluddre, 
to puddle or mix up turf and water ; to 
jabber ; pludder, mud, slush, mire, also 
jabber, gabble. The primitive sense of 
splashing in water is lost in ON, blaira^ 
to jabber, Sc. bladder, blather, blither, 
chatter, foolish talk, but it may be supphed 
from the constant connection between 
words expressing excessive talk, and the 
agitation ofhquids. Besides the examples 
of this coimection given above, the ON, 
ikola and ikwatla, and G, woicken, all 
signify to wash as well as to tattle, chat- 
ter, Pu. borrelen, to bubble, to purl, is 
identical with Flanders borlen, to vocifer- 
ate.— Kit See Blubber, 

Blade, on. ilad, the leaf of a tree, 

blade of at 

leaf of a t . ■ ■ ^ 

coat, &c ; Du, blad, a Ic^, plate, DoartL 

Or. rXarq, blade of an oar ; AfwirAar^ 

shoulder-blade. For the connection be- 
tween the figure of dashing down liquid 
and the idea of something flat, see 
Flat. Now 5c blad, signite to dash 
down or to strike with something soft. 
les bladding on o' weet, as Sw. dial D> 
bladdar pS, the rain is drivii^ on. Blad- 
dit com, beaten down by rain and wind. 
SUid, a heavy fall of rain, spot of dirt, 
latge flat piece, as of breail Sw. diaL 
kobladde, E, cowplal, a condung. 

BlaJn, AS, blegen, Dan, blegne, Dn. 
blein, Sw, dial bUna, a boil, pimple, 
bUster. Perhaps from blegen, iritich 
Schwenk and Adelung give as an old 
Swabian form of the G, buxhen, to blow. 

to speak ii 
revile, rep 

impiously. IjalLblatphemarefXa 

je, reproach, defame. Hence ItaL 
Hasimare, Fr, biasmer, and E. blame. 

El per consiliain eorum ila convenienler tibi 
respoodebo quod cum tecum toquarnon credo te 
~ie iode JiEuAlMMAmvH. — Eadmer, Hist. Nom- 
im. P.S6. 

Que quand je parle avec von* }e ne emis p«s 
]C vous m'en btmiei. 

Blank.— BluLoh. Fr. Maiu, fdiite; 
blanekir, to blanch, to make or became 
white ; blanc, blanque, a blank ticket, « 
white or unwritten ticket, a ticket that 
does not obtain the prii«. Hence applied 
:asion on which the result hoped 
lOt happened. Blank vtrte, verse 
void of the rhyme to which the ear is ac- 
customed. To blank, or blanch, to dis- 
appoint, to omit, pass over. 

Now, ^r, concerning your travels — I ■> 

e thought 

might eipiess his malice and hlaatk his di 

The original root of the word is seen in 
the G. bliiuien, to shine, to ghtter, as Lat. 
coMdidus, white, from cattden, to shine, 
to glow, Dan, blank, shinii^, polished. 

Blanket. From being made of white 
woollen cloth. Fr. blanchit, a blanket 
for a bed, also white woollen cloth; bla»- 
cket, whitish. — Cot, 

To Blare. — Blatter.— Blatant To 
roar, to bellow. Dil btaerett, probably 
contracted from bladeren, as blader, 
blaere, a babble, blister, or as E. imoiier, 
imore, Du. modder, moere, mud. The 
present forms then should be classed with 
blether, blather, bladder, the origui of 



•rhich has been explained under Blad- 

GaeL Maodkrack, bloraeh, bawling, 
clamorous, noisy ; blor, a loud noise, a 
voice ; Ir. blaodh, a shout 

A parallel form sounds the radical syl- 
lable with a / instead of d. Du. bUuleren, 
Nadtea, blaterare, stult^ loqui, proflare 
&stum ; blagt, blatero, ventosus, magnito- 
quus. — KiL Hence Spenser's blatanl 
(east, the noisy, boasting, ill-speaking 
beaaL ' She roade at peace through his 
only pains and excellent endurance, how- 
ever envy list to blatUr against him.' — 
Spenser, With inversion of the liquid, 
Sp. baiadrar, to bellow, to talk much and 
loud ; baladrwi, OB. iiaieroon, an empty 

Blast. A gust of wind. as. blamn, 
to blow ; blast, a blast. To biasl, to de- 
stroy, to cut off prematurely, as fruit 
vegetables struck by a cold or pestilential 

Blatant. See Blare. 

Bl&ze. I. A strong flame, as. blait, 
blase, blysa, a torch, a lamp ; blasere, an 
incendiary; qN. blossi, a flame; blys, 
Dan. blus, a torch ; Du. blose, redness ; 
Sw. brasa, fire, and, as a verb, to blaze ; 
Sp. brasa, Ft. braise, live coal ; embrmer, 
to set on fire. A blaie is so intimately 
connected with a blast of wind, as to 
render it extremely probable that the 
word bloK, a flame, is radically identical 
Tvith AS. blasan, G. blasen, to blow. If 
the fire were named from the roaring 
sound which it produces, it is obvious 
that the designation woula be equally ap- 
propriate for the blast of wind by which 
the conflagration is accompanied and 
kept up, and which, indeed, is the imme- 
diate cause of the roaring sound. 

2. Sw. blasa, Dan. bits, G. blSite, Du. 
Neise, a blaze or white mark on the face 
of an animal, a white mark on a tree made 
by stripping off a portion of the bark. 
As Kilian, besides blesse, has also bltncke, 
macula emJcans, a shining spot, probably 
the signification of a white spot on a dark 
ground may arise fr^un the notion of 
shining like a blaze or flame, Sc bias, 
bless, bUs. — ^Jam. a blass, pale, light-col- 

To Bl&se. — Blazon, i. To blow 
abroad, to spread news, to publish, as. 
blasan, Du. blaestn, to blow. 

And safn, thai [biough (Iij msdllng it iilaiBt 
Vrar Ixitlie lore, ther it wag em not knowe. 
Troilns and Cressida. 

But DOW, fiieod Cornelius, idlh I have iSastnid 



fail vaunt heaiken his vertue and worttuness. — 
Golden Book in R. 

Sw. oroit-blasare, a whisperer, back- 
biter. Perhaps the expression of blazing, 
or blaiening, abroad, was partly derived 
from the ima^e of blowing a trumpet, as 
when we speak of trumpeting one's vir- 
tues. Du. 'op een trompet blaasen,' to 
sound a trumpet. 

2. To fwrtray armorial bearings in 
their proper colours ; whence Blaaonry, 
heraldry. Fr. blasan, a coat of arms, also 
the scutcheon or shield wherein arms are 
painted or figured ; also blazon or the blad- 
ing of anns. — CoL The origin of this ex- 
pression has given rise to much discussion, 
and two theories are proposed, each of 
much plausibility. First from the E. blase, 
blasat, to proclaim, to trumpet forth, 
whence the Fr. blason, used, among other 
senses, in that of praise, commendation ; 
blason funebre, a funeral oration ; blasoK- 
ner, to extol, to publish the praises, pro- 
claim the virtues of.— Cot. Du. blasoen, 
thraso, gloriasus, magniloquus, also pne- 
conium, laudes (KiL), i. e, the matter 
trumpeted forth or proclaimed by a herald, 
which would ordinarily consist in the first 
place of the tides and honours of the party 
on whose behalf the herald appeared. 
Then, as the purport of armorial bearings 
was to typify and represent the honours 
and titles of the bearer, and to make him 
known when otherwise concealed by his 
armour, the term was transferred to the 
armorial bearings themselves, or to the 
shield on which they were painted. 

The other derivation, which Diez treats 
as hardly doubtAil, is from as. blast, a 
torch, a flame, splendour. The term 
would then be applied to the armorial 
bearings painted in bright colours on the 
shield or surcoat, in the same way as we 
speak of an illmninated MS.— a MS. 
ornamented with coloured paintings ; Fr. 
planches illuminies, coloured prints. 
Prov. blezS, a shield, properly a shield 
with armorial device ; "bleiOs cuberti de 
teins e blancs e blaus,' shields covered 
with tints of white and blue. Or the word 
might spring from the same origin by a 
somewhat different train of thought The 
AS. blase, blase, is used in the sense of 
manifestatio, declaratio. — Lye, ON. blaser 
viS, visui patet, it is manifest-— Gudmund. 
Hence the derivative blason, like the 
synonymous cognisanee in English, might 
be used to signify the armorial bearings 
of an individual, as the device by which 
he was known or made manifest when 
ipletely cased in armour. 



To BleaclL on. bleikr, light-coloured, 
whitish, pale; bleikja, Du. blakm, N. 
blakita, to whiten by expKisure to sun and 
air ; AS. blue, pale ; blacan, to bleach. 
See Black. 

Eleak. In a secondary sense bhak is 
used for cold, exposed, from the eflfect of 
cold ID making the complexion pale and 
livid. See Black. 

Blaar. i. Blear-^td; having sore 
inflamed e^, like one that has long 
been weeping. PLD. blarrtu, to blare 
or roar, to cry or weep. ' He blarrede 
sinen langen tranen,' he cried till the tears 
ran down. Hence biarr-ogt or bleer-oge, 
ft crying eye, a red watery eye. 

2. The term blmr, in the expression 
'to blear one's eye,' to deceive one, is 
totally different from the foregoing, and 
seems identical with blur, a blot or smear 
concealing something that had originally 
been distinct 

He that doelh wickedly, although he pToCesse 
God in his wordes, yet he doelh not for all Ihat 
tee Cod Duety : for be is se«n wilh most purel]' 
Scowicd ejres of ^Ih, which are ilurrtd with the 
darkness of vices. — IJdal In Rkhaidson. 

In this sense it agrees with Bav. plerren, 
a blotch ; phrr, geplerr, a mist before the 
eyes. ' PnestigiK, pier vor den augen ; ' 
' Der Teufel macht ihnen ein eitles filerr 
vor den augen,' the devil makes a vain 
b/ur before their eyes. — -Schmel. So in 
P. P. 

ile Messede them with hiibuUesandJ/ero^hun 

By a similar metaphor Pol. tuman is a 
cloud, as of dust or mist ; tumanU, to 
cast a mist before the eyes, to humbug. 

To EI«at. An imitative word intended 
to represent the sound made by sheep or 
goats. Gr. ?!^•\|x'">fm, g. blekm, to Ueat 
as ^eep, or to low as oxen. 

Bleb. A drop of water, blister. See 

Bleed. See Blood. 

Blemish. A stain in a man's reputa- 
tion, a spot, a feult, a dismce. — Bailey. 
From the OFr. bleimir, tscher, souiUo', 
salir, to spot, to soil, — Roquef. The 
modem sense of the word bUnte or bUsttu 
is pale, wan, bleak, dead-coloured — 
Co^. ; blesmissurt, blemissemenl, pale- 
ness, wanness, bleakness. As as. bloc 
includes the notion of pale and dark, and 
tEruM itself signifies not only pale but 
livid or dark of hue, it is probable 
that bUme was applied to the dark colour 
of lifeless flesh, and thence to a bruise, a 
spot, or blemish. The Promptorium has 

bUn^sshtH or MttuchfH — obhisco. I 
bUmysskt, I chaunge colour. 

Saw you nat bin* he ilarfsihtd at H wfaan 
you aalied him whose dagger that was. — Palagr. 

According to Diez the proper meaatnf 
of ilfmir is to bruise or make livid wi£ 
blows, from ON. bldmi, the livid calonr of 
abruise, livor,sugillatio, color plumbeus; 
bldma, to become livid. Sw. bltmA, at 
boil, wheal, pim[de ; PoL piama, a. stajn, 
spot, blot, a blot on on^s name or r^ 
putation ; plamU, splamU, to spot ; spla- 
mUsU, to stain one's honour or reputa- 
tion, to disgrace one's name. So in Sw. 
flack, a spot, blot, stain ; flack pa ent 
goda namn, a spot, a blemish in one's 

BIenoh.^31encher.— Blanch w. To 
blench is sometimes used in the sense of 
blanking one, to make him feel blank, to 
discom^t, confound him. ' Bejaune, a 
novice, one that's easily blanki and hath 
nought to say when he should speak.' — 


For now if ye so sfauld baie u 


At other times it is synon^ous with 
blink, to wink the eye, shrink from a 
dazzling light, boggle at something, start 

Loketh that ye ne beon noul iliclw the bona 
that is scbeoh (shy) and ilewduti >ioc one 
scbeaduwc. — Ancren Rjwie, 143. 

And thus thiDlunde I Monde nill 

Without ilaiAingr of miDe de. 

Right as me thought that I seie 

Of Pantdeis the moate Jole.— Gower in R. 
And now aie these but mansbood (j. e. sfara] 

laskaile of refous — 
Foe these ne shalle ye iltni. — R. B. iij. 

To blink the question is to shrink 
from it, to wink at it, avoid lookii^ it in 
the face. Fr. ^tnckir, the fortnal equi- 
valent of English wink, is used in a sense 
exactly synonymous with bUntk, to start 
away from. 
And glf tbou tlaidu bom ony of tho, (bilh <m 

Be war, from the than schal I go. 
In the French version — 

Et bien saches tu futnthir k cnancbe 
JegutntAirai ■ toi en tel maniere. 

Manuel de PeccUa^ p. 419. 

From the sense of rapid vibration 
connected virith the notion of blinking, 
b/etuk came to be used for a trick, a 
movement executed for the purpose of 
engaging attention, while the agent ac- 


complishes a purpose lie is deurous of 


Gtf Imndea nraah to him-WBTd (the foi) 
Ha geugth wel Bwitbe avaiwvd 
And bokeih pathc3 nrithe nanwe 
And bavcth mid him his tincha jtmne. 
Owi and Nightingale, 375. 

To Blond. A numerous class of words 
tnay be cited, with or without the aasal, 
representing the sound made by the 
agitation of liquids. Swab, blolxen, to 
chum, to dash cream up and down with 
a. plunger ; Du. plotxtft, pionsett, to fall 
into water with a sudden noise, taphingt. 
To blunge clay, in potters' language, is to 
Btix it up with water to a fluid consist- 
ency. Du. blanss^ to dabble in water. 
— Btglotton. Sc. to bbiiUr, to make a 
fumbling noise, to bluiter up with water, 
to dilute too much ; bluiter, liquid filth; 
to bltttker, bludder, to make a noise with 
the mouth in taking any liquid. — Jam. 
To blunder water, to stir or puddle, to 
make it thick and muddy. — HalliwelL 
Of this latter the E. blend, as. iUndian, 
ON. blanda, to mix, seems the simple 
form, but by no means therefore a pie- 
vious one in the order of formation, as 
will be remarked in the observations on 
the ori^ of the word Blink. Sw. blanda 
valH t vut, to dash wine with water. 
Afterwards applied to the notion of 
mixing in general, .whether the subject 
matter is wet or dry, although in the 
latter case the consciousness of the imi- 
tative source of the word is wholly lost. 

To Bleu.— Bliaa. as. blilie, joyfiil, 
merry, blithe ; blis, joy, gladness, bliss ; 
blilhsian, blissian, to rejoice, he g!ad ; 
blelsian, to bless, to consecrate ; blet- 
sung, a blessing. OHC blide, glad, joy- 
fiil ; blidu, joy ; Paradises blidnissu, the 
joys of Paradise ; bltden, to rejoice. A 
similar development has taken place in 
the Slavonic languages. Russ. blago, 
well ; blagaya, gmids, riches ; blajennii 
(Fr. j), blessed, happy ; Serv. blag, good, 
sweet ; blago, money, riches ; PoL blagi, 
blissfid, sweet, giacehd, lovely ; Bohem. 
biaie, happily, fortunately, well ; blaky 

{obsolete), happy ; blaziti, blahoslavM 
^bene dicere), to make happy, to pro- 
nounce happy, to bless ; blaamy, blahos- 
lavaiy, blessed, happy ; Blauna Bea- 

From the action of the hand making 
the sign of the cross while blessing one- 
self or others, the verb to bless is some- 
times found in the singular sense of to 


Thdt tnmiiiu; blades about Ifadr beads do hUa, 

Tany, thou knav*, I hdd thee a grole I shall 
malie these hands hUa Ihee. — CMmm. Gurt. 

Needle. III. 3. 

For the same reason a man is said to 
bless the world with his heels when he is 
hanged. — Nares. 

Bu^ht. A hurt done to com or trees 
that makes them look as if they were 
blasted.— Bailey. Pl.D. vtrblekken, to 
bum up. 'De Sonne het Koom 
verblekiet^ or ' Dat Koom is verblekket,' 
icom bUkken, to shine, to lighten. Per- 
haps the notion originally was that it 
was blasted with lightning, ohg. bleg, 
blich-Jiur, Hghtning.— Brem. Wtb. Or it 
may be from the discoloured &ded ap- 
pearance of the blighted com. AS. blac^ 
pale, livid. 

Blind. Deprived of sight. Goth. 
blinds, ON, blindr, G. blind. Thence ap- 
plied to anything which does not fulfil its 
apparent purpose, as a blind entry, an 
entry which leads to nothing; AS. blind- 
netel, a dead neltle, or nettle which does 
not sting; G. blinde fenster, — Ihiiren, 
— taschen, false windows, doois, pockets. 

A blind is something employed to blind 

le or prevent one ' ■ .. . 

indow-Dlind, to prf 
through the window. 

The origin of the word must be treated 
in the next article. 

Blink. A wink, a look, a gleam, 
glance, moment. AS. blican, to glitter, 
dazzle ; C. blicken, to shine, to glance, to 
look; Du, blicken, to glitter; blick, a 
flash, a glance, a wink ; blick-oogken, to 
wink ; blicksetn, lightning. With the 
nasal, Du. blincken, to shine, to glitter ; 
a. blinken, to twinkle, shine, glitter, and 
also to wink, as the result of a sudden 

The sound of k before an j, as m Du, 
blicksetn, readily ptasses into a /, giving 
G. blitB, a flash, glitter, glimpse, lightning ; 
blitien, to fiasb, glitter, lighten. The in- 
sertion of the nasal, as in the case of 
blick and blink, gives blinxen, blimeln, 
to twinkle, wink, blink. — Kiiitner. Swiss 
blinze, to shut the eyes ; G. blinzler, a 
blinkard ; blinsaugig, blink-eyed, weak- 
eyed. Sc. blent, a glance ; Swiss blenden, 
a flash of light ; Dan. blende, to daule ; 
Sw. blund, a wink, a wink of sleep j 
blunda, to shut the eyes. The term then 
passes on to designate the complete 
privation of sight. Du. blindselen, ciecu- 
tire, cxcultare, to be blind, to act Uke a 




blind person. — Kil. G. Uinsel-maus, or 
bUnde-kuh, blindmanVbuff. 

The □riein of blind would thus be the 
figure of blinking under a Strong ^ght, 
and blink itself is sometimes used to 
express absence of vision. To blink the 
question is to shut one's eyes to it, to 
make oneself wilfully blind to it. A 
horse's blinken are the leather plates 
put before his eyes to prevent his seeing. 
Nor ou^ht it to startle us to find the 
simple form of the word derived from a 
frequentative, as blimeln, blindseUn. For 
this, I believe, is a much more frequent 
phenomenon than is commonly thought, 
and an instance has lately been given in 
the case of blend. Words aiming at the 
direct representation of natural sounds 
are apt to appear in the first instance in 
the frequentative form. 

To BliMom. Of sheep, to desire the 
male. K. bUsme, on. blasma, to bltssom, 
from blar, a ram. — Egillson. 

Blister. Du. Muysierj Lat. pustula, 
pusala, a bubble, busier, pimple. Both 
the English and the Latin word are From 
the notion of blowing, expressed by cog- 
nate roots, which differ only in tne in- 
sertion or omission of an / after the 
initial b. 

The E. blisler must be referred to as. 
blasan, to blow, whence blast, bluster, to 
blow in gusts, to puff and be noisy, Bav. 
blauslem, to breathe hard, while Lat. 
^stula, pusula, must be classed with 
forms like Gr, finru, to blow, G. bauseti, 
busten, paustat, Sv/.pusta, to blow, puff, 

The I, it must be observed, in imitative 
roots is an exceedingly movable element, 
and easily changes its place, or is in- 
serted or omitted. Thus we have i/ab 
and babble, bubble and blubber, Langued. 
blouca and Fr. boucler, to bubble, buckle, 
bloitquette and baudetti, a little buckle, W. 
blisgtPlisg, shells, husks, and^ij^, pods, 

Blith*. Goth, bleiths, mild, merciful ; 
ON. bliSr, mild, gentle ; ohg. blide, Du. 
blijde, as in E. blithe, joyful. See Bless. 

To Bloat.— Bloated.— Bloat«r. To 
blotc, to swell, also to set a smoking or 
drying by the fire.— Bailey. ON. blautr, 
soft, soaked. Sw. b&l, Dan. blod, soft 
Sw. blila, lagga i blot, to soak, to steep. 
Hence E. bloated, having an unsound 
swollen look, as If soaked in water. In 
like manner the Fin. kostua, signifying 
in the first instance to soak, is also used 
in the sense of sweUing ; kosHa, subhu- 

midus, inde huroiditate tumidas. Sw. 

blotfisk, fish which is set to soak in water 

frqiaratory to cooking, cured fish. — 
hre. When fish under this name was 
imported into England, it was nattiralljr 
supposed that the signification of the 
first element of the word had reference 
to the process by which it was cored, 
and hence to blott has been stmpoaed to 
mean to smoke, to cure by smokie. 

I have more smoke in laj mouth ttaao wo(dd 
ihli e. hundred haijogv — B. and F. ia Ham*. 

You stink like so muiT Uatt-JUrrimgi new^ 

Blob.— Bleb. .fiM, a bubble, a Mister; 
a small lump of anything thick, viscid, or 
dirty ; bleb, a drop of water, a bubble, a 
blister, a blain.—HaL Blob,bia6,SLsna& 
globe or bubble of any liijuid, a blister, a 
blot or spot, as a blab of ink. — JaiB. 

Thoo^ Imth hii eyes sboii]d-..ilnn ool Ske 
MsMtfordroppesof water.— Z. Boyd hi Jam. 

From blabber, blabber, blubber, rrore- 
senting the dashing of water, the radical 
syllable is taken to signify a separate 
element of the complex image, a babble 
formed or a drop dashed oft in the col- 
lective agitation. So from sputter is 
formed spot, a detached portion of the 
agitated liquid, or the mark which it 
makes. And so from squatter, to dash 
liquid, is formed squad, sloppy dirt, a 
separate portion, Ste Blot. Gael, plui, 
noise of liquor >" a half-fiUed cask, sound 
as of a stone falling suddenly in water, 
any soft unwieldy lump ; plub-c/uanif, a 
lumpish head [ plubach, giving a sound of 
the foregoing nature, speakmg rapidly 
and inarticulately. 

Block. The stem or trunk of a tree. 
— Bailey. A sohd mass of wood, stone, 
or the like. Hence, to block up the way, 
to close it with a solid mass. Gael, bloc, 
round, orbicular, Fr. bloc, blot, a block 
or log ; <rff bloc, in bulk, in the lump or 
mass, taken altogether. It may be formed 
like clot, clod, blot, Sc. blad, from the 
sound of a small mass of something soft 
thrown against the ground. See BIoL 
The primary meaning would thus be a 
small mass of anything, an unformed 
mass, as distin^is'hed from things fa- 
bricated out of It, the unhewn bole of a 
tree, any lump or mass of things. 

Blond. Fr. blond, light yellow, straw- 
coloured, flaxen ; also (in hawks or stags) 
bright tawny or deer-coloured. — Cotgr. 
Diez suggests that the word may be a 
nasalised form of ON. blaud, Dan. bldd, 
soft, weak, in the sense of a soft tint, a 


skippodticm which is apparent sumorted 
hy the use of the word 6/ddi in Austria 
for a weak, pale tint — Schmid. It is 
probably connected with Pol. 6lady, pale, 
wan. It iiadti (of which the evidence 
exists in biaiUtto, bluish, sbiadare, to 
grow pale}, blue, pale ; biirvo, blue, straw- 
coloored {Diei, Florio). OFr. blois, bloi, 
bhjej iloi, blond, yellow, blue, white 
(Roquefort). Prov. bloi, blou, fair in 
oriour, as the skin or hair. It should be 
remarked that the Do. blotid is used in 
the sense of the Uvid colour of a bruise 
as well as in that of flaxen, yellowish ; 
MoHd M Maauw slaan, to beat one black 
and Mue; blondheid, couleur livide. — 

Blood.— Blwd. Dn. bloed, G. blut. 
Doubtless named for the same reason as 
Du. Uoedsel, E. dial, iloalh, G. bliitht, a 
Aower, from the bright colour which 
these objects exhibit, from G. blUhm, to 
elow. Both blut and blUthe are written 
NtnU by Otfried, and bliiheH is used in 
the Swabian dialect m the sense of bleed. 
— Schmid. Erpleten, to be red with 
ra^— Schilter. See Blow, 2. 

Bloom. The bright-coloured part 
plants which prepares the seed, a d< 
cately-coloared down on fruits, the bright 
colour of the cheeks. 

Tbe lUD wax bircht aad sdiynand clere. 
And annonrii Ihat bomyst were 
Swa ilom^ wllh Ihe sunnys beme 
Thai ill (he land ms in a luBe.— Barbour. 

Du. blotmtn, to bloom or flower, pro- 
perly to shine with bright colours ; 
iloeme, bloemse/, ON. iUmi, blomstr, a 
flower. ■ A parallel form with on. Ii4mr, 
E. leme, gleam. 

Blossom. AS. bloia, blosnta, bioslttia, 
Du. blosem, Lat _fios, a flower. Du. 
blosen, to be red, to blush ; blose, redness, 
the brieht colour of the cheeks ; as. 
Nose., bfysa, ON. bfys, Dan. blus, a torch ; 
6iusse, to glow, to blaie, to flame; PLD. 
bliise, bloater, a blaze, bleusiem, bleistem, 
to glisten ; Russ. blistaf, to shine ; Sw. 
dlusl, a flower. 

Parallel fonns with an initial gl and / 
are on. glossi, a Zaxat,glyssa, to sparkle ; 
flys, shme ; glasi, spkndour ; E. gloss, 

JUster; Sc. ^f*^ to blaie ; Ir.^/«j, on. 
iff, I^ht, E. tmstrt, brilliancy. See 

not,Blotcli. l^tQ-plafschl pattchi 
plattl klaUcht represent the sound of 
dashing liquid, of a blow with something 
soft or flat From similar representa- 
tions of sound are formed G. pladdem, to 

fall with a plashing noise; Svis%pladerH, 
plattem, to dabble in water, to splash, to 
dirty, (of cattle) to dung, whence plader, 
platter, kuh-plader,cov-AMag. Dan. dial. 
blatte, to dash down, fall down ; blat, 
blatte, a small portion of anything wet ; 
en blat vand, ikant, a drop of water or 
of filth ; blak-blattt, a drop of ink ; ko- 
blall, Sw. kobladde, a cow-dung. Sc blad, 
a heavy fell of rain (to be compared with 
G. platx-regen, a peltii^ shower). ' It's 
bladding on o" weet,' the rain is driving 
on. Blad, a dirty spot on the cheek, a 
lump of an<^ing soft ; to blad, to slap, 
to strike with somethu^ soft or flat 
Carinthian ploutscken, to dash down 
ploutsche, great leaf of cabbage. 
Y'm.plallata, to slap, to strike with such 

sound as the Germans represent by the 
syllable klatsch ! FlalH, a sound of such 
a nature, a blot or spot Dan. plet, a. 
blot, spot ; putter i solen, spots m the 
sun. £. plot of land is a spot or small 
portion of land. Sw. plotira, to squander, 

jperly to scatter liquid ; to scribble, 
blot paper; plotterans, in scattered 

irsels, bit by bit Wendish blodo, 
bloto, mud. — Stalder in v. pladem. Fr. 
blotter, to blot ; blotte, bloutre, a lump, a 
clod.— Cot. Then as a drop of liquid or 
lump of something soft spreads itself out 
on falling to the ^oaaA,se blottir, to squat 
or lie close. 

The form Motch answers to Swiss 
platsehen, which represents the sound of 
something broad failing into the water or 
on the ground, of water dashing in a 
vessel or splashing over. Em platsch 
milck, a gush of milk ; platsck--volL 
platt-voll, plali-voll, splashing fiill, fud 
to overflowing. — Stalder. PlotE, a blow, 
or the sound of it ; blUU, a spot or blot. 
— Schwenek. E. blaiek, to sptot or blot 

If no mas can like to be smutted and ilaiAti 
in his face, let tu learn more to detest the spots 
and t>loU of Ihe aouL— Haimar hi R. 

Blotch-paper, blottii^-paper. — Hal 

Blot Sit B&okgammon. See Back- 

* Blow. A blow or stroke is often ex- 
pressed by terms applying in the first in- 
stance to the action of the air. Thus 
from Fr. sougkr, to blow, we bare 
souffitt, a stride of wiikd, also a blow 
wim the \ixsA. From It. buffare, to puff 
or blow hard, OFr. buffe, a cuff or bi^etj 




G. puffen, to Strike with the fist So I 
believe ODu. blouwe, alapa, a bl&w with 
the hand, is the same word with the blow- 
ing^oi the wind. The Du. blouwea ex- 
presses various kinds of swinging action ; 
to beat the arms for the sake of warmth ; 
to swingle flax ; blatyen, or •wacytn (to 
blow) een sweerd, vibrare, ventilare en- 
sem ; blowmeh, a washing beetle. — K. 
The resemblance to Pl.D. blaiD, blawels, 
livid marks ; blauen, G. blau teklagen, to 
beat black and blue, seems accidentaL 
OFr. blau, coup, tache, meurtrissure. 

To Blow, 1. AS. b/awan, to blow, to 
breathe ; G. blaken, to puff up, to inflate, 
a parallel form with blaseti, to blow. In 
Kke manner Lat. ^-re, to blow, corre- 
sponds with Svi.Jlasa, to puff, to breathe 

To Blow, S. To come into flower, to 
show flower. The primary sense is to 
shine, to exhibit bright colours, to glow. 
Du. bloeden, bloeytn, bioemin, florere. — 
KiL G. blUken, to shine with bright 
colours, to blossom, to flourish. From 
the same root which gives the designa- 
tion of the blood, the red fluid of the 
body ; and closely allied with Du. blostn, 
to be red, and the forms mentioned under 
Blossom. Swab, bluh, blul, blust, a 
flower; OHG. bluod, blil; G. blUlhe, 
bloom, flower ; W. blodya, a flower. 

Parallel forms with an initial gt are 
ON. giid, E. glrde, glowing coal ; Du. 
gladden, gtoeyen, G. gliiken, to glow. 

Blowzy. Tumbled, disordered in 
head-dress. Blowze, a fat, red-faced 
bloted wench, or one whose head is 
dressed like a slattern,— B. PLD.ji/i<j«i, 
to disorder, especially with respect to the 
bair. Sik plusen is said of fowls when 
they plume themselves with their beak. 
Sik uppluslem, when the feathers of a 
bird are staring from anger or bad health; 
^luitig,filusig, toused, disordered; plus- 
trig, (of^birdsj having the feathers star- 
ing or disordered; (of men) having a 
swollen bloated face or disordered hair. 
— DanneiL 

To BlublMT. — Blndder. — Bluther. 
These are closely allied forms, marking 
some difference in application from that 
of blabber, bUbber, bliulder, by the modi- 
fied voweL The radical iiruige is the 
sound made by the dashing of water, 
whence the expression is extended to 
Doises made by the mouth in crying, in 
ranid or indistinct utterance. The radi- 
cal sense is shown in Gael plubraich, 
plubartaich, a paddling in water, a con- 
tinued noise of atfitated water, a gurgling 


or guggling-, plubair, one who speaks- 
indistinctly and rapidly; PLD. dluifierm, 

make bubbles in drinkii^, to ^Hitter 

speak in an explosive manner; A/ni- 
bem, flubbem, to blurt ouL — Deutscb. 
Mundart. v. 51. 

To blubber, in E., is confined to the 
broken sound made by the internal flow 
of tears in crying. Btubbired cheeks an 
cheeks bedabbl^ with tears. It is how- 
ever provincially used in the original. 
sense. 'The water J/»M«r.f up' (Mrs Ba- 
ker), where the word may be compared 
with Bohem. bluboiKiti, to bubble up, to 
boiL And, as bubbles are formed by the 
agitation of water, blubber comes to sig- 
nify bubble, foam. ' BUber upon water, 
bouteillis. ' — Palsgr. 

And M hii mouth a M«U«r itode of feme. 

In modem speech the noun is chiefly 
used for the coating of fat by which the 
whale is enveloped, consisting of a net- 
work or frothy structure of vessels filled 
with oii 

It does not impair the lepresentatfre 
power of the word when the nnal b in the 
radical syllable of blubber is exchai^cd 
for a rf in Sc. bludder, blufher, to mal^ a 
noise with the mouth in taking Uquid ; to 
disfigure the face with weeping. — Jam. _, 

Her sweet ilodtril face. — Chancer, 
Bav. Modem, piodem, Yip.pludem^ to 
gabble, jabber, chatter." Piedem, to 
sound like water, to gush. — Deutsch. 
Mund. ii. 91. Pludem, to gu^le, soimd 
like water gushing out of a narrow open- 
ing; to flap like loose clothes. — Schmel- 

Blae. ORG. blao, 6law; It. iiaw, 
Prov. blau, fem. blava. 

Notwithstanding the little apparent 
resemblance, I have Uttle doubt in identi- 
fying the foregoing with W. glaSy blue, 
Ki^cii grey, pale ; Gael ^las, pale, wan. 
The interchange of an initial g), bl, or pt, 
br, is very frequent We may cite for 

Gr. yi^x"*! P*'ix**i SI herb j 
Lat glans; Ir. glaodk and blaodk, a 
shout ; glagaireaaid and blagaireachd, a 
blast, boasting; Bret bruk, W. grug, 
heath. We thus identify the Celtic W<ir 
with G. blass, pale; OFr, bloa, blois,Uoi, 
blue ; blaxir, to make blue, and thence, . 
to fade, to spot, to bruise — Roquef. ; 
Langued. blan, faded, withered, bruised ; 
Prov. blezir, to fade, grow pale, dirty. — 
Raynouard. The usual interchange of a 
final * and d connects these with PtA 
blady, pale, wan, bledniad, to fade; IL 



Hade, blue, pale, the evidence of which 
is seen in biadetto, bluish, and sbiadare, 
to become rale or wan.— Flor. Hence 
we pass to Pror. blakir, to become pale 
or Evid, in the same way as from IL 
iradire to Fr. trahir. The change from 
ft medial d Xa v '\s still more familiar. 
We find accordingly IL ibiavare, as well 
as sbiadate, to become pale, and biavo 
(Diei), as well as biado, blue. The 
Romance blave is moreover, hTce the 
Celtic glas, applied to green as well as 
blue. Slavayer, verdoyer, devenir vert ; 
Havoie, verdure, herbe, — Roquefort 

Hence we may explain the origin of the 
IL biada, biava, com, originally growing 
com, from the brilliant green of the young 
com in the spring, contrasted with the 
brown tint of^ the uncultivated country. 
'^M(fo,tutte le semente ancora in erba.' 
— Allien. Bladum, blandum, in plur. 
s^etes virentes. — Dief. Supp. The 
gradual change of colour in the growing 
plant from a bright green to the yellow 
tint of the reap^ com (still designated 
by the term biadd) may perhaps explain 
the singular vacillation in the meaning of 
the It. biava, which is rendered by Florio, 
pale straw-coloured. It is remarlcable 
however that the E. blake (identical with 
AS, bloc, G. bleich, pale) is provincially 
used in the sense of yellow. 

The Du. bland is also applied to the 
livid colour of a bruise, as well as the 
yellowish colour of the hair. OFr. bM, 
blond, jaune, bleu et hlanc— Roquefort. 
Thus it becomes difficult to separate Mid, 
lit. blavus, blue, from the Lat ftavus, 
yellow, Bohem.i/aoT', yellowish red, PoL 
plawy, pale yellow, discoloured {filoivied, 
to grow yellow, to lose colour, to fade), 
G. falb, and E, fallow, fawn-coloured, 
reddish yellow, . 

Bluff Du. blaf, planus, Eequus et 
amplus, superficie pbn&, non rotund& ; 
Maf aetuigkt facies plana et ampla, a 
bluff countenance ; elaf van voorhooft, 
fronto, having a bluff forehead, a-fore- 
head not sloping but rising straight up.— 
KiL So a bluff shore is opposed to a 
sloping shore. Blaffart, a plain coin 
witnout image or superscription. — KiL 
A bluff manner, a plain unomamented 

The word b probably derived in the 
first instance from the sound of some- 
thing Wang flat upon the ground. Du. 
pUffen, to fall suddenly on the ground, 
to plump into the water,— Halma. It 
then signifies something done at once, 
and not introduced by degrees or cere- 


monious preparations ; a shore abruptly 
rising, or an abrupt manner. 

Id like manner from an imitation of 
the same sound by the syllable plomp, 
Du. plomp, abrupt, rustic, blunt See 

* Blunder, — Blonderbiua. The funda- 
mental meaning of blunder seems to be 
that which is still preserved In Sussex, 
where the word is used in the sense of a 
noise as of something heavy foiling. ' I 
heard a terrible blunder overhwd ' — 
Parish. Diet of the Sussex dialect. The 
same sense is manifest in the name of 
Blunderbuss applied to a short wide- 
mouthed gun &at gives a loud report, 
and for that reason is in Du. called Don- 
derbus, thunder-gun ipui, bore, barrel, 

To blunder is then to do anything with 
noise and violence, to be compared with 
Du. bolderen, C, bullem, poltem, to make 
a noise, to speak boisterously. Heraus 
poltern, to blurt or blunderout something ; 
pollerer, a blunderbuss, blunderhead, a 
boisterous, violent man. — ICiiltn. Poller- 
kans, PI.D. bullerbak, Sw. bullerbas, a 
blustering fellow, one who does his busi- 
ness with noise and bustle. Hence the 
name of Blunderbore as appropriate to 
the clumsy giant of the nursery tale. 

The modem sense of a misplaced stroke 
or clumsy failure might be explained as 
the natural consequence of precipitate 
action, but it may perhaps arise from the 
special application a{ blunder to paddling 
or floundering in water or mire, in the 
same way that G. pudeln, the original 
meaning of which (as that ai spuddle) is 
to dabble in wet (see Poodle), signifies, in 
a secondary sense, to blunder, mistake, 
or miss the mark. Now in the primary 
sense we have Da, pludder, puddle, 
sloppy mud ; pluddre, to puddle, to work 
up turf and water together. Then with 
the nasal (as in ^flounder compared with 
the equivalent Du. Jlodderen), E. dial to 
blunder yiMcr, to stir or puddle, to make 
water thick and muddy, and, met. blunder, 
confusion, trouble,— Hal. I blonder, je 
perturbe.- Palsgr. 

The impeded efforts of one floundering 

What iluadtrtr b yonder that plajeth dkldil. 




He findelb blse measuni out oT bis fond Addil. 
Skellon in R 

Blunket. A light blue colour. Pol. 
Uekil, azure, blue. Probably radically 
identical with E. 6Uai, pale, wan, as the 
senses of paleness and blue colour very 
generally run into each other. 

Bluat. Before attempting to explaii 
the fonnalioii of the word, it will be well 
to point out a sense, so different from 
that in which it is ordinarily used, that it 
is not easy to discover the connection 
Bare and blunt, naked, void. 
It chaunst a sort of mercbans wbicb were won 
To diim those coasts for bondmen there to buy- 
Arrived in this iile though iart and ilmtl 
To inquire for slavei.— F. Q. 
The large plains — - 
Stude37aii<of bebtisand of trchfarc.— D. V. 

A modification of the same root, without 
the nasal, appears with the same mean- 
ing in Swiss Sluii, nalced, bare, unfledged ; 
Sw. blott, c. blast, It biotto, biosso, naked, 
poor ; Sc blout, blait. 
Woddis. forastis, with naked bewis ilaiit 
Stude strippil of tbare wede in every bout. — D.V. 

The blail body, the naked body.— 
Jamieson. The two senses are also 
united in Gael, maol, bald, without horns, 
blunt, edgeless, pointless, bare, without 
foliage, foolish, silly. Maolaich, to make 
bare or blunt. 

Now the Swiss hluntieh, blunsch, is 
used to represent the sound which is 
imitated in English and other languages 
by the syllable plump, vit. the sound of a 
round heavy body falling into the water ; 
blunlschen, to make a noise of such a 
nature, to plump into the water.— Staldcr. 
A similar sound is represented by the 
syllables plots, pluU — KiJttner; whence 
TiM.plotsen,plonseH,plomptn,Xai^ into 
the water; G. platx-rtgen, a pelting 
shower of rain. We have then the ex- 
pressions, mit etwas heraus-platxen, or 
Heraui plumpen, to blunt a thing out, to 
blurt, blunder, or blab out a thing — 
Kiittner ; to bring it suddenly out, Uke a 
thing thrown down with a noise, such as 
that represented by the syllables ^/wȣfcA, 
ploli, plump; to plump out with it. 
&va\>. plataen, to throw a thing violently 

Peiadventure It were good mtber to keep In 

The term blual is then applied to thii^ 
done suddenly, without preparation. 

Fathers are 
Won tiy d^rees, not iitin/ly as our masters 
Or wronged fciends aje.— Ford !□ R. 

A blunt manner is an unp<didKd, -aa- 
ceremonious manner, exactly correspond- 
ing to the G. plum*. Plump mit £tmat 
umpkat, to handle a thing MtaUly, 
awkwardly, rudely. — Kuttner. 

It is from this notion of suddeniMsa, 
absence of preparation, that the sense« 
bare, naketC seems to be derived. To 
speak bluntly is to tell the naked truth, 
Sv.bletlasanninnn. The syllables ifoj; 
blunt, plump, and the like, represent the 
sound not only of a thing falling into the 
water, but of something soft thrown on 
the ground, as Sw. plump, a Wot, Dan. 
piudse,la plump down, Dan. diaL blatU, 
to fall down, fling down ; 6lat, a portion 
of something wet, as cow-dung. — Mol- 
bech. Then as a wet lump lies where it 
is thrown, it is taken as the type of every. 
thing inactive, dull, heavy, insensible, and 
these qualities are expressed by both 
modifications of the root, with or with- 
out the nasal, as in £. biunl, Sc biait, 
dull, sheepish. 
Then comelh inderotion, through vhidi a hmb 
so iloKl. and hath swiche langucf in his sml, 
al he may neither rede ne sine in hnly i-hin-hr. 
Chaucer. In Rlchaidsou. 
■We Phenidanis nane sa ilail breistis has.— D. V. 
Non obCusa adco eeslauius pectora PfBtn. 

Sc. Blaitie-bum, a simpleton, stupid 
fellow, and in the same sense, a blunttt. 
Du. blutten, homo stolidus, obtusus, ina- 
nis.— KiL 

Thus we are brought to what is now 
nost ordinary meaning of the word 
bluMt, viz. the absence of sharpness, the 
natural connection of which with the 
ties above mentioned is shown b^ 
se of the Latin obtusus in the fore- 
going passages. An active mteUigent 
lad is said to be sharp, and it is the con- 
verse of this metaphor when we speak of 
knife which will not cut as a blunt 
knife. The word dull, it will be observed, 
'" used in both senses, of a knife which 
U not cut, and an unintelligent, inactive 
person. Swiss bluntschi, a thick and 
plump person.— Stalder. 
It will be seen that the G. pluw^, n- 
[Kctin^ the origin of which we cannot 
oubt^ IS used in most of the senses for 
'hich we have above been attempting 
) accoimt. Plump, rough, unwrongh^ 
heavy, clumsy, massive, thick, and, 
figuratively, clownish, raw, unpolished, 
rude, heavy, dull, blockish, awkward. 
— Kiittner, Phmp, hebes, obtusus, sUi- 
pidus, plumbeus, ang. blunt,— KiL 



In IQec maniur from the sound of a 
lump thrown on the ground, imitated by 
.the syllable 6cl, is formed Du. 6oi, botU, 
a blow ; bot-voet, a club foot ; bot, plump, 
sudd^ blunt, dull, stupid, rude, fiat, 
Bol itegtn, to say bluntly.— Halma. 

To Blur. To blur, to render indis- 
tinct, to smear; blur, a smear, a blot. 
^v.pUtTjg^lerr, a mist before the eyes ; 
plerrtH, a blotch, discoloured spot on the 

The word is probably a parallel form 
with Sp. borrar, to blur, blot, and E. biir, 
a mistiness, representing in the first in- 
stance an indistinct sound, then appUed 
to indistinct vision; but it may arise 
from the notion of dabbling in the wet 
Sc bludtUr, blutker, blubber, to make a 
noise with the mouth, to disfigure with 
dying. E. dial, bluter, to blubber, to 
blot, to dirty; to blcre, to roar.— HaL 
Swiss blotkm, to sound Lke water boil- 
U^, to nimble ; Bav. pfiudem, to make a 
noise in bailing; fbtdern, to guggle; 
4/cKi!m«,jtA>alrrM, to chatter, gabble. Dan 
pluddri, to dabble, to jabber, gabble . 
Sw. diaL blurra,burra,Xa talk quick and 
indistinctly j bladdra, blarra, to blurt out, 
to chatter. The elision of the d is very 
common, as in Du. blader, blatre, a blad' 
der ; adtr, aere, an ear of com, &c. For 
the parallelism of blur and burr comp. E. 
blolck and botch, spluri and spirt, Du. 
blaffen and baff-K, to bark, G. blasen and 
iausen, to blow. See Burr, Slur. 

To Blort. To bring out suddenly with 
an explosive sound of the mouth. Sc. a 
blirt of greeting, a burst of tears.— Ja; 
Related to blutUr, bludder, as splurt 
flutter. To splirt, to spurt out.— HaL 
It. boccheggiare, to make mouths, 
blurt with one's mouth; chicchere, a 
flurt with one's fingers, or blurt with one's 
mouth,— FL 

Blnah. Du. bloit, blosken, the red 
colour of the cheeks ; Dan. blus, a torch ; 
Uusss, to blaie, to glow ; blusit i attsietet, 
to blush. PLD. bluse, bleuster, a blaze, 
beacon fire. De bakke bleustem, the 
cheeks glow,— Brem. Wtb. See Blossom. 

Bltutar. To blow in putTs, blow vio- 
lently, swagger. An augmentative from 
bUut. Bav. ilasteH, blaustim, to snufT, 
to be out of temper. — Schmeller, 

Boa. A large snake. It. boa, bora, 
any filthy mud, mire, puddle, or 1k^ ; also 
a certain venomous serpent that lives in 
the mud, and swimmeih very well, and 
grows to a great bigness. — FI. Boa, 
^stellio, lacerta, cocodriUus; lindwurm.— 
Diet Supp. 

BOB 79 

lar, AS. bar, Du. beer. As the as. 
has also lafor, and Du. euer-swin, it is 
probable that door has no radical identity 
with G. ebtr, Lat. ap«r. 

Boaxd. Du. herd, G. brett, a board or 

Elank. AS. bord, an edge, table, margin, 
lu. board, a margin, edge, border. Fr, 
bord, edge, margin. ON. bord, a border, 
outward edge, board, table, whence bor^ 
viSr, literally edge-wood, L e. planks or 

Med cndiUSnginn bxnum vbt umbnli i. b6sani 
uppf, reistruppATTtl'-vf^autaiivcrdom thaukom 
Sfa. scan viggjnllat vteri. — Sverris Saga. c. ts6. 
— bIook the (own preparalkins wen made up on 
the bcKuet, plonks caisetl up oulside Ihe roofs, 
like the parapets {vi^yrdil. war^icdle} raised 
oD board A >hip Id a onvd engsgemenL 

* Boaat. Explained by Jam, to 
threaten, to endeavour to terrify. 
SchQ wtdd Docht lell for ittt nor yeit rewaid. 
Turaoa (hare duke reulis the middil oist. 
With glaive hi hand maid awful fere and boitt. 
D. V. a74. !K|. 
The radical meaning of the word seems 
to be a crack or loud soimd, and when 
applied to vaunting language, it implies 
that it is empty sound. To brag and 
to crack, both used in the sense of ooast- 
ing, primarily signify loud noise. ' Heard 
you the crack that that gave ? ' Sc. pro- 
verb spoken when we near an empty 
boast — Kelly, Boost b used for the 
crack made by bursting open. 

And whether be lighter to brake. 

And lasse JDHt' in^ith. 

P. P. t. «96,Wrlghfied. 
From this root are formed Sc. busluous, 
OE. boisious, violent, strong, large, coarse, 
rude, ajid boisterous, properly noisy, vio- 
lent ; G. pausteH,pustett, pustem,io fiaff. 
Comp. G.pufftn, to give a crack, to puff. 
Du. pof, the sound of a blow ; poffen, to 
puff, to bounce, to brag; grande loqui, 
voce intonare. — KiL See Boisterous. 

Boat. AS. bdt, Du. boot. It. baUllo, 
Fr. bateau, ON. bdtr, W. bdd, Gael bdta. 

To Bob.— Bobbin. To move quickly 
up and down, or backwards and forwards, 
to dangle; whence ^^, adangllngobject, 
a small lump, a short thick body, an end 
or stump. Gael, baiag, a tassel^ fringe, 
cluster; baban, a tas&S, short pieces of 
thread. From the last must be explained 
Fr. bobim, K bobbin, a ball of thread 
wrapped round a little piece of wood, a 
little knob banging by a piece of thread. 
' Pull the bobbin, my dear, and the latch 
will fly up.' — Red Riding-hood. 


80 BOB 

To Bob, 3. To mock. 

So bourdfully lakyng Goddfa t^dynee or 
Wordia or wetkis is scorning of hym as dyden the 
Tcwis tbit bobUdin Crist. — Sermoa against 
Miracle-plays, Reliq. Antiq. a. 43, 

III this sense from the syllables baba ■k' 
presenting the movement of the lips, 
whence Fr. baboyer, to blabber with the 
lips ; faire la babou, to bob, to make a 
mow at. — Cot See Babet-lipped. 

To Bodo. To portend gottd or bad. 
AS. bod, gebod, a command, precept, mes- 
sage ; boda, a messenger ; bodian, to de- 
liver a message, to make an announce- 
ment. See Bid. 

To Bodg«. To make bad work, to fail. 

'Willi (his we charged again ; but out alas I 
We hodgid again, as I have seen a. swan 
Wilh bootless labour swim against the tide, 
And spend her strength with over-matching 
waves.— H. VI. 

The sound of a blow with a wet or flat 
body is represented in c. by the syllable 
patsch; whence patschen, lo smack, to 
dabble or paddle; patsche, a puddle, 
mire, mud. Now unskilful action b con- 
stantly represented by the idea of d^ 
bliftg; eintn patsch thun, to commit a 
blunder, to (ail, to badgt. Hast scfuf 
•md^ paUcktf Have you failed again ? 
Etwas auspaticfun, to blurt a thing ouL 
— Schmel. See To Botch. Shakespear 
has bodged with blood, daubed or dab- 
bled wifli blood. 

Bodioe. A woman's stays; formerly 
bodies, from fitting close to the body, as 
Fr. corset from corps. ' A woman's bo- 
dies, or a pair of bodies, corset, corpseL' 
— Sherwood's Diet 

L e. thy bodice stuffed out with cotton. 

Bodkin. Gael, biodag, a da^er; 
biodeackan, an awl, Lith. badytt, to 
stick, thrust with something pointed, as 
a horn, needle, bayonet ; Bohem. bod. a 
prick, stitch ; bodak, a prickle, point, 
bayonet; bodnu, busti, to prick. Russ. 
bodetM, a spur, bodilo, a sling; bodai, to 
butt, strike with the boms. French 
bouter, to thrust, and E. butt, to push 
with the horns, exhibit another modifi- 
cation of the root. 

Body, AS. bedig, Gael bodhag. It 
seems the same word with the G. bottich, 
a cask, the two being spelt without ma- 
terial difference in the authorities quoted 
by Schmeller; bottig, potig, potaeha, a 
cask ; bottich, bodi, me body of a shift ; 
polahha, potacha, bodies, corpses ; pot- 
lich, botickt a body. In like manner E. 


trunk and G. rwm;^^ signify a hoUo^waise 

as well as the btidy of an animal We 
speak of the barret of a horsey tneanii^ 
the round part of his body. The Sp. 
barri^, the belly, is identical with Fr. 
barrtgiie, a cask. 

The signification of the root bot, at 
which the E. bctfy and G. bottich are de- 
rivatives, is a lump, the thick part of any- 
thing, anything protuberant, swelling, hol- 
low, w. bot, a round body ; both, tbe boss 
of a buckler, nave of a wheel, bother, 
rou nd, rounded ; WalL^ixA^,n:^0<£^, thief- 
set, stumpy ; bod^ne, belly, calf of Uie 1^. 
— Grand^. 

The primary sense of boify is then the 
thick round part of the living frame, as 
distinguished from tbe limbs or lesser di< 
visions ; then the whole material frame, 
as distinguished from the sentient prin- 
ciple by which it is animated. In like 
manner from bol, signifying anything 
spherical or round, arise K, bole, the stem 
oiatree; ON. &>^, the trunk of tbe animal 
body, or stem of a tree, body of a shin; 
Lap. boll, pall, palleg, the body. 

Bog. The word has probably been 
introduced from Ireland, where bogs form 
so large a feature in the country. Gad. 
bog (equivalent to E.. gog in gog-tmrt, 
qu^mire),bob, move, agitate ; Kfgadaick, 
waving, shaking; then from the yielding^ 
unsteady nature of a soil substance, beg, 
soft, moist ; began, anything sofl, a quag~ 
mire. Ir. bogadh, to stir, shake, toss; 
bogach, a bog or morass. 

■ To Boggle. Commonly explained 
as if from Sc. bogle, a ghost ; to start 
back as from a bugbear. ' We start and 
boggle at every unusual appearance, and 
cannot endure the sight of the bugbear.' 
— Glanville in Todd. But the radical 
idea in boggling is hesitation or waver- 
ing, and the word is well explained by 
Bailey, to be uncertain what to do, to 
waver, to scruple. It is applied to bodily 
vacillation in the Sc. expression hoggin 
an bogglin, unsteady, moving backwards 
and lorwards,- — Jam. Supp. ' The grun 
a' bo^glt fin we geed on it.' SoggHe, 
quaking, unsteady. — Banff. Gl. 

The radical image is probably a series 
of broken efforts or broken movements, 
as in stammering or sta^erin^, repre- 
sented by the abruptly sounding syl- 
lables gag, gog, or bag, bog. Thus firom 
gag 01 gag we have Bret, gag, Pte. g^go, 
stuttering ; Bret gagei, gagoula, Ptg. 
gaguejar, to stammer, stutter; E-gognan, 
aquagmire,PV^^/<(, to roll, to be unsteady; 
Gael gogaci, nodding, waverinf;, fickle; 



and in like mannerfrom the parallel fotms 
bag ot bog are derived Piedm. bagaji, 
Fr. bigayer. Wall (of Mons) biguer, OO. 
beckktn (titubare, staineln vel bochken. 
— Vocab. A.D. 1430 in Deutsch. Mund. 
iv, 304), Magy. bakogiU, to stammer, 
bakaxikni, to stumbk; Gael bog, wag, 
bob, shake, E. bog, a quaking mire, and 
boggle, to waver or hesitate. ' He could 
not get on with his speech, he made poor 
boggling work.' — Mrs Baker. 

In the same way Se. iartle, to bo^le 
as a horse, to hesitate from doubt, scruple, 
or dislike, may be identified with It, tar- 
tagliare, Sp. tartajtar, to stammer, stut- 
ter, tartalear, to stagger, to be at a loss 
in speaking. 

To BoU.— Boil LaL bullire, Fr. bouil- 
lir, ON. bulla, to boil, properly represent 
the sound of water boiling, whence bulla, 
Du. bolUn (Kil.), to tattle, chatter. Sc. 
buller, the gurgling sound of water rush- 
ing iuto a cavity. Westerwald bollern, 
to give a hollow sound. 

Then as Ait/iVr^ consists in the sending 
up of bubbles, Lat bulla, a bubble, boss. 
Stud, lump of lead on which a seal was 
impressed ; IL bolla, a bubble, round 
glass phial, also a blister, pustule, pimple ; 
ON. bola, a bubble, blister, boil ; Sw. 
hila, a bump, swelling, dint in a metal 
vessel; Du. built, puiU,c beule,^. boil or 
swelling; Du. builen, puilm, to be pro- 
rotRent, to swell 

* Boletoroiu. — Boiatoiu. — Buctoona. 
Properly noisy, then violent, strong, huge, 
coarse, rough. 

Id winter whan the wealher was out ot 
nieaiure boistous and the wyld wind Boi«as 
malteth the wawes of the ocean so to arise. — 
Chaucer. Test. Love. 

Drances tells Latinus that Tumus' boitt 
cows the people from speakii^, but that 
be will speak out 

All Ibocbt witb biaik and ioiil or nappianis be 
Me dolh anrale, and manace for to de. 
He then exhorts the king — 

Ut neuir demyt be 
The basivousntss (violentia) of ony man daol 
the.— D. V. 374. 4S. 

Boysieus, styffe or rude ; boysiouineise, 
roydeur, impetuosity. — Pr. Pm. notes. 

For bosl or beisl in the sense of crack, 
noise, see Boast G. pausUit, pustm, 
pusttren, to puff, blow. 

Bold. Daring, courageous. Goth. 
baltka, OHG. bald, free, confident, bold. 
G. bald, quick, on. balldr, strong, brave, 
handsome ; ballr, strong, courageous, 
pan. bold, intrepid, excellent, beautiful ,-. 

Sw. bald, proud, haughty, warlike; AS. 
balder, braider, hero, prince. Fr. batid, 
bold, insolent ; baudt, merry, cheerfuL — 

Bal«. The round stem of a tree. This 
is probably a modification of boll, a 
globular body, treated under BowL The 
throat-boll is the convexity of the throat 
From the notion of a thick round mass 
the term is applied to the body of an 
animal as distinguished from the limbs, 
to the trunk of a tree as distinguished 
from the branches, to the belly as the 
rounded part of the body. ON. bulr, bolr, 
Sw. ia/, Da. bul, the body of a man or of 
a shirt, trunk of a tree ; Lap. boll, pall. 

-„^ .„_„.. ^^_„ „, seed-ves- 
sels of flax, poppy (Bailey),. or the like. 
Du. bol, bolle, a head ; oolleken, capi- 
tulum, capitellum,— KiL Bret. baUk, 
poieh, beldkj w. bul, flax-bolL See 

* Bolster, ohc. bolstar, as. bolster, 
a cushion, pillow. The term applies in 
the first instance to the materials with 
which the cushion is stuffed. Du. bolster, 
the husk of nuts, chaff of com ; siliqua, 
gluma, folliculus grani, tomentum, fur- 
Rires, stramenta. — KiL If the primary 
meaning of the word is stuffing, from Du. 
bol, swelling, hollow, we must suppose 
that it was first used with respect to the 
chaif of com, the most obvious materials 
for stuffing a cushion, and then applied 
to other husks, as those of nuts, which 
are not used for a similar purpose, on. 
bSlstr, a cushion, a swelling in ice. Swab. 
bolster (aufgeblasen — Sdunidt), puffed 

- Bolt.— To Bolter, i. o. boh, bohtn, 
E. bolt, is a blunt-headed arrowfor a cross- 
bow, a broad-headed peg to fasten one 
object to another, a fastening for a door. 
Du. bout is explained by Kil., obex, pessu- 
lus, repagulum; bout, boulpijl, sagitta 
capitata, pilum catapultarium ; bout vait 
het schouderblad, caput scapulx. The 
essential meaning of ue word would thus 
appear to be a knob or projection, the 
boh of a door being provided with a knob 
by which it is moved to and fro. A 
thunderbolt is considered as a fiery mis- 
sile hurled in a clap of thunder. G. bols- 
gerade signifies straight to the mark, as 
the bolt shot by a crossbow; but it is also 
used, as E. bolt upright, in the sense of 
perpendicular,— Stalder. Chaucer seems 
xousaboil upright in the neve's tale in 


the sense of right on end, one after the 

The radical sense of a knob or thick 
ending is exemplified in E. pott-foot or 
bolt-foot, as Fr. pied bot, a club-foot Sir 
Walter Scott in his autobic^rapby speaks 
of his ancestor Willy with the holt-foot. 
A bolt head is a retort, a round glass 
vessel with narrow opening. The ulti- 
mate origin of the word may be best 
illustrated by forms like G. helter poller, 
PLD, hulter d* htlter, representing a rat- 
tling or crashing noise. ' Hotter poller ! 
ein furchlerlicher getOse ! ' ' Ging es 
holier und poller dass die wagenrader 
achiten:' it went helter-skelter so that 
the wheels groaned. — Sanders. Hence 
O. poltem, PLD. bullem, to do anything 
accompanied by a rattling noise ; buller- 
■wagen, a rattling carriage; die treppe 
hinuntcr^oZ/CTW, to come rattling down- 
stairs; poltem, to make a knocking, 
hammering, or the like, to throw things 
about. Then from the anal<^y between 
a rattling noise and a jolting motion, Pl.D. 
bultrig, bulstrig, bulHg, joking, uneven, 
ni^ed, lumpy. ' De weg is hultrig un 
bultrig,' the way is rugged and jolting, 
Dan. bultred, uneven, nigged. — Schiitze. 
From the same source must be explained 
Northampton bolter, properly to jog into 
projections, to coagulate, to form lumps, 
as snow balling on a horse's foot, or ill- 
mixed flour and water. Blood-holtered 
Banquo signifies clotted with blood. The 
/ is transposed in Fr. bloutre, a clod, and 
in Sv. plotter, a small portion. 

Fortne connection between jolting and 
collecting in lumps Compare Du. kloteren, 
properly to ratde or clatter {kloterspaen 
crepitaculum— KiL), then to knock, to 
hammer, also to curdle, to become lumpy. 
—KiL So also we pass from Lat. cro- 
talum, a rattle, Prov. croilar, OFr. crod- 
ler, croler, to shake, to E, cniddle, curdle, 
to collect in lumps. 

When we analyse the notion of a rattling 
or jolting movement or a rugged uneven 
surface, we see that the one consists of a 
series of jolts or abrupt impulses, and the 
Other of a series of projections or emi- 
nences. Hence, on the one hand, we 
have Lat. pultare, Sw. bulla, to knock, 
E, poll, a thump or blow, MHG. bohen, 
pulsen, to Start out; Bav. bolzaugen, 
poltzet aitgen, projecting eyes ; pul- 
sen, to spring forth ; e, bolt, to start with 
a sudden movement, as a rabbit from ' 
hole, or a racer from the course. 

Passing from the sense of movement 
to that of form, we have t>a.pii/t, a clod 

or dump; Vi.D.buU,tuiUH,protu'benMX, 
small heap, mole-hill, tuft, clump; gmt- 
bullen, a clump of turf, a sod (Schutze). 
' Daar ligt idt up enen bultett : ' it lies all 
if a heap.— Brem. Wtb. Du. bull, a 
bunch, hump, boss, knob, bulk orquantity; 
bultig, hump-backed (to be compared 
with E. boll-foot, G. belxauget) ; Sp. buUe, 
protuberance, swelling, hulch, bulk. 

3. I n the next place, to bolt or bolter is 

sift meal by shaking it to and fro 
through a cloth of loose texture Fr. 
butter, bluier, beluter, Mid.Lat. imletan, 
to bolt; buUtellum, Fr. buleUl, MuUam, 
d/u/mx, a bolter or implement for bolting. 
I boitlte meale in a boulter, je bulte. — 
Palsgr. ]>u. buideln, A7^/j^r. — Bombcft 

Here the radical image is the violent 
agitation of the meal in the bolter, ex- 
pressed, as above explained, by the repre- 
sentation of a racketing sound, by which 
indeed the operation of boiling was c(Hn- 
monly accompanied in a very marked 
manner. On this account Mid.Lat Atr«- 
Honilam, representingaloud broken noise 
as of a trumpet, was applied to a bolter 
or mill-clack. BuUe-pook or bulstar, 
taraiantarum. — Pr. Pm. TaraltuUari- 
xare, budcin daz mele ; taratarrum, 
stablein an der ka auff dem mulstein das 
der lautet tatr I tare ! : the milt-clack or 
staff which sounds tar, tar. — DieC Supp. 
On the same principle, the name of boiler 
seems to have been given to the imple- 
ment and the operation, from G. poltem, 
to crash, hammer, racket ; gepoller, gt- 
bolder, a crashing or raclwtmg noise. 
The name would probably first be given 
to the implement which kept up such an 
impHirttmate racket, and when the radical 
significance of the term was overlooked, 
the syllable f0//or/D//would be regarded 
as the essential element signifying the 
nature of the operation. 

From a diifcrent representation of a 
rattling noise may be derived a series of 
forms in which an r seems to take the 
place of the / in bolt and the related 

Thus from Sc. brattle, crash, clattering 
noise {prattle ai thunner, a clap of thun- 
der — Brocket), we pass to Du. borteUn, 
builire, sestuare, tumulluari, agitari (KiL) ; 
Lang, barutela, baruta, to cteck, to talk 
loud and fast, to bolt meal ; barutel, a iniU- 
clack, a bolter ; Prov. barutela, to agitate, 
palpitate, to bolt meal ; barutel, Dauphiny 
baritel,OFT. burfeel,ChianpagaciurUaK, 
abolter. 0¥T.buretter(<Zi3L),lX.barulare, 
burattare, to bolt flour ; buraio, bolting 
cloth, Ajid as the agi^tion of cream in 



a chunt is closely analogous to that of 
the meal in a bolter, It. baritola (FT.), 
Ostrais baraio, Fr. baratf, are applied to 
a chum for butter. 

It must be observed that Diei" deriva- 
tion of Fr. bulfer from It. burato, bolt- 
ing-cloth, and that from Fr. bttre, bureau, 
coarse, undyed cloth of the wool of brown 
sheep, accounts only for the sense of boh- 

of churning and the idea of agitation in 
general. Butitiscxiremelyunlikelythata 
designation having no reference to the re- 
semblance between the operations of bolt- 
ing and churning should have been trans- 
fetred from the former operation to the 
latter, while nothing would be more na- 
tural than the application of a term sig- 
nifying violent agitation to each of those 
operations, of which it expresses so 
marked a characteristic. Moreover, the 
Fr. bureau, oe. borel, signifies the coarse 
cloth in which peasants were dressed, a 
material quite unfit for boltir^ meal, 
which requires stuff of a thin opren tex- 

Our derivation, again, is suppiorted by 
the analogy of G. beuteln, Du. buidehn, 
htiUn, to bolt meal, the radical sense of 
which is shown in Bav. bevteln, bttPn, to 
shake {as to shake the head, Co shake 
down fniit from a tree, &c.) ; butttln, 
butiem, to shake, to cast to and fro. 
Butterglas, a iwttle for shaking up salad 
sauce; ^//«/Avf^{of liquids), thick from 
shaking. Pollitriduare, butteln. — Schm. 
From builen, the contracted form of 
Du. buideUn, to boult meal, must be ex- 
plained Ft. boulenger, a baker, properly 
a boulter of meat 

E de fine tarine (inele) vent la flour. 

Par la hoteage (bulling-clot) le pestour. 

Per bnltngiT fbuldngge) est eertre 

La Sot, e le furfie (u biea) demori. 

Bibeleswoitb in Nal. Antiq. 155. 
Bomb.— Bombard. Fr. bombe, It. 
bomba, an iron shell to be exploded with 
gunpowder. From an imitation of the 
noise of the exjdosion. It rimbombare, 
to resound. In e. we speak of a gun 
booming over the water. Du. bammen, 
to resound, to beat a drum, whence 
bomme, a drum ; bombammert, to ring 
bells. Dan. bommer, a thundering noise ; 
bomre, to thunder, to thump ; W. bwm- 
bwr, 3 hollow ^o-\i.nA,bwmbwr y mar, the 
murmuring of the sea. It. bombdra, any 
riot or hurly-burly with a clamorous 
noise ; bombarda, any kind of gun or 
piece of oidnance. — Fl. 


Bomtiaat.— Bonbaaiiie. Gr. /SJfifSu!, 

the silk-worm, raw silk. IL bombtce, a 

silk-worm, bonMcitta, stuff, tiffany, bom- 
basine. — Altieri. The material called by 
this name, however, has repeatedly varied, 
and it is now applied to a worsted stuff. 

When cotton was introdilced it was 
confounded with silk, and called in Mid. 
and Mod. Greek /jafi^anov, Mid.Lat 
bambadum. It. bambagio; whence It, 
bambagino, Fr. bombasin, basin, cotton 
stuff. E. bombast, bombast, cotton. 
Need yon any ink and Awiiaif.— Hollyband Id R. 

As cotton was used for padding clothes, 
bombast came to signify inflated lan- 

Leite none oulla.DdIsh l^lor lake disport 
To Stuffe ibj doublet full of such iuniaii. 
GaKoif^ iuR. 

When the name passed into the lan- 
guages of Northern Europe, the tendency 
to give meaning to the elements of a 
word introduced from abroad, which has 
given rise to so many false etymologies, 
produced the PiD. baum-bast, G. baum- 
wolle, as if made from the bast or inner 
bark of a tree ; and Kilian explains it 
boom-basyn, gossipium, lana lignea, sive 
de arbore ; vulgo bombasium, q. d. boom- 
sye, i. e. sericum arboreum, from boom, 
tree, and sijde, sip, silk. 

Bond. AS. bmdan, band, bunden, to 
bind ; G. band, an implement of binding, 
a string, tie, band ; pi. bande, bonds, ties. 
ODu. bond, a ligature, tie, agreement. — 
Kil. In legal language, a bond is an in- 
strument by which a person binds himself 
under a penalty to perform some act 

Bono. G. bein, the leg, bone of the 
leg, the shank ; acksel bein, brust-bein, 
the shoulder-bone, breast-bone. 'Da. been, 
a bone in general, and also the leg. Now 
the office of a bone is to act as a support 
to the human frame, and this is especially 
the function of the leg bone, to which the 
term is appropriated m C. and Du. 

We may therefore fairly identify bone 
with the w. bdn, a stem or base, a stock, 
stump, or trunk ; and in fact we find the 
word in w. as in G. and Du. assuming the 
special signification of leg : W. boitog, 
having a stem or stalk, also thick-shank- 
ed; bongam, crook-shanked; bondew, 
i!)n^nij,thick-lej^ed,from/rtf,iriw, thick. 

BoaflrA. A large fire lit in the open 
air on occasion of public rejoicing. 
Named from the beacon-fires formerly in 
use to raise an alarm over a wide extent 
of country. Dan. baun, a beacon, a word 
of which we have traces in several Eng- 
lish names, as Banbuiy, Banstead, Near 



the last of these a field is still called the 
Beacon field, and near Banbury is a lofty 
hill called Crouch Hill, where a cross for 
crouch) probably served to mark the 
place of the former beacon. The origin 
of the word is probably the w. Mn, high, 
lofty, tall, whence ban-ffael, a lofty blaze, 
a bonfire. Many lofiy hills are called 
Beacons in E. and Ban in w. ; as the 
Brecknockshire Baans, or Vantu, in w. 
called ] 
, however, the 
word may signify merely a fire of buns, 
or dry stalks for making a roaring blaze. 
Bonnefyre, feu de behourdis. — Palsgr. 
Mrs Baker explains bun, the stubble of 
beans, often cut for burning and Ughting 
fires. Bun, a dry stalk. — Hal. 

Bonnet. Fr. bonmt, Gael, bonaid, a 
head-dress. The word seems of Scan- 
^dinavian origin. From bo, boa, biia,lo 
* dress, to set in order, bonad, reparation, 
dress. //u/uiud-bi>nad,head-dress ; wa^g- 
bonad, wall hangings, tajiestry. But 
bonad does not appear to have been used 
by itself for head-dress. 

Boobf. The character of folly is 
generally represented by the image of 
one gaping and staring about, wondering 
at everything. Thus from the syllable ba, 
representing the opening of the mouth, 
are formed Fr. baier, bier, to gape, and 
thence Rouchi baia, the mouth, and fig. 
one who stands staring with open mouth ; 
babaie, babin, Wall. bdber,babau, boubair, 
boubii. It. babbio, a simpleton, booby, 
blockhead, Ir, bobo .' interj. of wonder ; 
Sp. bobo, foolish. On the same principle 
from badare, to gape, Fr. badaud, a fool, 
dolt, ass, gaping hoyden — Cot.; from 
gape, E. dial, ga^, a silly fellow, gaping 
about with vacant stare — Mrs Baker, and 
from AS. ganian, to yawn, E. gavmcy, a 
simpleton. — Mrs Baker. 

Book. AS. boc. Goth, boka, letter, 
writing ; bokos, the scriptures ; bokareis, 
a scribe; c. buch-stab,a. letter; OSlav. 
biikui, a letter ; Russ. b&kva, bukvdry, 
the alphabet Diefenbach suggests that 
the origin is buki, signifying beech, the 
name of the letter b, the first consonant 
of the alphabet, although in the OG. and 
Gael, alphabet that letter is named from 
the birch instead of the beech. 
. BcHmi. In nautical language, which 
is mostly derived from the Low German 
and Scandinavian dialects, a boom is a 
beam or pole used in keeping the sails in 
position, or a large beam stretched across 
the mouth of a harbour for defence. 

Du, boom, a tree, pole, beam, bolt— KiL 


To Boom. To sound loud and dull 
like a gun, Du. bommen. See Bomb. 

Boon. A favour, a good turn or re- 
quest — Bailey. The latter is the original 
meaning. AS. ben, bene, petition, prayer. 
TMn ben is gehyred, Luke i. 13. on. 
beiSne, ban, ban, desire, prayer, petitioii, 
from beida (E. bid), to ask. 

Boor. A peasant, countryman, ctowa. 
Du. boer, G, bauer, from Du. bouwem, to 
till, cultivate, build, G. bauen, to cultivate 
inhabit, build, on. bua, to prepare set 
in order, dress, till, inhabit. 

From the sense of inhabiting we have 
neighbour, G. nachbar, one wno dwells 

From the participle present, ON.^mumE, 
boandi, comes bondi, the cultivator, the 

Eossessor of the farm, master of the 
ouse, hus-Aii'/. 

See Bown, Busk, Build. 

• Boos«. A stall for cattle. — HaL 
Boos,bose, netis stall. — Fr. Pm. as. bosig, 
bosg, bosih, ON. bds, a. stall. Perhaps 
from ow. boutig, literally cow-house, ow. 
bovtig, stabulum.— Ox. GL in PhiL Trans. 
i860, p. 232. W, ly, Gael tigk, houses 
But more likely from Sw. dial, ^ox, which 
signifies not only straw, litter, but stall, 
as a lying-place for cattle. Basa, to strew 
with straw, to litter ; bosu, butu, httttd' 
btfsa, iwinbusa, a lying-place for dogs or 
swine, dog-kennel, pig-sty. N. boi, ron- 
nants of hay or straw, chaff. 

Boot. Fr. botte. Du. bote, botensheuM, 
pero, calceus rusticus e crudo corio. — 
Kil. Swab, bassen, short boots. — Schm. 
It would appear that in Kilian's time the 
Du. bole was similar to the Irish brogue 
and Indian mocassin, a bag of skin or 
leather, enveloping the foot and laced on 
the instep. It is commonly. explained as 
identical with It. betia, Sp Frov. bota, 
Fr. botte, a hollow skin, a vessel for hold- 
ing liquids. See Butt 

To Boot.— BootleM. To boot, to aid, 
help, succour.— Bailey . Soot of bale, 
remedy of evil, relief from sorrow. To 
give a thing to boot is to give it into the 
bai^ain, to give it to improve the condi- 
tions already proposed or agreed on. 

Clement the cobeler cast off hus doke 
And to (he nywe fayre nempned it to selle ; 
Hich Ihe hakeneyenun bille hus bod after — 
There were chapmen ychose the chaf&re to preise 
That he thM hadde the hod sholde nal hobbe tbe 

The beteie thing by aibitouis ihoUe tolt Ibe 
weise.— P. P. 

i. e. should contribute something to make 
the baigain equaL Boefless, mthoat adr 

,.,.d,i. Google 


vantage, not contributing to further the 
end we have in view, Du- botte, baeU, 
aid, remedy, amendment j boeten, to 
mend, and hence to fine, to expiate ; 
boeten den dorsi, to quench one's thirst ; 
boeteit ket vier, AS, betan fyr, to bete the 
fire, properly to mend the fire, but used 
in the sense of laying or lighting it, 
struere ignem, admovere titiones, — Kil. 
ON, bSt, pi batr, amendment, reparation, 
recovery ; yfirbdt, making good again ; 
bata, to make better, to repair, to patch, 
to cure ; Sw, bata, to boot, to profit ; 
Goth, io^an, to profit, to be of advan- 
tage ; ajiragaba^ait, to restore, repair. 
See To Bete. 

Booth, This word is wideiy spread 
in the sense of a slieht erection, a shelter 
of branches, boards, &c. Gael, both, 
bothag, bothait, a tiothy, cottage, but, 
tent, bower. Bohem. bauda, budka, a 
hut, a shop ; budoivati, to build ; PoL 
iuda, a booth or shed, budow<U, to build. 
ON, buS, a hut or lent, a shed, a shop. 
OSw, sades-bod, a granary ; mat-bod, a 
cupboard. Du. bo^, boeye, a but, cup- 
board, bam, cellar. 

Neither G. bauen, to build, nor E. abod^, 
afford a satisfactory explanation. In the 
Slavonic languages the word signifying 
to build seems a derivative rather than a 
root. See Bower. 

Booty. It is admitted that Fr. butin. 
It bottino, are derived from G. beute. 
The Sw. byte points to the verb byte 

would thus be the division of the spoil 

HbUto tuning al b1[ (hat rof, 
A half share of all (hat spoiL 

Hist. Aleiand. Mag, in Ihre. 
Fr. buHH is explained by Palsgr. p, 266, 
schare of a man of a prise in warre time. 
And so in on. the booty taken in war is 
called grip-deiidi and klut-ikipli, from 
deila and skipta, to divide, 

BOTMhio. A wine-skin, and meta- 
phorically a drunkard, Sp. borracha, a 
leather bag or bottle for wine. Gael. 
borracha, a bladder, from borra, to swell. 
See Burgeon. 

Border. Fr. bordure, a border, welt, 
hem or gard of a garment, from bord, 
edge, margin, on. ionf, limbus, ora, 
extrcmitas ; bordi, fimbria, limbus, 

Bore. The fiow of the tide in a single 
large wave up certain estuaries. 

Tumbling from the Gallic coast the victorious 
tenth ware shall ride like the t9rt over all the 
mt.— ButeiaR. 



ON. bdra, a wave, tt. bi , 
bora, kiiit-btEra, to surge, to foam. 

To Bor«, 1,— Burin, g. bohren, ON, 
bora, Lat. forare, Magy. furm, to bore, 
fur6, a borer ; Fin. puras, a cbisel, tere- 
bra sculptoria; purastoa, scalpo, terebro, 
sculpo ; Ostiak.^er,^ii»-, a borer, piercer. 

The Tva. purra, to bite, leaves little 
doubt as to the primitive image from 
whence the expression is taken, the 
action of gnawing affording the most 
obvious analogy from whence to name 
the operation of a cutting instrument, or 
the gradual working a hole in anything. 
The ON. bit is used to signify the point 
or edge of a knife ; bilr, sharp, pointed. 
We speak in E. of an e(%c that will not 
bite, and it is doubtless in the sense of 
ON. bit that the term centre-bit is applied 
to an instrument for boring. The cor- 
responding forms in Lap, are parrel, to 
bite, and thence to eat ; and parrets, an 

The analogy between the operation of 
a cutting instrument and the act of gnaw- 
ing or biting leads to the application of 
Fin, ptiru, Eslhon. purro, to anything 
comminuted by either kind of action, as 
FiiL ptini, chewed food for infants, sahan 
puru, Esthon. pu purro (saha = saw ; 

Su = wood), OHG. uiboro, urboro, saw- 
ust, the gnawings as it were of the saw 

Another derivation from Fin. purro, to 
bite, is purin, dens mordens vel caninus, 
the equivalent of the II, borino, bolino, a 
graver's small pounce, a sharp chisel for 
cutting stone with — Flor. ; Fr. and E, 
burin, an engraver's chisel, the tool with 
which he bites into his copper plate. 
Compare Manx birrag, a sharp-pointed 
tooth, or anything pointed, Gael, biorag, 
a tusk, which are probably from the same 
root. Fin, puras, a chisel, differs only 
in termination. 

* To Bore, S. To bore in the meta- 
phorical sense may have acquired its 
meaning in the same way as G. drillen, 
to pierce, also to harass with work or 
perpetual requests, to importune. But 
probably the E. use of the word would be 
better explained on the suppiosition that 
it was originally bur. It. lappolone, a 
great bur, an importunate tellow that 
will stick as close as a bur to one ; lappo- 
lore, to stick unto as a bur. — PL 

I could not (ell how to rid myself better of (he 
troDblesome iar, than bv getting bim into th« 
discourse of Himt]n{,— RMum fiom Pamasnis 


Waldcmar knew Ihe oM diplomatist's impor- 
lunity and weariness by report, but be had not 
yet learned the art of being blandlv Insolent, and 
thus could not shake olT the old #iir7.— Walde- 
mar Krone (1867}, i. 106. 
Lang, p'gou, one who sticks to you like 
pitch, a bore, ixmaptgo, pitch. 

Boreal I^t. Boreas, the North Wind, 
bar^alis, northern. Russ- borei, the K. 
wind ; burya, tempest, storm. 

Borou^n. A word spread over all the 
Teutonic and Romance languages. AS. 
Inirg, burh, byrig, a city ; whence the 
frequent occurrence of the termination 
bury in the names of English towns, 
Canterbury, Newbury, fitc, Goth, baurgs, 
ON, borg, It, bor^o, Fr. bourg. Gr. 
wipfot, a tower, is probably radically 
connected. 'Cas'cllumparvumquem Jwr- 
gum vocant.' — Vcgetius in Diei. Hence 
must have arisen burgensis, a citizen, 
giving rise to It iorgese, Fr. bourgeois, 
E. burgess, a citizen. 

The origin seems to be the Goth. 
iairgait, AS. beorgan, to protect, to keep, 
preserve ; G. bergen, to save, to conceal, 
withhold; Dan. bierge, to save; Sw. 
berga, to save, to take in, to contain. 
Sofen bergas, the sun sets. The primi- 
tive idea seems to bring under cover. 
See Bury, Borrow. 

Borrel. A plain rude fellow, a boor. 
— Bailey. Frequently applied to laymen 
in contradistinction to the more polished 

But wele I wot ai nke (resche and gay 
Som of hem ben as tonl folkis ben. 
And (hat imsdttynge j; to here dcgre. 

Occleve in Halliwell. 

parts of Savoy and Switierland. See 
Bureau. In like manner IL i(a(jc(:o{fr 

coarse, clownish, unpolished, rustic, rude. 
— Altieri. So Du. e graauw, the popu- 
lace, from their grey clothing. 

To Borrow. Properly to obtain money 
on security, from AS. borg, borh, a. surety, 
pledge, loan. ' Gif thu feoh to borh 
gesyUe,' if thou give money on loan, c. 
oiirge, a surety, bail ; biirgen, to become 
a surety, to give bail or answer for an- 
other. AS. beorgan, to protect, secure. 

Boraholder.— Boromiolder. Ahead- 
borough or chief constable. By the 
Saxon laws there was a general system 
of bail throughout the country, t^ which 

each man was answerable for hb neigh* 

' Ic tviUe that selc man sy tader hrgt ge fain- 
uan burgum ge butan burgum.' I wSl that 
every man be under bail, both within (owns and 
without. — Laws of Edgar in Bosworth. 

Hence ' borhes ealdor,' the chief of the 
'borh,' or system of bail, corrupted, when 
that system was forgotten, into bors- 
holder, borougk-helder, or Aead~6orougA, 
as if from the verb io hold, and borough 
in the sense of a town. 

Boah. A word lately introduced from 
our intercourse with the East, signifying 
nonsense. Turk, bosk, empty, vain, use- 
less, agreeing in a singular manner with 
Sc bass, hollow, empty, poor. 

Bom. I. Fr. bosse, a bunch or hnmp, 
any round swelling, a wen, botch, Imob, 
knot, knur. — Cot. Du. bosse, basse, the 
boss or knob of a buckler ; bos, bussel, a 
bunch, tuft, bundle. 

Words signifying 3 lump or protobep- 
ance have commonly also the sense of 
striking, knocking, whether from the fact 
that a olow is apt to produce a swelling 
in the body struck, or because a blow 
can only be given by a body of a certain 
mass, as we speak of a thumping potato^ 
a bouncing baby ; or perhaps it may be 
that the protuberance is considered as a 
projection, a pushing or striking out The 
Gael, cnoc, an eminence) agrees with K. 
knock; while Gael cnag signifies both a 
knock and a knob ; itth/, a knob, a boss, 
a litde blow. E. cob, a blow, and also a 
lump or piece.— Hal. A bua^ is used in 
both senses of ablowandaprotuberanc& 
Butuk, which now signifies a knob, was 
formerly used in the sense of knocking. 
Du. butsm, botsen, to strike ; buUe, botse, 
a swelling, bump, botch. 

The origin of boss may accordingly be 
found in Bav. buschen, to strike so as to 
make a hollow sound, to give a hollow 
sound ; boscheit, bossen, Du. bossem. It. 
bussare, Swiss Rom. boussi, bussi, bassa 
(Bridel), to knock or strike. 

Then from the peculiar resonance of a, 
blow on a hollow object, or perhaps also 
from looking at the projection from with- 
in instead of without, the Sc. boss, bos, 
bois is used in the sense of hollow, empty, 


destitute. A boss sound, that wbii^ 

emitted by a hollow body. — Jam. Bos 
bucklers, hollow bucklers.— D. V, The 
boss of the side, the hollow between the 
libs and the side. — Jam. 

Botan7. Gr. 0ora>^, a herb, plant, 
/SoravJCM, to pick or cull plants, fSorawc^, 
of or beloi^ii^; to plants, 4 jStnuwi 


(rfvi^ understood), the science oi know- 
le^e of plants. 

Botoh. It seems that botch is a mere 
dialectic variation of boss, as Fr. basse be- 
comes in the Northern dialects boche. — 
Decorde, H^cart Bocku, bassu, a hump- 
back. — Dec. D\i. iotsen,bulstH,io'\aiOck, 
to strike ; betse, butse, a knock, contusion ; 
btttst, a bump or swelling, a plague-boil — 
KiL ; bots, bats, a boil or swelling— Hal- 
ma. A boil, pimple, blister, was called a 
pusk; what pushes outwards. — Hal. And 
so we speak of an eruption, of boils break- 
On, the other hand. It boccia, a bubble, 
by met. any round ball or bowl to play 
withal, the bud of a flower ; any kind of 
plain round vial or cupping glass — FL ; 
botsa, a pock, blain, botch, bile, or plague 
sore ; any plain round viol glass ; boxBO, 
>r hollow, as a push or windfall. 




Here the radical image seems a bubble, 
from the dashing of water. Parmesan 
poecia, a slop, mess, puddle, IL pozzo, 
poxxangkera, a plash or slough or pilful 
of standing waters-^FL E.dtaL \apodgi, 
to stir and mix together ; podge, a pit, a 
cesspool ; poss, to dash about ; a water- 
iaU.— HaL 

To Botdi. To mend in a clumsy 
manner. Essentially the same word 
with patch. Swiss batschen, patschen, 
to patch or botch, to put on a patch. 
Einen streit batscktit, to botch up a 
quarrel, to make it up in an impenect 
way. Ultimately from the figure of 
clapping on a piece of something that 
sticks where it falls. Swiss batsch, a 
sounding blow, a smack; bdtsck, a lump 
of something. G. batsm, a lump of 
something soft or adhesive, a piece of 
turf, a coarse patch, and met. (as form- 
erly E. patch also), a rude coarse-man- 
nered man ; baUen, to form in lumps, to 
patch or botch. Bav. herum-batxen, to 
dabble in something smeary; botttn, a 
lump of something soft. 

It is merely an accidental resemblance 
with OHG- biiaxeu, gipuozan, C. bussen, 
to mend; iessel-biisser, a tinker; sckuk~ 
biisstr, -bossir, -bdsser, OHG. scuoh- 
htzert, a cobbler or botcher of shoes. 

There may however be a radical con- 
nexion with Mantuan poccia, a dop; 
pocdar, to dabble, to work without 
order or knowledge; It. bozza, a rude 
sketch, bunghng piece of woilc 

Boto. If <mse-bote, fire-bole, signify a 
supply of wood to repair the house, to 
mead tbe fire. Si quis hirgkHam sive 

brigioiam, i, e. hurgi vd pontis refectio- 
nem, &c.— Leg. Canut as. bdt, repara- 
tion. See To Bete. 

Botll. Baa two. — Ancren Riwle, 213. 
AS. Butu, butwo, baiwa; OSax. bethia, 
bide; ON. b&itir, gen. beg^iaj Goth, ba, 
baiothss Sanscr. ubhau; Lith. abbu, abbu- 
du; Lett abbi, abbi-diwi; Slavon. oba, 
obtt-dwa; IaK, ambo. — Dief. Lith.Jfwrfu, 
Wedu, we two, jfudu, Judvii, you two, 
Jidwi, they two. 

• To Bother. To confuse with noise^ 
{loia pudder, pother, noise, disturbance. 

With Ibe din irf wbicb tube my head you so 

That I scarce can distinguiah my light ear bom 

f other.— Swift ia R. 

Du. bulderen, to rage, bluster, make a 
disturbance ; C poltem, to make a noise, 
to do anything with noise and bustle; 
Dan. bulder, noise, turmoil, hurly-burly. 
H. potra, ptttra, to simmer, whisper, mut- 

Bott. A belly-worm, especially in 
horses. Gael bolus, a bott; boiteag, a 
maggot Bauds, m^gots in barley. — 

Bottle. I. It. bottigUa, Fr. bouteille, 
dim. of botta, batte, ooute, a vessel for 
holding liquids. — Diez. Gael, buideal, a 
cask, a bottle. See Butt Bouteille, 
however, is also a' bubble, and E. bottle is 
provinciallyusedinthesamesense. Pl.D. 
buddela, to froth as beer ; buddl, a bottle. 
— DanneiL Prov. botola, a tumour. A 
bubble is often taken as the type of any- 
thii^ round and hollow. 

3. From Fr. bottt, a bunch, bundle, is 
the dim. batel, boleau, a wisp, bunch, 
Bret bolelfoenn, a bottle of hay. Gael. 
boileal, boitean, a bundle of straw or hay. 
Du. bot, bolte, knock, stroke, blow.—KIL 
See Boss. 

Bottom, AS. botm, the lowest part, 
depth, ' Fyre to bolme,' to the fiery 
abyss. — Csedm. Du. bodemj G. bodcii; 
ON. boln, Dan. bund, \jii.. fundus. The 
Gr. /SuOoc, ^»*oc, a depth, and a^imDc, 
an abyss or bottomless pit, seem develop- 
ments of the same root, another modifi- 
cation of which may be preserved in 
Gael, bun, a root, stock, stump, bottom, 
foundation ; w. bbn, stem or base, stock, 
butt end. See Bound. 

2. A battam is also used in the sense 
of a ball of thread, whence the name ol 
thewcaver in Midsummer Night's Dream. 
The word botlam or bolkum was also used 
in OE. for a bud- Both applications are 
from the root bot, both, in the sense of 
projection, round lump, boss. A bottom 




of thread, like bobbin, signifies a short 
thick mass. The w. has bot, a round 
body ; both, boss of a buckler, nave of a 
wheel; bathel, fiothel, a blister, pimple — 
Richards ; botkog, round, botwm, a boss, 
a button; Fr. bouion, a bud. For the 
connection between the sense of a lump 
or projection and that of striking or 
thrusting, see Boss. 

BougK The branch of a tree. . 
&3g^ boh, from bugatt, to bow, bend. 
, Bougk-pof, or Bow-pol, a jar to i 
boughs in for ornament, as a nosegay. 

'Take care my hoose be handsome. 
And the new alools set out, and iei^u exA 

And flowers for the windows, and the TuAey 

'Wbj would you ventuie so fondly on the 

There's m^hly raaller in them, I assure you. 
And in the spreading of a hmglirfol.' 

B. and F. Coxcomb, iv. 3. 

Bought— Blffht.—* Bout. Bought, 
Bight, bending, turn, hallow, from AS. 
bugan, to bend. Da. bugt, bend, turn, 

Bout, a certain continuance of action, 
as a drinking-bout, a bout of fair or foul 
weather, might well be explained from 
the above, but is I believe from the 
npiion of a stroke, as something done by 
one unbroken exertion. Du. bot, botte, 
impulsus, ictus — K Ir. botta, a blow or 
stroke, also as ■valta (a turn or time) — 
FL WFlan. bot, botte, bonte, an interval 
of time, a certain continuance, a fit, as 
of coughing, of rage, &c. £en^/,Dr,eene 
botte regen,wind, vorst, fitc, a bout of rain, 
wind, frost Biiiotten, at intervals. 

• Boulder. — BoMli&euton6.Beici!ii^, 
a large stone rounded by the action of 
water, a large pebble.— Webster. Sw. 
dial ^</&'rr/en,jhe larger kind of pebbles, 
in contrast to klappcrsten, the smaller 
ones. From Sw. bullra, E. dial balder, 
to make a loud noise, to thunder. A 
thundering big one is a common exag- 
geration. But as klappersten for the 
smaller pebbles is undoubtedly from the 
rattle they make when thrown together, 
probably buller or bolder may represent 
the deeper sound made by the larger 
stones when rolling in a stream. 

Il wos an awful sight lo see the Visp roaring 

hear the groans and heavy thuds of the imiiitri 
that were tieiag hunied on and dashed against 
each other by the torrent — Bonny, Alpine Re- 
gioni, p, 136. 

Even in the absence of actual experience 
of such sounds as the foregow, the 
rounded shape of the stones would sug- 


gcst the notion of the continual knock- 
ing to wliich they must have been sub- 

To Boult. See To Bolt, 2. 

To Botmo«. Primarily to strike, then 
to do anything in a violent startlii^ way, 
to jump, to spring. A(ni:&, tundo, trudo: 
— he buncheth me and beateth me — he 
came home with his ^e all to-bounced, 
contusl. — Pr. Pm. 

The sound of a blow is imitated in 
Pl.D. hy Bums at BuHS ; whence Avvu^ 
batmen, bunsen, to strike against a thin^ 
so as to give a dull sound; art de dor 
bunsen, to knock at the door. 
Yet still he bet and homist upon the dore 
And thundered strokes thereon so hideously 
That all the pece he shaked from the fioie 
And filled aU the bouse with fear and great up- 
roar.— F. Q. 

An de dor ankloppen dat idt hunset, 
to knock till it sounds again. He fult 
dat tt bunsede, he fell so that it sounded. 
Hence bunsk in the sense of the E. bounc- 
ing, thumping, strapping, as the vulgar 
whapper, bumper, for anything large of 
'' ) kind. ' Een bunsken appS, jungen,' 

bouncing apple, baby. — Brem. Wtb. 
Du. bans, a blow, bonxea, to knock. — 
Halma. See Bunch. 

To Bound. Fr. bortdir, to spring, to 
leap. The original meaning is pro^bly 
simply to strike, as that of E. bounce, 
which is frequently used in the same 
sense with bound. The origin seems an 
imitation of the sounding blow of an 
elastic body,the verb bondirm OFr. and 
Prov., and the equivalent bonir in Cata- 
lan, being used in the sense of resound- 

No I aosiiali pariar, ni moli brugir, 

Ni gacha freslelar, nl cor bondir. 

You will not hear talking nor a word munpur, 

Nor a ceminel whistle, nor horn sound. 

Langued. bounbounefha, to hum; boun- 
dina, to hum, to resound. 

Bound.— Boundary. Fr. borw, bam, 
a bound, limit, mere, march. — Cot, Mid, 
Lat bodina, butina, bunda, bonma. 
' Multi ibi limites quos illi bonnas vocant, 
suorum recognoverunt agrorum.' *Alo- 
dus sic est circumcinctus et divisus per 
bodinas fixas etlocadesignala.' — Charter 
of K. Robert to a monastery in Poitou. — 
Ducange. Bodinare, debodinare, to set 
outbymetes and bounds. Probably from 
the Celtic root bon, butt, a stock, bottom, 
root (see Bottom). Bret men-bonn, ■ 
boundary stone (men =1 stone) ; boitnein, 
to set bounds, to fix limits. The entire 
value of such bounds depends upon theii. 


fixedness, Gael bunaiUiuh, steady, finn, 
fixed. It is remarkable that we find very 
nearly the same variation in the mode of 
spelling the word for bound, as was for- 
merly shown in the case of bottom, which 
was also referred to the same Celtic root. 

Bound. — Bown. The meaning of 
bound, when we speak of a ship bound 
for New York, is, prepared for, ready to 
go to, addressed to. 

He of artventura happed hire to mete 

Amid the toiui right ia Itie quikkesc strete 

As sbe was iea* to go (he way forth right 

Toward the guden. — Chaucer in R. 

It b the participle past buinn, pre- 
pared, ready, of the ON. verb bua, to pre- 
pare, set out, address. 

Bounty. Fr. bonl/, Lat boiUtas, from 
bonus, good. 

Bounl A jest, sport, game. Imme- 
diately from Fr. bourde in trie same sense, 
and that probably from a Celtic root. 
Bret, bourd, deceit, trick, joke; GaeL 
burd, hurt, mockery, ridicule ; buirte, a 
jibe, taunt, repartee. As the GaeL has 
also buirUadh, language of folly or ridi- 
cule, it is probable that the It burlare, 
to banter or laugh at, must be referred to 
the same root, according to the well- 
known interchange of d and /. 

The notion of deceiving or making a 
fool of one is often expressed by reference 
to some artifice employed for diverting 
his attention, whether by sound or gesti- 
culation. Thus we speak of humming 
one for deceiving him, and in the same 
way to bam is to make fun of one; a 
bam, a false tale or jeer— Hal. j from Du. 
iammen, to hum. Now we shall see in 
the next article that the meaning of the 
root bourd is to hum. Gael, htrdan, a 
btunming noise — Macleod; a sing-song, 
a jibe — Shaw; bururus, warbling, purl- 
ii^, gurgling. Bav. burren, brummen, 
sausen, brausen, to hum, buzz, grumble ; 
Sw. ^rra, to take one in, to trick, to 
. cheat 

Bourdon. — Bnrden. Bourdon, the 
drone of a bagpipe, hence musical ac- 
companiment, repetition of sounds with or 
without sense at the end of stated divi- 
sions of a song, analogous to Fr. tinton, 
the ting of a bell, the burden of a song. 

Wilhmilful i 

And leem to bear a iounUit to their plaint. 

Spenser in R. 

Fr. bourdon, a drone of a bagpipe, 

drone or dor-bee, also the humming c 

BOW 89 

buzzing of bees. — CoL Sp. bordon, the 
bass of a stringed instrument, or of an 
organ. Gael, burdan, a humming noise, 
the imitative character of which is sup- 
ported by the use of durdan in the same 
— ^nse; durd, to hum as a bee, to mutter. 

Bourdon. — Boidan. Fr. bourdon, a 
pilgrim's staff, the big end of a club, a 
pike or spear ; bourdon d'un moulin & 
vent, a mill-post. — Cot Prov. bordo, a' 
staff, crutch, cudgel, lance; It. bordone, 
a staff, a prop. • 

Bourn, i. A limit, Fr. borne, a cor- 
ruption of bantu, identical with E. bound, 
which see, 

Sc. bum, a brook; Goth, brunna, a 
spring, Du. borne, a well, spring, spring- 
water; GaeL bum, fresh water. See 

To Bou««. Du. buiten, Swiss 
ifl««», to take deep draughts, drink deep, 
'o tope. G. bausen, pausen, pausten,Xo 
.well, puff out Sw. /wj/a, to take breath. 
Perhaps the radical meaning of the word 
may be, like quaff, to drawa deep breath. 
So Sc. sauch, sou/, to draw a deep breath, 

sauftn, to drink deep. 

The foregoing derivation seems, on the 
whole, more probable than the one for- 
merly given from Du. buyse, a flagon, 
whence buysen, to drink deep, to indulge 
in his cups ; buys, drunken. 

Man in the Moon. 
Comp. Du. Aftfij-, a cup ; iriwj^, to tope J 
v. pot, a Y^Xjpotio, to tipple. 

Bow. G. bu^, curvature, bending, 
bending of a jomt ; kme-bug, schenkd- 
bug, sckulter-iug. When used alone it 
commonly signifies the shoulder-joint, 
explaining Sw. bog, Dan, iov, shoulder 
of a quadruped; toiij/di/, shoulder-blade. 
It is probably through this latter signifi- 
cation, and not in the sense of curvature 
in general, that ON, bogr, Sw. bog, Dan. 
bov, are applied to the boiv of a ship, in 
Fr. ipauh du vaisseau, the shoulder of 
the vessel. 

A different modification gives on. bSgi, 
Sw. bage, Dan. but, c. bogen, an arch, 
bending, bow to shoot with. w. bwa, 
Gael, bogha, a bow. 

CorrespHDnding verbal forms are Goth. 
biugan, ON. bu^x, b^gia, as, bugan, 
beogan, Du. buigen, O.biegen, to bow, 
bend ; Sw. buga, to bow or incline the 
head ; ON. bogna, bugna, Sw. bagna, 
bugna, Dan. iovtu, bugne, to bulge, bend, 




It trouM seem that the notion of a 
bent or rounded obje« must be attained 
antecedent to the more abstract concep- 
tion of the act of bending. The foregoing 
forms may accordingly be derived with 
much plausibility from the figure of a 
bubble, signified by forms like Gael 
bolgj PoL dulka, or, with inversion of the 
liquid, Fr. boucU, Sw. dial bogia, w. bog- 
^/t,largely illustrated under Bulk, Buckle. 
From the former modification we have 
ON. bo^g»a, to puff up, swell, passing on 
the one hand by tbe loss of the g into 
Dan. bulne, oe. bolru, to swell, and on 
the other by the loss of the / into on. 
bogna, bugna, to bulge, bow, give in to, 
yield. From the other form are G- bucket, 
a protuberance, a hump on the back ; 
sich aufbuckeln (Schm.), to raise the back 
like a cat ; then by the loss of tbe I, Bav. 
bucken, to bend down, to bow ; buck, a 
bending; prominence, bilL G. biickm, 
Sw. bucko, bocka, Dan. bukke, to stoop, 
bow, make obeisance. Du. lich onder 
jemand btiigen, to yield to one, to buckle 
tinder to him. G. tuckelig gchen,to tXoop 
in walking ; buckling, a bow. The / 
appears in a different position in ODu. 
hUcken, inclinare se (Kil), as in E. bulk 
compared with Sw. buk, Dan. bug, con- 
veiuty, belly, or. in e. bulge, compared 
with Fr. bouge, belly of a cask. w. bog, 
a swelling or rising up- Sanscr. bimj, 
to bend, to make crooked; (in pass.) to 
incline oneself ; bhugna, bent, crooked. 

The same line of derivation seems re- 
peated in Magy. bugy, representing the 
sound of bubbling or guggling ; bu^ni, 
bugyani, to bubble up, stream forth ; 
bugyogni, to guggle, bubble, spring as 
water ; bugya, a boil, tumour, lump ; 
bttgajbugyola, a knot, a bundle. 

• BoweU. It. budello, hullo, OFr. 
boel, gut, bowel ; Bret, bousellou, bouellou, 
bowels. LaL botulus, a. sausage. 

Fr. beudin, a black pudding, the bowel 
of an animal stuffed with blood and 

The word may probably be identical 
with Fris. budel, Du, buidel, G. beutel, a 
sack, purse, pocket. See BoiL 

Bower, ne. boor, a parlour. — Hal 
ON. bur, a separate apartment ; ulibur, an 
outhouse ; AS. bur, a chamber ; rwefnbur, 
a sleeping-room ; cumena-bur, guest- 
chamber ; fata-bur, a wardrobe ; Sw. 
kUnst-bur, a hen-coop ; w. bTur, an in- 
closure, intrenchment, bwra, a croft by a 

BowL— BoU. Fr. ^u£;,abowI,inboth 
senses, of a wooden ball to play with &nd 

a round vessel for drink. Sp. boUi, a ball, 

The sense of a globular form is pro- 
bably taken from the type of a bublde as 
in other cases. Thus we have Esthon. 
pul, a bubble ; Fin. pullo, a drop of 
water ; pullistaa, to puff up ; puUakia, 
round, swollen ; pulli, a round glass Ot 
fiask ; Lat. bulla, a bubble, a thing of 
similar shape, a stud, boss, knob ; It. 
bolla, a bubole, blister, roimd glass phial, 
stud, boss; ON.Ai/a,abubbIe; ^0/A',acup; 
P1.D. bol, globular, spherical ; Du. bel, 
swollen, pufly, hollow, convex, a baU, a 
globe or spherical bo<dy, the bead, Uie 
crown of a hat, bulb of an onion ; belle- 
ken, the boll or round seed-vessel of flax j 
Bav. bollen, globular body, round bead, 
boll of flax ; ros^ollen, horsedui^ ; 
mausbbllelein, mousedung; OHO. bolla, 
polla, btilla in aqua, folliculus ; hind- 
polla, MHG. himbolla, the skull or brain- 
pan ; bolle, a bud, a wine-can ; AS. boll&, 
pot, bowl ; heafod bolla, the head. 
A similar series of designations from 
the image of a bubble may be seen in 
Fin. kuppo, a bubble, boil, tumour ; kup- 
ula, kuppelo, a ball ; ku^, the crop of a 
bird, belly, head of a cabbage, wisp of 
straw ; kupukka, anything globular. See 

Box. A hollow wooden case, as wdl 
as the name of a shrub whose wood is 
peculiarly adapted for turning boxes and 
similar objects. AS. box in both senses. 
Gr. irA£o[, the box-tree, «£EiC, a box ; '»' 
buxus, the box-tree and articles made of 
it ; G. buchse, a box, the barret of a gun, 
buchsbaum, the box-tree ; It. bosso, boi- 
tree, bossala, a box, hollow place ; Fr. 
bull, Bret, beui, Bohem. pusspatt, box- 
tree ; puiska, a box. 

Du. busse, a box, buisken, a little box ; 
PLD. biisse, biiske. Hence, with an in- 
version of the s and k, as in AS. acsian, K. 
ask, we arrive at the E. box, without the 
need of resorting to an immediate deriva- 
tion from the Latin. 

The box of a coach b commonlj ex- 
plained as if it had formerly been an ac- 
tual box, containing the implements fee 
keeping the coach in order. It is more 
probably from the G. bock, signifying in 
the first instance a buck or he-goat, then 
applied in general to a trestle or supp<»t 
upon which anything rests, and to a coach- 
box in particular. See Crab, Cable. In 
like manner the PoL koxiel, a buck, b 
applied to a coach-box, while the pliual 
kexly is used in the sense of a sawing- 
blodt, trestle, painter's easel, &c. 



To Box. To fight with the fists. From 
the Dan. 6iisk, a sounding blow, daske, 
to slap, thwack, flap, by the same in- 
vetsion of s and i, as noticed under Box. 
It is plainly an imitative word, parallel 
with OE. posh, to strike. Swiss baticken, 
to smack the hand ; bdtschen, to give a 
loud smack, to fall with a noise. Heligo- 
land batskcn, to box the ears. Lett 
bauksch represents the sound of a blow ; 
dauksckekt, to give a sounding blow; 
buksUht, to give a blow with the fists. 

Boy. G. bube, Swiss bub, bue, Swab. 
hioh, a grown youth ; Cimbr. fube, boy, 
youth, umnarried mas ; Swiss Rom. 
boubo, bou46o, boy ; bouba, bouiba, little 
girl XjaX. pupus, a boy ; pupa, a girl, a 

T» Brabble. A variation of babble, 
representing the confused sound of simul- 
taneous talking. In hke manner the It. 
has bulicame and brulicame, a bubbling 
motion ; Fr, boussole, Sp. bruxvla, a com- 
pass ; Fr. boiite, Prov, brastia, a box. 

Du. brabbelen, to stammer, jabber, con- 
fuse, disturb, quarrel ; Bohem. breptati, 
to stutter, murmur, babble. 

Brace. The different meanings of the 
word brace may all be reduced to the idea 
of straining, compressing, confining, bind- 
ing together, from a root brak, which has 
many representatives in the other Europe- 
an languages. See Brake. 

To Brace is to draw together, whence a 
bracing air, one which draws up the 
springs of life ; a pair of braces, the bands 
which hold up the trowsers. A brace on 
board a ship. It. braca, is a rope holding 
up a weight or resisting a strain. A brace 
is also a pair of things united together in 
the first instanccbya physical tie, and then 
merely in our mode of considering them. 

Bracelet. Bracelet, an ornamental 
band round the wrist ; bracer, a guard to 
protect the aim of an archer from the 
string of his bow. Fr. brasselei, a brace- 
let, wristband, or bracer— Cot. ; OFr. 
brassard, Sp- bracil, armour for the arm, 
from iras, the arm. 

Braoh. Prov. brae, bracon, braquet, Fr. 
brogue, bracket, Sp. Ptg. braeo. It. braeco, 
a setter, spaniel, beagle, dog that hunts by 
scent. MHG. bracke, s. s., dog in general ; 
ON. rakki, dog ; Sw. rakka, bitch ; Du. 
rakke^ whelp ; as. race, OE. ratch, rack, 
scentmg dog, odorinsecus. — Pr. Pm. 

Braoi. A breach, flaw, or defect, 
from breetk. Fr. briehe, a brack or breach 
in a wall, 5tc. — Cot. 
Mirror for ^ 

You m»y find tiine in etnnicy, 

Decdi ojid vkileiuz in liettv^y justice — 

Ere itain Qxbraek\a ber sweet reputation. 

G. brechen, to break (sometimes also 
used in the sense of failing, as die Augen 
brechen ihm, his eyes are failing him), 
gebrechen, to want, to be wanting; wanl^ 
need, fault, defect ; Du. braecke, gkebreck, 
breach, want, defecL — Kil. AS. brec, 
PLD. brek, want, need, fault ; ON. brek, 
defect. On the same principle from the 
ON, bresta, to crack, to break, to burst, 
is derived brestr, a crack, flaw, defect, 
moral or physical. 

Brack.— Brackiali, Water rendered - 
unpalatable by a mixture of salt One 
of the numerous cases in which we have 
to halt between two derivations. 

GaeL Jriir^ suppuration, putrefaction ; 
brack skuileack, blear-eyed ; Prov. brae, 
pus, matter, mud, filth ; el brae e la or- 
dura del aiun, the filth and ordure of the 
world — Rayn. ; It braco, braeo, a bog or 
puddle; OFr. brae, braic, bray, mud; 
Rouchi breuaue, mud, clay. — H^ait 
Then as an adj., Prov. brae, bragos, OFr. 
brageux, foul, duty, ' La ville ou y avait 
eaues et sourses moult ira^rtww.'—Mon- 
strelet in Rayn. Thus brack, which sig- 
nifies in the first instance water contami- 
nated by dirt, might easily be appUed to 
water spoilt for drinking by other means, 
as by a mixture of sea water. 

But upon the whole I am inclined to 
think that the apphcation to water con- 
taminated with salt is derived from the 
G. and Du. brack, u'mc^,refijse, damaged ; 
dicitur de mercibtis quibusdam minus 
probis. — KiL Brak-goed, merces sub- 
mersx, salo sive aqua marini corruptae. 
—Kil. PLD. brakke grund, land spoilt 
by an overflow of sea water; Du. brakke 
torf, turf made offensive by a mixture of 
sulphur {where the meaning would well 
agree with the sense of the Gael, and 
Prov. root); wrack, brack, acidus, salsus. 
— KiL See Broker. 

From the sense of water unfit for drink- 
ing from a mixture of salt, the word 
passed on to signify saltwater in general, 
and the diminutive braekisk was appro- 
priated to the original sense. 

The entreliis eik fHr in the fludis brakt 
I sal ilyng.— D. V, in K. 
Bracket. A bracket is properly a 
cramp-iron holdingtiiings together; then 
a stand cramped to a walL Brackets in 
printing are claws holding tc^ether an 
isolated part of the tex^. Fr, brame, a 
mortise for holding thmgs togeUier — 




binding anyihing together. — Zalli. 
From brake in the sense of constraining. 
See Urace, Brake. 

To Bra^.— Brave. Primarily to crack, 
to make a noise, to thnist oneself on 
people's notice by noise, swagger, boast- 
ing, or by gaudy dress and show. Fr. 
biaguer, to flaunt, brave, btag or jet it ; 
braguard, gay, gallant, flaunting, also 
bra^ard, bragging. — Cot. on. braka, 
Dan. brag, crack, crash ; on. braka, to 
crash, to crack, also insolenter se gerere — 
Haldorsen ; Gael, iraf,*, a buret, eiiplosion; 
breigaireachd, empty pride, vain glory, 
boasting ; Bret, braga, se pavaner, 
marcher dtine manitre fi^re, se donner 
trop de licence, se parer de beaux habits. 
Langued. brag&, to strut, to make osten- 
tation of his equipage, riches, &c. Swiss 
Rom. braga, vaiiier une chose. — Vocab. 
de Vaud. Lith. brasskXti, to rattle, be 
noisy ; Fiis. braike, to shout, cry, make a 
noise ; Dan. braske, to boast or brag. 

In like manner to crack is used for 
boasting, noisy ostentation. 

But ibeicof set ibe miller not a tare 
He cradled host and swore it ozs nat'so. 

Brag was then used in the sense of 
brisk, proud, smart 
Seest tbou thilk utme hnwtbom stud 
How iraglji it begins lo bud. — Shephetd's Cal. 

Equivalent forms are Gael breagh, fine, 
well-dressed, splendid, beautiful, Sc. brd, 
braiv, Bret, brao, brav, gayly dressed, 
handsome, fine. 

Thus we are brought to the OE. brave, 
finely dressed, showy j bravery, finery. 

The sense of courageous comes imme- 
diately from the notion of bragging and 
boasting. Gael, brabhdair, a noisy talk- 
ative fdlow, blusterer, bully ; brab'hdadk, 
idle talk, bravado j Fr. bravache, a roist- 
erer, swaggerer, bravackerie, boasting, 
vaunting, bragging of his own valour.— 
Cot IL bravare and Fr. braver, to swag- 

fcr, affront, flaunt in fine clothes ; Sp. 
rave, bullying, hectoring, brave, valiant ; 
sumptuous, expensive, excellent, fine. Fr. 
brave, brave, gay, fine, gorgeous, gallant 
(in apparel) ; also proud, stately, brag- 
gard ; also valiant, stout, courageous, 
that will carry no coals. Fah-e le brave, 
to stand upon terms, to boast of his own 
WOTth. — CoL 

Sweet wort 

Hir« moulh wuswect ai Iraiil oi the metli. 

From w. brag, malt, and that from 
bragio, to sprout ; L e. sprouted com. 

To Broia. See Bray. 

Brail.— To Brail. From Fr, braia, 
breeches, drawers, was formed brayeU, 
brayete, the bridge or part of the breeches 
joining the two legs. A slight modifica- 
tion of this was brayeul, the feathers 
about the hawk's fundament, called by our 
falconers the brayle in a short-winged, 
and the pannel in a long-winged hawk. — 
Cot. From brayel, or from braie itself, is 
also derived Fr. desbraiUer,\o unbrace or 
let down the breeches, the opposite of 
which, brailler ^though it does not appear 
in the dictionaries), would be to brace, to. 
tie up. Rouchi briler, to cord a bale of 
goods, to fasten the load of a wa^on 
with ropes. — H^carL 

Hence E. brails, the thongs of leather 
by which the pen-feathers of a hawk's 
wing were tied up ; to brail up a sail, to 
tie it up like the wing of a hawk, in order 
to prevent its catching the wind. 

Brain. AS. braegenj Du. bregke, 
breghen, breyne. 

&ak«.— Brfiy. The meanings of 
brake are very numerous, and the deriva- 
tion entangled with influences from differ- 
ent sources. A brake is, 

I. A bit for horses ; a wooden frame in 
which the fi^et of vicious horses are con- 
fined in shoeing ; an old instrument of 
torture ; an inclosure for catde ; a car- 
riage for breaking in horses ; an instru- 
ment for checking the motion of a wheel ; 
a mortar ; a baker's kneading trough ; an 
instrument for dressing flax or hemp ; a 
harrow, — HaL 

3. A bushy spot, a bottom overgrown 
with thick tangled brushwood. 

3. The plant _/irr«. 

The meanings included under the first 
bead are all reducible to the notion of 
constraining, confining, compressing, sub- 
duing, and It is very likely that the root 
brak, by which this idea is conveyed, is 
identical with Gael, brae, w. braick, Lat. 
brachium, the arm, as the tj-pe of exertion 
and strength. It is certain that the word 
for arm is, in numerous dialects, used in 
the sense of force, power, strength. Thus 
Bret, breach, Sp. braxo, Walloon breu, 
Wallachlan bratsou, Turk basu are used 
in both senses. 

It will be found in the foregoing ex- 
amples that brake is used almost exactly 
in ue sense of the Lat. subigere, express^ 
ing any kind of action by which sotftc* 


thing is subjected to external force, 
brougbt under control, reduced to a con- 
dition in which it is serviceable to our 
wants, or the instrument by which the 

ON. braka, subigere, to subdue. In 
this sense must be expkined the expres- 
sion of breaking in horses, properly brak- 
ing or subduing them. To the same 
head must be referred brake, a horse's 
bit, It ^tii:(i,ahorse'B twitch. iiS.bracan, 
to pound, to knead or mix up in a mortar, 
to rub, farinam in mortario subigere; Sp. 
bregar, to exert force in different ways, 
to bend a bow, to row, to stiffen against 
difficulties (se raidir contre — Taboada), 
to knead ; Ptov. bre^a, Corrtre bredgea, 
bredsa^ to rub {as m washing linen — 
Beronie), Fr. broyer, to bray in a mortar. 
The Fr. broyer is also useafor the dress- 
ing of fl^x or hemp, passing it through a 
brake or frame consisting ofboards loosely 
locking into each other, by means of 
which the fibre is stripped from the stalk 
or core, and brought mto a serviceable 
condition. As there is so much of actual 
breaking in the operation, it is not sur- 
prising that the word has here, as in the 
case (rf horse-brtakiHg, been confounded 
whh the verb break, to fracture. We 
have thus Du. braecken het vlasch, fran- 
gere linum.— Biglotton. Fr. briser, con- 
casser le lin. So in G. fiachs breckai, 
white in other dialects the words are kept 
distinct. Pl.D. broken, Dan. brage, to 
break flax; VID. braeken,T>aii.. bra7tke,\a 
break or fracture. It is remarkable that 
the tenn for braking flax in Lith. is 
braukli, signifying to sweep, to brush, to 
strip. The ON. h-ak is a frame in which 
skins are worked backwards and forwards 
through a small opening, for the purpose 
of incorporating them with the grease 
employed as a dressing. Swiss Rom. 
brew, a spinning-wheeL — Voc. de Vaud. 
Inlike manner Lat subigere is used for 
any kind of dressing. 
Sive radem primos lanam glomerabat in nsus 
Seu digilis snbigchat opus. — Ovid. 

In the case of the ne. brake, Gael. 
traca, a harrow, Dan. brage, to harrow 
(Lat glebas subigere, segetes subigere ara- 
tris), the notion of breaking Sovn the 
clods again comes to perplex our deriva- 

In other cases the idea of straining or 
exerting force is more distinctly preserved. 
Thus the term brake was applied to the 
handle of a cross-bow, the lever by which 
4he string was drawn up, as in Sp. bregar 


ei arco, to bend a bow, Fr. bragutr un 
canon, to bend or dirert a cannon. The 
same name is given to the handle of a 
ship's pump, the member by which the 
force of the machine is exerted. It braca, 
brace on board a ship. 
Brake. 2. In the sense of a thicket, 
cluster of bushes, bush, there is consider- 
able difficulty in the derivation. The 
equivalent word in the other Teutonic 

dialects is frequently made to signify a 
marsh or swamp. Du. broeck, Pl.D. 
brook, a fen, marsh, low wet land ; G. 
bruck, a marsh, or a wood in a marshy 
place ; brook, grassy place in a heath — ■ 
" ;rysselAlmanach; NE. irc^, a swampy 
bushy place^Hal. ; Mid. Lat. bro- 
gilum, broilium, broHum, nemus, sylva 
aut saltus in quo ferarum venatio exer- 
Duc. OFr. brogilU, bregilU, 
broil, broiilet, breuil, copse-wood, cover 
for game, brambles, brusnwood. G. dial. 
gebrage, gebriicke, a brake, thicket. 
Inquirers have thus been led in tvro di- 
eciions, the notion of wetness leading 
ome to connect the word with E. brook, 
a stream, Gr. Mxv, to moisten, and Lat. 
riguus, watered, while others have con- 
sidered the fundamental signification to 
be broken ground, with the bushes and 
tangled growth of such places. 

The latter supposition has a remark- 
able contiimation in the Finnish Ian- 
guageSj where from Esthon. murdma, to 
bre^ IS formed murd, gebusch, gebrjige, 
a thicket, brake, bush, pasture, quarry ; 
from Fin. murran, murlaa, to break, 
murrokfco, sylva ubi arbores sunt vento 
diffracts et transversim cullapsse, multi- 
tudo arborum vel nemorum diffractorum 
et collapsorum. And this probably was 
the original meaning of G. bruck, ge- 
briicke, gebroge, E. orog or brake. A 
break of such a kind, or overthrow of 
trees b^ the wind, is most likely to take 
place m low wet ground where their 
roots have less hold, and when once 
thrown down, in northern climates, they 
stop the fiow.of water and cause the 
growth of peat and moss. Thus the 
word, which originally designated a 
broken mass of wood, might come to 
signify a swamp, as in Du. and G., as 
well as in the case of the e. bro^ above 
mentioned. A brake is explamed in 
Palmer's Devonshire Glossary as ' a bot- 
tom overgrown with thick tangled brush- 
wood.' It. fratto, broken ; fraita, any 
thicket of brakes, brambles, bushes, or 
briers. — Fl. 
. Brak^-^Bnuton. 3. It maybe sus- 




pected \}M brake, in the sense tXfem, 
a secondaiy application of the word : 
the sense last described, that is to sa^, 
that it may be so named as the natural 
^owth of brakes and bushy places. It 
IS certain that we find closely-resembling 
forms applied to several kinds of plants 
the natural growth of waste places and 
such as are designated by the tenn 
brake, bruch, &c. Thus we have w. 
bruk, heath ; on. brok, sedge ; burkni, 
Dan. bregne, bracken or fern ; Port. 
drejo, sweet broom, heath, or ling, also a 
marshy low gronnd or fen ; Grisons 
truck, heath. 

It may be however that the relationship 
runs in the opposite direction, and e. 
brake, brog, G. Iruch, gebrage, gebriiche, 
&c., may be so callea in analogy with 
Bret brvgek, a heath, from brug, brmk, 
heath, or with It. bntgkera, thick brakes 
of high-grown ferns (Flor,), as places 
overgrown with brakes or fern, heath 
(Bret, bruk, brug), broom, or other plants 
of a like nature. The relation of brake 
to bracken may originally have been that 
of the Bret, brug, heath, to irugen, a 
single plant of heaU). See Brush. 

Brambl«. — Broom, as. bremel, Pl.D. 
brummel; Du. braeme, breme; Sw.G. 
brum, bramble ; Du. brem, brom, broem, 
PLD. braaiH, G. bram, al&aji/riemkrattt, 
pfiiemen, broom, the leafless plant of 
which besoms are made. 

It will be found that shrubs, bushes, 
brambles, and waste growths, are looked 
on in the first instance as a collection of 
twigs or shoots, and are commonly de- 
signated from the word signifying a twig, 
Thus in Lat. from virga, a rod or twig, 
virguUum, a shrub ; from Servian prut, 
a taA,pru/ye, a shrub ; from Bret. Srous, 
a bud, and thence a shoot, brouskoad, 
bruskoad, brushwood, wood composed of 
twigs. Bav. brass, brasst, a shoot, Serv. 
brst, young sprouts, Bret, broust, hallier, 
buisson fort epais, a thick bush, ground 
fill! of briers, thicket of brambles— Cot. ; 
Fr. broussaille, a briery plot. In like 
manner the word brimtble is from Swiss 
brotn, a bud, young twig {brom-beisser, 
the bull-finch, E. bud-biter or bud-bird— 
Halliwell) ; Grisons brumbel, a bud j It. 
bromboli, broccoli, cabbage sprouts — Fl. ; 
Piedm. bronbo, a vine twig ; ^Av.p/rcpf, 
a shoot or twig. 

The pointed shape of a young shoot 
led to the use of the G. p/riem in the 
sense of an awl, and the word bramble 
itself was applied in a much wider sense 
than it is at present to any thorny 


growth, as as. brambel-te^l, the thorn 
^ple or stramonium, a plant bearing a 
fruit covered with spiky thorns, and in 
Chaucer it is used of the rose. 
And swele as ii the brftmble flower 
Tbatbearelh thered hepe.— Sir Topax. 
AS. Tkomas and bremelas, thorns and 
briars. Gen. iii. i8. 

Bran. Bret, brenn, w. bran, II brenna, 
breada, Fr. bran. The fundamental sig- 
nification seems preserved in Fr. bren, 
excrement, ordure ; Rouchi bren (ToriU, 
ear-wax ; berneux, snotty ; Russ. bren, 
mud, dirt ; Bret, brenn hesken, the refiise 
or dropping of the saw, sawdusL Bran 
is the draff or excrement of the com, 
what is cast out as worthless. 
lis ressemblent le Imrelel 
Selonc I'Ecrilure Divine 
Qui giete la blanche farine 
FoTS de lui et tetieni le brtm. — Dncaniie. 

So Swiss ga^gi, chaff, from gaggi, 
cack. Gael brem, breun, stink ; breanax, 
a dunghill, W. hrwnt, nasty. 

Branch. — Branfc. We have seen 
under Brace and Brake many instances 
of the use of the root brak in the sense 
of strain, constrain, compress. The na- 
sahsation of this root gives a form brank 
in the same sense. Hence the Sc, brank, 
a bridle or bit ; to brank, to bridle, to 
restrain. The witches' brants was an 
iron bit for lorture ; GaeL brang, brancas, 
a halter. The same form becomes in It. 
branca, branchia, the fang or claw of a 
beast ; brancaglie, all manner of gripings 
and clinchings ; among masons and car- 
penters, all sorts of fastening together of 
stonework or timiier with braces of lead 
or iron. — Florio. Brancare, to gripe, to 
clutch. Then by comparifion with claws 
or arms, Bret, brank. It branca, Fr, 
tranche, the branch of a tree. 

Brand, i, A mark made by burning. 
G. brandmurk, brandmahl, from brand, 
burning ; brinnen, to bum. 2. As ON. 
brandr, G. brand, a burning fragment of 
wood. AswordiscaUedaJrandTbecaiise 
it glitters when waved about like a flam- 
ing torch. The Cid's sword on the same 
principle was named ttMd, from Lat. 
titio, a firebrand. — Diei. 

The derivation from brennen, to bum, 
would leave nothing to be desired if the 
foregoing meanings stood alone. But we 
find It. brano, brandello, a piece or bit; 
brandone, a large piece of anything, a 
torch or firebrand ; Fr. brin, a small 
piece of anything ; brin & brin (as It. 
brane a brand), bit by bit, piecenneal ; 
brindeUa, the twigs of a besom \ on. 


irwtdr, N. brand, a stick, stake, billet, as 
well as dte blade of a sword. Thus the 
irand in ON. eldibrandr, E, firebrand, 
might signify merely a piece of wood or 
billet, and in the sense of a sword-blade 
might be explained from its likeness to a 
stick. The corresponding form in Gael, is 
bruan, a fragment, morsel, splinter, which 
with an initial s becomes spruan, brush- 
wood, fire-wood. Sc brane-waod, fire- 
wood, not, as Jamieson explains it, from 
AS. bryne, incendium, but from the fore- 
going brano, britt, bruan. 

Quhyn ibay had beiriC tyk baltit bollis, 

And irame-vnxi lirynl in bailis. 

To Brandish. — Brandle. To brand- 
ish, to make shine with shakily, to shake 
to and fro in the hand. — Bailey. Fr, 
brandir, to hurl with great force, to make 
a thing shake by the force it is cast with, 
to shine or glister with a gentle shaking ; 
brandilUr, to brandle, shake, totter, also 
to glisten or ftash.^ — Cot 

Commonly explained from the notion 
of waving a brand or sword. But this is 
too confined an origin for so widely-spread 
a word. Manx bransey, to dash, Rouchi 
braner, Bret, braitsella, Fr. bransler, 
branUr, to shake. 

Brandy. Formerly brandy-wine, Du. 
braad-vHjn, brandendt tuijn, aqua ardens, 
vinnm ardens, — Kil. Tlie inflammable 
»>irit distilled from wine. Du. brandish, 
flagrans, urens. — Kil. G. branntwein; 
i. e. gebranntet wein, distilled wine, from 
brittntn, to bum, to distil ; weinbrenner, 
distiller.— Marsh. 

Brangle. This word has two senses, 
apparently^ very distinct from each other, 
though it is not always easy to draw an 
undoubted line between them, ist, to 
scold, to quarrel, to bicker— Bailey, and 
and, as Fr. brandiller, to brandle or 
brandish. The It brandolare is ex- 
plained by Florio, to brangle, to shake, 
to shog, to totter. 

The tre trangillis, hoisting \o (he fall. 

With lop trimbling, and biauchis shakand alL 

D. V. 59. so- 
In this application the word seems 
direct from the Fr. branler, the speiling 
with ng (instead of the nd in brandle) 
being an attempt to represent the nasal 
«nmd of the Fr. n. In the same way the 
Fr. braiisli, a round dance, became 
brangle or brawl in E. ; It. branla, 
French brawl or brangle. — FL 

From the sense of shaking probably 
arose that of throwing into disonler, put- 
ting to confiision. 

TbiB was thb uanper's faction iraiigltd, then 

ouod up again, and afterward divided Ofain by 
'ant of worth in Ballol their tiead.— Hume in 

To embrangle, to conflise, perplex, con> 
found. The sense of a quairel may be 
derived from the idea of confusion, or in 
that sense brangle may be a direct imita- 
tion of the noise of persons quarrelling, 
as a nasalised form of the Piedm. bragaU, 
■ I vociferate, make an outcry. 

Braae. — Braaer.— Brasil To broM 
meat is to pass it over hot coals ; a 
braser, a pan of hot coals. It. bracea, 
bracia, bragia, Fr. braise, Port, brasa, 
live coals, glowing embers ; braieiro, a 
pan of coals. 

The word brisil, brasil, was in use 
before the discovery of America in the 
sense of a bright red dye, the colour of 
braise or hot coals, and the name of 
Brazil was given because a dyewood, 
supplying a more convenient source of 
the colour than hitherto known, was 
found there. ' A qual — agora se chama 
do Brasil pior caso do pao vermilho aue 
della vem : ' which at present is called 
Brasil on account of the red wood which 
;s from thence.— De Goes, Chron. 
de Don Emanuel in Marsh. The name 
of Santa Crui having been originally 
given to the country, De Bairos considers 
tt an eminent triumph of the devil that 
the name of that holy wood should have 
been superseded by the name of a wood 
used in dyeing cloths. 

In the Catalonian tarifs of the 13th 
century the word is very common in the 
forms brasil, brazil, bresil. 

La al-Jou molt gorancc et walde 
Et iritil et alun el graine 
Doat joa gaaiag nie* dras et !aine. 
Michel. Chron. du Roi Guiil. d'Angl. in Mush. 
Diez seems to put the cart before the 
horse in deriving the word from ON. 
brasa, to braie or lute, to solder iron. It 
is more likely derived from the roaring 
sound of flame. G. brausen, prasseln, to 
roar, to crackle; as. brastlian, to bruslle, 
crackle, bum. — Lye. Sw. brasca, faire 
fracas, to make display ; Milan, brasci, 
to kindle, set on fire. — Diez. Oris, brasca, 
sparks. Sw. brasa, to blaze, also as a 
noun, a roaring fire. Fr. embraser, to 
set on fire ; Wallon. bruzi, braise, hot 
ashes ( Pied, brusi, It. bruciare, Fr. 
brvsler, br&ler, to bum. E, brustle, to 
crackle, to make a noise like straw or 
small wood in burning, to rustle. — Kalli- 
well. Fr. bruire, to murmur, make a 
noise, and bruir, breuir, to bum. — 




Rocfuerort 'E tut son coips aider el 
bruir' — Rayn. 

Brssa. — Bronse. as. bras, from being 
iised in the braiing or soldering of iron. 
ON. bras, solder, especially tlmt used in 
the working of iron ; at brasa, fcmiini- 
nare, to solder. The verb is probably 
derived from the brase, or glowing coals 
. over which the soldering is done ; Fr. 
braser largint, le repasser un pen sur la 
braise. — Cot. The same correspondence 
is seen between It broiuu, bummg coals, 
broitsacchiarg, to carbonaido, as rashers 
upon quick burning coals, bromare, to 
braje, to copper, and bronso, brass, pan- 
metal — Flono. 

Brat. A rag, a contemptuous name 
for a young child. — Bailey. AS. brat, a 
doab, a clout, w. brat, a rag. GaeL 
brai, a mantle, apron, cloth; bratach, a 
banner. A brat is commonly used for a 
child's pinafore in many parts of Eng- 
land. PLD. slakker-iortchen, a slabber, 
ing-bib. For the application to aj;hild 
compare Brei. trul,pil, a rag ; truhn or 
^len (in the feminine form), a contempt- 
uous name for a woman, a slut So also 
Lap. slibro, a rag ; ttetla slibro {tuita, 
girl), a little girl. 

Brattice.— Bartixon. A brattice is a 
fence of boards in a mine or round dan- 
gerous machinery, from Se. bred, C. brelt, 
Du. berd, a plank or board, as lattice, a 
frame of laths, from Fr. lalte, a lath. 

A bretise or bretage is then a parapet, 
in the first instance of boards, and m a 
latinised shape it is applied to anyboarded 
structure of defence, a wooden tower, a 
parapet, a testudo or temporary roof to 
cover an attack, &c. Sc 6rettys,a. forti- 
fication,— Jam, Befrax of a walle (pre- 
tasce, bretayi), propi^naculum. — Pr. Pm. 
It. bertesca, baltresca, a kind of rampart 
or fence of war made upon towers ; a 
block-house. — Altieri, Fr. breiegue, bre- 
Usque, bretesche, a portal of def^ice in the 
rampire of a town. — Cot. 

Dii£e testudiaes qiias Gallic^ tmltsdus appel- 
lant. — Malh. Paris. A.D. 1114. Circumeunt ci- 
vitalem cnslellis etturribuiligndset itrltickiii. 
Hist. Pisaaaia Mur. A.U. 1156. 

A wooden defence of the forej^oing de- 
scription round the deck of a ship, or on 
the top of a wall, was called by the 
Norsemen vig-gyrSill, a battle-girdle. 
' Med endiiongum bsnom var umbuii a 
husum uppi, reistr upp bord-vidr a utan- 
verdom tnaukom sva sem viggyrdlat 
VEri.' Along the town things were pre- 
pared up on the houses, boarding being 
raised up out on the roo& like the battle 

rampire on board a ship.— Sverris Saga; 

Then as parapets and battlements 
naturally took the shape of projections on 
the top of a building, the term breteseke 
was applied to projecting turrets or the 
like t>eyond the face of the waU, 

Ud posiesseur d'un heritage— ne pcait fain 
brtUiquei, boutures, saiUies, ni autres chom sur 

Now this is precisely the ordinary 
sense of the E. bartisanj ' the small over- 
hanging turrets which project from the 
angles or the parapet on the top of a 
tower.' — Hal. 

That the town eoioun be put upon the itr- 
Hsaie of the steeple. — Jam. 

The word is also used in the sense of 
a fence of stone or wood. Jam, Sup. It 
may accordingly be explained as a cor- 
ruption o( bratticing,bretfysing, barUsing, 
equivalent to the Du. Sordermge, coas- 
satio, contignatio. — Kil. 

Brave. See Brag. 

Brawl. I. A kind of dance. Fr. 
branile, branle, from branler, to shake. 
See Brandish, Brangle. 

2. A dispute or squabble. Certainly 
from the confiised noise, whether con- 
tracted from brabble, as scrawl from 
scrabble, or whether it be from Fr. brailler, 
frequentative of bratre, to cry, as criaiUer 
of crier. Swiss bradle, deblaterare, brad- 
lete, strepitus linguarum. — Deutsch. 
Mundart. a. 368. Dan. bralle, to talk 
much and high ; at bralle op, to scold 
and make a disturbance ; vraaU, to 
tiawl, squall, roar. GaeL braodkiiuk, 
brawling, noise, discord ; braoHicM, a 
loud noise. The term brawl is also ap- 
plied to the noise of broken water, as a 
brawling brook. See Bray. 

Brawn. TTie muscular part of the 
body. It brano, brandillo, brandone, 
any piece, cob, luncheon, or collop of 
fiesh violently pulled away from the 
whole.— Fl. OMG. brdto (ace. bratftn), Fris. 
braede, braeye, a lump of flesh, fle^ of a 
leg of pork, calf of the leg.— Diei. KiL 
Prov. bradon, brasott, braon, OFr. braion, 
Lorraine bravoft, a lump of flesh, the 
buttocks, muscular parts of the body; 
Wall. breyoH, a lump, breyon d'ckaur, 
bribe de viande, bas morceau de viande 
fraiche, breyon de eamies, the calf of the 
leg.— Remade. Westphal. bran, Cologne 
broden, calf of the leg, buttock ; Sc brand, 
calf of the leg; Sp. brahon for bradon, a 
patch of cloth. OFr. eibraoner. It, 
sbranare, to tear piecemeal. See Br&nd 

To Bra7.— Braid. Many kinds of 


loud harsh noise are represented by the 
syllable bra, bru, with or without & final 

Yi. bratre, to bray like an ass, bawl, 
yell, or cry out loudly ; iruire, to nimble, 
rusde, crash, to sound very loud and 
very harshly ; brugier, to bellow, yell, 
roar, and make a tiideous noise.— Cot. 
Prov, bruiir, to roar or bellow. 

Gr. ft^x") 'o crash, roar, rattle, re- 
sound ; /Sp^x", to roar. ON. brak, crash, 
noise ; vapna-brak, the clash of aims ; 
Dan. brags, to crash, crackle; E. bray, 
applied to loud harsh noises of many 
kinds, as the voice of the ass, the sound 
of aims, &C. 

Heard je the din of battle tray t 

With a terminal rf we have Prov. 
iraidir, braidar, to cry; Port bradar, to 
cry out, to bawl, to roar as the sea. OE. 
to brmd, a^atd, upbraid, to cry out, 
make a disturbance, to scold. 
Quolti Beiyn to the seriauntes, That ye me 

hoDdith so 
Or wliat have I of&ndit, or what have I seide? 
Tmrlich quoth (he serjauntis it vaylitA nal te 

bnidt (there is no use ciyiug out) 
With us ye must awhile whether ye woll or no. 

Then as things done on a sudden or 
with violence are accompanied by noise, 
we find the verb to btay or braid used to 
express any kind of sudden or violent 
action, to rush, to start, to snatch. 
Ane blustetand bub out fra the North brafing 
Gan OCT the foreschip in the baksail diug.— D. V. 
Syoe jtikldi dry to kyndill there attout laid is, 
Qobill aJl In flame the bleis of lyre a^radit. 
D. V. 
i. e. starts crackling up. 

Tbe cup wat uncoveiid, the sword was init 
ybrayid. — Beiyn. 

A torgyt knyff but bajd he bradii out.— Wal- 
bce IX. 145. 

But when as I did out of slepe . tray.—F. Q. 

The miller is b perlous man he seide 

And if that he oat of his slcpe airndt 

He might don us both a rillany.— Chaucer. 

The ON. bragd is explained motus 
guiiibel ctliriorj at bragdi, instantane- 
ously, at once, as OE. 0/ 1 braid. 

ON. augnabragd, a wink, tn inkling of 
the eye. Then, as the notion .if turning 
is often connected with swiflneas of mo- 
tion, to braid acquires the sense of bend, 

turn, twist, plait. 

And with a ir»id I tumyt me atouL -DunbBr 

ON. bregSa, to braid the hair, weave 
nets, &c The ON. bragS\% also applied 
to the gestures by which an individual 
is characterised, and hence also to the 
lineaments of his countenance, explain- 
ing a very obscure application of me E, 
braid. Bread, appearance— Bailey ; to 
braid, to pretend, to resemble. — HaL 
To pretend is to assume the appearance 
and manners of another. ' Ye braid of 
the miller's dog,' you have the manners 
of the miller's dog. To braid of one's 
father, to have the lineaments of one's 
father, to resemble him. ON. bragr, 
gestus, mos; at braga eflir sinum, to 
imitate or resemble one. n. braa, kind, 
soft ; braa, to resemble. 

On the same principle may be explain- 
ed a passage of Shakespeare, whidi has 
given much trouble to commentators. 

Since Frenchmen aie so iraid. 
Many who will, I'll live and die a nuud. 
The meaning is simply, 'since such are 
the manners of Frenchmen, &c.' 

To Bray. 2. To rub or grind down 
in a mortar. Sp. bregar, to work up 
paste or dough, to knead; Prov. Cat. 
bregar, to rub; Fr. broyer, Bret braea,Xo 
bray in a mortar, w. breuan, a miU, a 
brake for hemp or flax. See Brake. 

Breach, as, brice, Fr. brecke,a. breach 
or brack in a wall, &c.— Cot From the 
verb to break. 

Bread. oN. brauS. o. brot. 

To Break. Goth, brikan, brak, G. 
brechen, Lat. frangere, /racfus; Gr. 
pnywiu, to break, pikoc, a rag; Fin. rik- 
koa, to break, to tear; Bret, re^, rogi, to 
break, to tear ; rog, a rent. 

The origin is doubtless a representation 
of the noise made by a hard thing break- 
ing. In like manner the word crack is 
used both to represent the noise of a 
fracture, and to signify the fracture itself, 
or the permanent effects of it. The same 
relation is seen between Lat fragor, a 
loud iiQ\s,e, 3.ii& frangere, ta break; Fr. 
fracas, a crash, disturbance, and fracas- 
ser, to break. The Lat. crepo and E. 
crash are used to signiiy both the noise 
made in breaking and the firacturc itself. 
The Swiss has bratschen, to smack or 
crack, bratscke, a brack, breach, or 

Bream. A broad-shaped fresh-water 
fish, cyprinus laius. Fr. brame, Du. 
braessem. Swiss bratickig, ill-favouredly 

,.,.d.:, Google 


AS. hvoit, Goth, hvjls, Du, 
borst. Perhaps the original meaning 
may be a ckesl. Prov. irul, brttc, bmsc, 
the bust, body; brostia, bnistia, a box. 

Bre&th. as. brath, an odour, scent, 
breath. Originally probably the word 
signified steam, vapour, as the C. brodem, 
irodel, broden. 

The caller wine in cave is loaght 

Mens JrWAiiif breiiU Co cule. — Hume in Jam. 

See Broth. 

BroMliM. Lat brata, bracea; Bret. 
bragew; ON, brok, brakur; It braelus 
Prov. bragOfbraia; OFr. 6raguei,braUs. 
The origin is the root 6rak in the sense 
of stiaiaing, bindinE, fastening; the ori- 
ginal breeches being (as it must be sup- 
posed)a bandage wiappied round the hips, 
and brought beneatn between the legs. 
Hence the Lat luiligar, subligaculum, 
from Ugare, to bicd Piedm. braga, 
braca, a cramp-iron for holding things 
together, a horse's twitch; Fr. braU, 
braies, a twitch for a horse, bandage or' 
truss for a rupture, clout for a child, 
drawers. Bracha, a girdle. — GL Isidore 
and TaCian. 

The Brtech fProv.'' braguierj braia) 
may be explained as the part covered by 
the breeches, but more probably the E. 
term designates the part on which a boy 
is brMched or flogged, a word formed 
from the sound of a loud smack. Swiss 
bratsch, a smack, the sound of a blow 
with the flat hand, or the blow itself; 
bratschen, to smack; brdtscher, an in- 
strument for smacking, a fly-flap, &c. 
O, diaL i^esiervialS) pritschen,britsche«, 
to lay one on a bench and strike him 
with a flat board ; Du. bridseit, de bridge 
geveit, m£t de btidsc slaan, xyligogio 
cast^^. — Biglotton. PLD. britze, an 
instrument of laths for smacking on the 
breech ; einem de briUe geven, to Strike 
one on the breech so that it smacks 

In like manner it is not improbable 
that Fr, fisses, the breech or buttocks, 
instead of being derived from LM._fissus, 
cloven, as commonly explained, may be 
from the verh/esser, to breech, to scourge 
on the buttocks (Cot), corresponding to 
G. Jitsen, peitscken, and E. to feize or 
feau, to whip, forms analogous to E. 
tvntek, representing the sound of a blow. 

Breese. Fr. brUe, a cool wind. It. 
brexza, chillness or shivering, a cold and 
windy mist or frost ; brezxare, to be 
misty and cold, windy withal, also fo 
chill and shiver with cold. 


The otigia is the nnitalion of a nut- 
ling noiu, as by the Sc. bristle, pnqierlf 
to crackle, then to broil, to uy; Swiss 
Rom. brire, to rattle (as hail), nnuner, 
munuur — Vocab. de Vaud. ; brisoler, bre- 
jo/^ to roast, to fry; Pot pU brtsoU^^dat 
singing bone. — GL Gdn6v, Then frcnn a 
simmering, twittering sound the term is 
apphed to shivering, tremUiiig, as in tbs 
case of hvitUr, which signifies in the 
first instance a continuous broken sound, 
and is then used in the sense of tremb- 
ling. We have thus It brisciare, Aret- 
tare, to shiver for cold. Compaie OK. 
pTiV/, chilly, with It. gril/are, to simmer, 
Fr. griiUr, to crackle, broil, Do. grilUm, 
to shiver. — Halma. 

Brmu.— Brias.— Bri«t The mdcs 
and cinders sold by the London duacmen 
for brickmaking are known by the name 
of breeze. In other [urts of Eneland the 
term brist or brist is in use for dust, rub- 
bish. Brits and bullons, sheep's drop* 
Eings ; brust, the dry spines of fiirze 
roken off.— Dev. GL Piedm. brost^, orts, 
the ofial of hay and straw in feeding 
cattle; Sp.^ra.«ii, remains of leaves, bark 
of trees, and other rubbish ; Fr. brit, 
debris, rubbish; brit de ckarbon, coal- 
dust ; bresilles, bretillet, little bits of wood 
— Bern ; briier, to break, burst, crush, 
bruise ; Bret, bruzun, a crum, morsd ; G. 
brosame, a crum; Du. brijsen, brnteltn, 
to bray, to crush ; GaeL bris, brita, brist, 
to break; Dan. britU, to burst, break, 
fail. See Brick, Bruise. 

Braeze. — Brico. G. brtmu, brtmM, 
AS. brimta, briesa, a gadfly, from the 
buzzing or bining (as it is pronounced in 
the N. of E.) sound with which the gadfly 
heralds bis attack- 
A fierce kind buiaog irttM, Ibdr lUiics dmr 

And drive the callle gadding through the wood- 

As AS. britrtta, G. bremse, point to c. 
brummett, Fris. brimme, to hum, so as. 
briesa, E. breeze, are related to Ptuv. 
brvzir, to murmur, to resound, Swiss 
Rom. brison, bresoM, noise, murmur, 
Russ. briosat', to bun; 

To Brew. The origin of the word is 
shown by the Mid.Lat. forms, brasian, 
braciare, braxare, Fr. bratter, to brew, 
from brace, brasium, OFr. brat, branx, 
6reiz, braicb,W. brag,spmiitedcom, 
malt. So ON. brvgga, Sw. brygga, to 
brt;w, from AS. brug, malt; 'brug, po- 
lenta.'— Gl. AS. in Schilter. 

The Teutonic verbs, G. brauem, Du. 
brouwen, E. brew, are in like maimer 



Iran a. fonn similar to WalL 6rd, brau, 
Walach. braMi, malL 

If [he foregoing were not so dear, a 
satisfactory origin might have been found 
in W. benvi, to boil, the equivalent of 
Lat. firvere, whence bervi, berwedd, a 
boiling, and berweddu, to brew. GaeL 
hmitk, to boil, and ODu. brUden, to 
bre*.— Ka. 

It is remarkable that the Gr. Am'Cw, 
fififfM, to bail, would correspond in like 
manner to the Fr. brasser, which however 
b undoubtedly from iracf, malt. 
Bnwii. See Broth. 
BiQm. Fr. bribe de pain, a lump of 
bread; briber, to beg one's bread, collect 
blB of food. Hence OE. bribour, a beg- 
gar, a rogue; It btrbanU, Hrbone, a 
cheat, a n^ue, with transposition of 

A bribe is now only used in the meta- 
fjiorical sense of a sop to stop the mouth 
<tf some one, a gift for the purpose of ob- 
tBining an undue compliance. 

The origin of the word is the w. briwo, 
to break; iriw, broken, a fragment; 
iara brita, broken bread. Rouchi bri/e, 
a kmp of bread,— H^cart- 

Brick. A piece of burnt clay. — Thom- 
-son. The radical meaning is simply a 
bit, a fiagnient, being one of the numer- 
ous words derived from break, Lang. 
Mco, or brizo, a cnim; bricou, a little 
bit ; brieoufufha, to break to pieces ; 
briialio, a cntm, tittle bit, corresponding 
to OE. broeafy, tn^ken victuals, as. brice, 
fracture, fragment, klafes brice, a bit of 
bicad. In smne parts of France brique 
is still used in this sense, brioue depain, 
a lump of bread. — Diez. Brioue, frag- 
ment of anything broken, — Gl. G^n^. 
Brieoteati, a quoit of stone. — Cot. iL 
bricda, any jot or cnim, a coUop or slice 
of something.— FL 

< Bride, Brid&L Goth, bruth {brutk- 
an engaged woman, one lately possessed 
by mas, a concubine ; briuien, to have 
enjoyment of a woman, w. priod, pecu- 
liar, one's own, also, married ; —fab, 
tndegroom ; —ferch, bride ; — awr, 
owner; — oledd, property ^ Bret, prio- 
dda, marriage. To be explained from 
^iaisxT. prtmdka, married, properly, one 
otiried off, hata pra, before, and &dka, 
Rile pass, of vah (Lat. vekd), to bear, 
carry away, take in marriage. MM, a 
bride ! navSdhd, one ne>^y married. 
•Bridal, for bride-aU, the marriage feast, 
then the marri^e itself. So OSvi.ftut- 
KMgar-6i,gra/-ol, the feaat of espou»l, ; 



of burial, where the final -al of the E. 
words is from other sources. 

Bridg«.— AS. bricgej G. briicke; OSw. 
bra, brygga, as so, sugga, a. sow, be, bygga, 
toprepare,fHf>,^«i^,to rub. TheSw. 
bro is applied not only to a bridge, but to a 
paved road, beaten way ; Dan. bro, bridge, 
" ' gf, to pave. 
Tiwede,' he 

paviour is called jton-Mw*r. Vtilbnik, 
pavement ; Lith. brukiai, pavement, 
stone-bridge ; brukketi, to pave ; brvkkli, 
to press; ibrukkti, to press in, imprint 
The original sense thus seems to be to 
ram, to stamp. 

Bridle. AS. bridel; ohg. britHl,prUil ; 
Fr. bride. Perhaps this may be one of 
the cases in which the derivation of the 
word has been obscured by the insertion 
of an r. on. biHU, Dan. bidsel, a bridle, 
from bit, the part which the horse bites or 
holds in his mouth. 

So It. brstonica, betonica, betony ; bru- 
licame, bulicame, boiling up ; broeoliere, 
E. bucklers ON. brtisir and buskr, a 
bush ; Du. broosekens, E. buiktns; E. 

sumniarv or any short writing. Applied 
especially to a letter or command, to the 
king's writs. In the G. brie/it has been 
appropriated to the sense of an episde 
or letter. In E. it is applied to the letter 
of the Archbishop or similar official 
authorising a collection for a.ny purpose ; 
to the summary of instructions given to a 
barrister for the defence of his Client. 
Diclaute legadonis tiuc braimi. — Ducange. 

Biier. as. brcer, brere, but probably 
from the Normans. In the patois of 
Normandy the word briers is still pre- 
served (Patois de Bray). Fr. bruyere, a 
heath, from Bret, brur, bruk, w. £rue, 
Gael/nureh, Grisons St^cA, m«/^, heath. 
It. brughiera, a heath ; brugkera, thick 
brakes of high-grown ferns. — Flor. Mid. 
Lat. bruarium, a heath, barren land 
rough with brambles and bushes. — Due- 
Brig. A two-masted vessel. Pro- 
bably contracted from brigantine. Sp. 
bergaatino, a brig or brigantine, two- 
masted vessel .^Neumann. 

Brigade. A division of an army, from 
Fr. brigade, and that from It. brjgala, a 
company, troop, crew, brood. Trovar- 

1 the SI 


.;, Google 


brigaar ab lor,' He set himself to serve 
men of merit, and to associate with them. 
The primary meaning of Sp, bregar. It 
brigare, seems to be to exert force ; bre- 
gar el arco, to bend a bow ; It. brigare, 
to strive for, to shift for with care, labour, 
and diligence, briga, necessary business. 
— Florio. Brigata, then, would be a set 
of people engaged inacommoa occupa- 

Brigand. — Brigantine. — Brigaa- 
dime. It. briga, strife, Mid-Lat. briga, 
jurgia, rixa, pugna. — Due. It. brigare, 
to strive, brawl, combat. Probably then 
it was in the sense of skirmishers that 
the name oi brigand vas given to certain 
hght-armed foot-soldiers, frequently men- 
tioned by Froissart and his contempora- 

manid% de gens d'armes courant et apert 
ii fii.' ' Cum 4 millibus peditum arma- 
torum, duobus millibus briganium et 
ducentis equitibus.' — Chron. a.d. 1351, 
in Due. They were also called brigancii 
or briganHni. ' Brigandis et balestra- 
riis Anglicis custodiam castri muniendi 

The passage from the sense of a light- 
armed soldier to that of a man pillagii^ 
on his own account, is easily understood- 

Id Ibe time of the bataile (of A^couit) the 
briganHtit of (he Frensch took Ihe kyngii car- 
riage and led it away.— Cai^rmi'e. 31a. 
It brigante, a pirate, rover either by sea 
or land. — Flor. A similar chai^ has 
taken place in the meaning of ue It 
malandrini, in later times a robber or 
highway-man, but classed by Thomas of 
Walsingham with the Brigands as a 
species of horse-soldier. 

Rmluctus est erga et coram con^lio demon- 
stratus BrigajUinomm more semivestitus gestuis 
..... 1. — 1; .._._._.. "lites illanjin 


general notion of exertion of force. See 
Brake. In the same way to strive is, in 
the iirst instance, to exert one's force in 
the attempt to do something, and, second- 
arily, to contend with another. 

Bright.— Brilliant. Goth, bairkts, 
clear, manifest ; on. biartr, as. beorht, 
bright i bearhtm, braktm, bryhtm, a glit- 
lenng, twinkling, moment Bav. braekl, 
clang, sound, noise. — Schmeller. Ohc, 
/rii&./fiwA/, clear sound,outcry, tumult, 
and, at a later period, splendour. The e. 
bright itself was formeriy af^ied to 

Heo — icng so schille ud so trikie 
That far and ner me hit itiecde.— 

Owl and Nightingale, 1654. 
AS. beorhiian, strepere. — Beowulf 

Leod wies asungea 


Beerhtedt bene sweg. 

From brigante, in the sense of a rob- 
ber, It brtgandnre, to rob, to rove, to 
play the pirate or thief at sea, and hence 
a brigantine, a small light pinnace pro- 
per for giving chase or nghtmg — Bailey ; 
a vessd employed for the purpose of 

A brigandine was a kind of scale 
armour, also called briganden, from 
being worn by the light troops called 
Brigands. A Breton glossary quoted by 
Ducange has ' Brigandineu, Gall, brigatt- 
dine, I^t squamma ; inde squammatus, 
om^ de brigandine.' 

The sense of strife or combat express- 
ed by briga is a particular case of the 

In like manner the G.firaklen signifies 
in the first instance to speak with a loud 
voice, to cry, and secondly, to glitter, to 
shine. — Adelung. The origin of birth 
these words is the imitative root brag, 
Mzii, representing a sudden noise. Swab. 
brageti, brSgen, briegen, to cry — Schmid; 
OE. bray, braid. 

The phenomena from whence all repre- 
sentative words are immediately takot 
must of course belong to the class which 
addresses itself to the ear, and we find 
accordingly that the words expressing 
attributes of light are commonly derived 
from those of sound. So C. hell, cleai^ 
transparent, from An//, a sound, clangour. 
The Ir, gldr, a noise, voicCj speecli, 
glbram, to sound, show the origin of LaL 
darvs, clear, with respect either to sound 
or colour, and the e. tinkle, that of Fr. 
etincelle, a spark. From on. glamm, 
glamr, tinnitus, glamra, to resound, may 
he explained glampi, glitter, splendour, 
glampa, to shme, corresponding to the 
Gr. Xdfini, Xa/iirp6c. Du. sckatertn, 
scheteren, to make a loud noise, to 
shriek with laughter, zehileren, to shine, 
to glisten. In Fin. there are many 
examples of the same transfer of dg- 
nification from the phenomena of tne 
one sense to those of the other ; kilik, 
clare tinniens, clare lucens, splendens ; 
kilisiaa, tinnitum clarum moveo, s)^en- 
dorem clarum reflecto. tVilista, to ring, 
as glass ; vdiiata, v/ilella, vnlahiaa, to 


flash, to glitter ; kajaia, to resound, re- 
echo, also to reflect, shine, appear at a 
distance; ih'mu^, to sound clear (equiva- 
lent to theE.fAu««),i/mifRi,sonusacutus, 
clangor tinniens, kimtmUtaa, kiimottaa, 
to shine, to glitter ; kommeUa, komista, 
to sound deep or hollow; komottaa, to 
shine, to shinuner. 

In like manner in Galla the sound of a 
bell is imitated by the word bilbil, whence 
iilbil-goda (litcially, to make bilbil), to 
ling, to glitter, beam, rlisten, — Tutschek. 

The meaning of the Fr. brilUr, to 
shine, seems to have been attained on a 
principle exactly similar. We must pre- 
mise tSat an initial br and gr, as well as 
il and gl, frequently interchange, as in 
Langu^ briitl, Fr. gydxil, small gravel. 
It. orulio, gmllo, parched, broiled. — 
Flor. We then in Fr. the verbs 
grisier, to creak, crackle ; ^esiller, gris- 
ier, to make a crackling noise, as of meat 
in broiling ; griiler, to creak, crackle, 
broil ; ana coiresponding to these, with 
an initial br instead of gr, Sc- brissle, 
Swiss Rom. brisoUr, bresoler (Gloss. 
G€a,t<r.), to broil, to parch, identical with 
the Fr. brexilUr, briller, to twinkle, glit- 
ter, sparkle. Here it cannot be doubted 
that the original meaning of the Sc. 
briitU was derived from the crackling 
noise made by meat in broiling, as In 
AS. brastlian, to crackle, to bum. In Fr. 
bregiiier, briiltr (related to each other as 
ergsiiUr, griiler), the meaning is trans- 
ferred from the domain of the ear to that 
of the eye, from the analogous effect pro- 
duced on the sensitive frame by a crack- 
ling noise and a sparkling light. So Fr. 
pitiUtTy to crackle, to sparkle, to shake, 
to long for a thing. 

The verb briller itself seems to have 
the sense of shaking or trembling in the 
eapression brilUr apris, greedily to covet 
— Cot ; properly to tremble with impa- 

Instead of briller in this application 
the Swiss Rom. uses hresoUr (il bresole 
d'etre marfe ; os qui bresole, the singing 
bone),8trongly confirming the contraction 
of Mller from brezUler, and the cor- 
respondence of the pair with griiler, gre- 
siller J grilUr d'impatience.— Diet Tre- 

It. brillare, to quaver with the voice. 

— n. 

Brim. — Bim. g. branu, brame, Lith. 
Sreittas, border, margin, edge ; PoL brant, 
border, brim ; Magy.^^rt«,^em, a bor- 
der, fringe (LaC fimbria) ; Du. breme, 


border, lap, fringe ; on. barmr, 
border, lip of a vessel, lap of a 
^ , hence tne bosom, originally 

the lap folding over the breast. E. barm, 
the lap or bosom ; barm-cloth or barm- 
skin, an apron. 

The E. ryme, which seems identical 
with rim, is used for the sur&ce of the 
sea (Hawkins' Voyage). In the same 
way Sw. bryn is used in the sense both 
of border or edge and surface, vatiu- 
bryn, the ryme of the water ; ogtte-btyn, 
the eye-brow. Dan. *r>'«, browof afiill, 
surface of the ocean. 

To Brim. Said of swine when in 

heat. ' Subo, to brymme as a boore doth 

whan he geteth pigges.' — Elyot in Way. 

The expression is now confined to the 

"w, as IS the case also with FLD. brum- 

•n: de soge brummet, the sow is brim* 

ng.— Brem. Wtb G. bmmft, brunft, 

s neat of animals. Oosely connected 

OE. breme, brim, fierce, furious, vigor- 

s.— Hal. 

Tancred went his way and Richard wa ftiU brim. 
Langtoft, 154. 

The highest condition of ungratified 
ission, whether of desire or anger, finds 
s vent in cries and roaring. Thus Lat. 
Jremo, to roar, is used of r^ng, excited, 
or violent action. IL bramire, to roar as 
a lion, bray as an ass ; bramire, a long- 
ing or earnest desire ; bramare, eamesUy 
to wish or covet. — Fl. Prov, bramar, 
OFr, bramer, to utter cries. 

L'amour, que epoin^niK 
Toute CFCalurr a s'simcr, 
Les tall de mt si foil iramer 
Que le boil d'autour en lesonne. — Rayn. 
Sp> bramar, to roar, to storm, to fret ; 
brama, rut, the heat of animjals, Du. 
bremmen, rugire, sonitum edere ; bremett, 
ardere desiderio. — Kil. Rugere, rugire 
(cervorum, leonum), brommen, bremmen, 
brimmen, brummen. — Dief Supp. 

Brimatone. ON- brennisteiK, Sw. 
dial, brannsten, burning stone. In Ge- 
nesis and Exodus, I, 7J4, we have brim- 
Jir, and 1. 1164, brinfire, for the burning 
of Sodom: 'the M'^^isiinken smoke? 
AS. btyne, burning, on. (poet.) brimi, 

Brindled.— Briaded. Streaked, co- 
loured in strijjes. OM. brondottr, s. s. ; 
brand-krosioltr, cross-baii«d in colour, 
hma brandr, a stick, post, bar. A 
brindled cow is in Normandy called 
vache brang^e, from bringe, a rod. Hence 
with an initial i, Sc. ipraing, a streak, 
spraiHged, striped or streaked. 

Tlie identity of ON. braxdr and Fr. 


102 BRINE 

bringe is traced through the It hroMO, 
brattdtllo, a bit ; Fr. brin, a morsel, a 
slip or sprig of an herb ; Beiri, brifigue, 
3. cmm, i, morsel ; bringe, a rod or twig, 
brindtllts de balai, the twigs of a besom. 
See Brand. 

Brin*. AS. bryne, Du. briin (KiL), Sc 
brim, brime. Uquamen vef garum, /isc- 
bryne. — GL Alfr. Brym, brim (poet), the 
sea ; brymfiod, a deluge. Id Dorset sea. 
sand is called brimsand. — HaL Salte 
water, saulmeure, or bryme. — Palsgr. 
The name seems to be uJcen from the 
roaring of the waves ; ON. brim, the surf, 
breaking of the waves i brim sior, a stormy 
sea t brimhiioS, roar of the sea ; brim- 
saltr, very salt ; brimi, flame, Gr. /Spijiw, 
Fris. brimnu, to roar. See To Brim. Da. 
branding, the surf, from brande, to bum, 
can only come from comparison of the 
noise of the breakers to the roar of 

Bziak. Fr. brusque, lively, quick, rash, 
fierce, rude, harsh ; via brusque, wine of 
a sharp, smart taste. IL brusco, eager, 
sharp, luisk in taste, as unripe friiits, sour, 
grim, crabbed. 

Brisket. Fr. bricket, the brisket or 
breast-piece of meat ; Norm, bruchet, 
Adam's apple in a man's throat, breast- 
bone of birds ; Bret, brucked {¥t. ch) the 
breast, chest, craw of a bird. ' Peclus- 
culum, brutketL' — Nat, Antiq. p. 112. 
Russ. briccko, Bohem. brick, bricho (with 
the diminutives, Russ. brioshko, Boh. 
brissko), a belly. 

BriBUe. AS. byrsl; Sw, borst, Du. 
borsiel, Sc. birs, Mrse, NK brust. A thick 
elastic hair, strong enough to stand up of 
itself. Com. bros, aculeus. — Zeuss. 
Walach. borssoi (struppig), bristly; Swiss 
borzen, to stand out ; Fr. A rebcurs, 
against the grain ; rebrwsser, to turn up 
the point of anything. — Cot. Mid.Lat. 
reburrui, nbursus, sticking up ; 'In sun 
primtevi xtate habebat capitlos crispos 
et rigidos et ut ita dicam ribursos ad 
modum pini ramorum qui semper ten- 
dunt sursum.'— Vita abbatum S. Crispini 
in Due. 

The It. brisciare, breizare, to shiver 
for cold as in a fit of an ague, has under 
Breeze been connected with the Sc. 
brissU, 'birsie, birilU, to broil, to scorch, 
originally merely to crackle or simmer. 
Hence ribreazart, to shiver for cold or 
for fear, to astonish or affright with sud- 
den fear ; ribrezzoso, startling, trembling, 
full of astonishment, humorous, &ntas- 
tical, suddenly angry. 

Then as the effect of shivering, or the 

emotions which produce it, is to erect the 
hair, to birstU, brush might properly be 
used in the sense of staming, rufllmg, 
setting the hair on end, whence may be 
explained the Sc. expression, to set 1^ 
on^s birse, to put one in a rage ; birsiy, 
hot-tempered, to be compared with the 
It. ribrezzoso, angry. A cold bleak day 
is called a birsiy day, because it makes 
us shivery and goose- skinned, setting the 
hair on end ; compare It brezza, a. cold 
and windy mist or frost. 

Brittle.— Briokl«. Formerly written 
brotii, apt to break, from AS. brytan, ON. 
briota, Ptg. britar, to break. Dan. brydt, 
to break, brodden, brittle. In the N, of 
E. and Sc brickie, brockU, bruckU, ate 
used in the sense of brittle, from break. 
The Pl.D. bres, brittle, is the equivalent 
derivative from the GaeL form bris, Fr. 
briser. Bret, bresk, brusk, fragile. 

Broacli. — Abroaoh. — Broofth. To 
broach a cask is to pierce it for the pur- 
pose of drawing off the liquor, and hence, 
metaphorically, to broach a business, to 
begin upon it, to set it a going. w./>rvw, 
to thnist, to stab ; GaeL brog, to goad, to 
spur, and, as a noun, an awL Prov. 
broca, Fr. broche, a spit, a stitch ; brociur, 
to spit, stitch, spur; Prov, brocar. It 
broccare, brocdare, to stick, to spur. Sok 
broca, a brad or tack, a button ; brocit, 
a clasp, a brooch, L e. an ornamented pin 
to hold the parts of dress together. 

Lat brocchus, bronchus, a projecting 
tooth ; It. brocco, a stump or dry bran^ 
of a tree so that it prick a bud, a peg j 
sbrocco, sfirocco, a skewer, sprout, shoot. 

It is probable that there is a fuiMia- 
mental connection with the verb to break, 
the notion of a sharp point being obtain- 
ed either from the image of a broken 
stick {broeeo, stecco rotto in modo che 
punga — Altieri), or from that of a splinter 
or small fra^ent, which in the case of 
wood 01 similar material naturally takes 
the form of a prick, or finally from the 
pointed form of a bud or shoot, breaJastg 
out into growth. It. brocco, a bud, broc- 
coli, sprouts. Compare also E, prick 
with Sw. ^ricka, to crack, to shoot, tg 

A similar relation may be observed 
between Sp, brote, a bud, a fragment, 
Prov. brot, a shoot or sprig, and forms 
like the ON, briota. Port brttar, to break. 

Brood, AS. brdd,- Goth, brasdiy OK. 
breiSr; G. brtit. See Spread. 

Brocade. It. broccata, a sort of dodi 
wrought with gold and silver. Commonly 
enplaued as from Fr. blocker, to stitd^ 



intbe s»ise of embroidered. But Mura- 
tori shows that, though from the same 
(tmdamental origin, the line of develop- 
ment has been something different It. 
hvece, a, peg, stimip, or snag, is also 
appbed to a knot or bunch in silk or 
thread, whence broecare, to boss, to stud 
— FL ; broeccso, brocaito, knotty, knobby ; 
and broccato was used to signify stuff 
ornamented with a raised pile, forming 
knots or Uwps, or stuff embossed with 
gold and silver. Ptg. Jroco, a flock or 
little tuft of silk or wck>1, a flake of snow ; 
frofodura, tufted ornaments, embroidery. 

Bireok. A bax^er, from the white- 
streaked &ce of the animal GaeL broict, 
a mote, a freckle, bntcach, spotted, frec- 
kled; hnac, speckled, piebakl; brot, a 
badger ; brocaeh, Sc orcukit, brooked, 
str^iked or speckled in the &ce. Dan. 
broged, parti-coloured, brae, a badger. 
W. brech, bryeh, brindled, freckled, hy- 
cMau, motes, spots, atoms ; Bret briifh, 
trig, speckled, parti-coloured, streaked, 
PriKH, a freckle. For the same reason 
the badeer is also called Bawson, q. v. 

Bxoo£«t A hart of two years old. 
Fr. brocart, because the animal at that 
^e has a single ^arp broehe or snag to 
his antler. The fallow-deer of the same 
age was termed ^ pricket. — Cot 

ToKroidar. Fr. broder, Sp. hordar, 
to ornament with needle-work. Here 
two distinct images seem to have coal- 
esced m a common si^ification. The 
Bret, brouda, to embroider, to prick, to 
spur, and w. bfvdio, to embroider, to 
dam, point to an origin in Bret, broud, a 
prick, sting, GaeL brhd, e. brod, prod, to 
prick. On the other hand the Sp. bor- 
der seems derived from borde, bordo, a 
border, because a border of needle-woA 

5 the earhest mode of ornamenting a 

border ornamented with silk. So from 
PoL brum, a border, bramowtuUe, em- 

It may happen here, as will often be 
found to be the case in other instances 
where the derivation seems to halt be- 
tween two roots, that these are them- 
selves modifications of a common original. 
Thus brodt a point, and bord or bred, an 
edge, agree in being the extremity of a 
thing. The OK. brydda is both to sharpen 
or furnish with a point, and also to sew 
on a border or fringe to a garment. Com- 
pare also AS. brerd, breard, a brim, rim, 
margin, with Sc. braird, the shoot of 
com, AS. onbryrdan, to instigate. 

Broil. Disturbance, trouble, a falling- 
out, a quarrel,— B. The sense has been 
somewhat modified in later times by a 
confusion with brawL 


The proper sense is that of Fr. brouil- 
ler (from whence it immediately comes), 
to jumble, trouble, shuffle, confound, to 
make a huriy-buriy.— Cot It. broglio. 
Gael, broighlich, noise, bawling, confu- 
sion, tumult ; broighUach, bustling, noisy, 
tumultuous. From a direct imitation of 
a confused sound, Fr. brouhaha, brou- 
heux, storms, blusters, hurly-burlies. 
See BrawL 

l^o Broil. To roast upon hot coals. — 
B. Contracted from Fr. brasiller, to 
roast on the braiu, or glowing coals ; or 
perhaps we should rather say formed like 
Fr. brasilUr, brusler, bruler, or It. bras- 
dare, brasciualare, braiolare, brusciare, 
brucilare, bntsuelare (the last to be ar- 
gued from brasciuole, brasuole, brusuole, 
fried or boiled steaks), brullare, to bum, 
parch, scorch, broil.— Florio. Sc. birsle, 
brissle, to parch or brolL In all these 
words the imitative character of the de- 
signation from the cracklii^ sound of 
flame and burning grease is felt in a 
lively manner. Compare g. prasieln, to 
crackle, rustle, ana AS. brasllian, to 
crackle, to bum, Grisons brascla, sparks ; 
E. brusiU, to crackle, make a noise like 
straw or small wood in bumii^. — HaL 

When he is bUe in such a dreme — 

Me routelb with a ilepie noyK 

And brimsliilk as a monkes frayse (pancake) 

Whea it is thrawe into the panne.— <>ower in R. 

It brusiolare, to scorch, broil, carbonado. 

With an initial ^ instead of irthe Fr. 
has grisser, to crackle, creak, grenller, 
to crackle as a shell in the lire, or salted 
fish . on coals, grisUmeKt, a crackling 
noise as of meat in broiling ; griller, to 
broil, precisely analogous to the Sc 
bristle and E. broU. The Italian has 
the double form bruUo, grullo, parched, 
broiled.— Fl. 

IlToker, The custom of employing a 
broker in ths purchase of goods arises 
from the advantage of having a skilled 
intermediary, capable from long practice 
of forming a critical judgment of the 
goods in question, of pointing out their 
latent defects, and rejecting whatever 
fells below the degree of excellence called 
for by the circumstances of the case. To 
find fruilt is accordmgly recognised in 


Among buTEeisea fiare I be 

DwellynB bL London, 

And nut fiackbiling be a bnxrour, 

T» Ihmt mini wart. 

On this principle the G. designation is 

mdkUr, itom moMtl, a blur, stain, fault ; 

makeln, to criticise, censure, find fault 

with, [and thence] to follow the business 

— Kuttner. 
OFr. term was correctour, couratier, Lat. 
corrector, correctan'us, whence the mo- 
dem courtier, a broker. Per manus et 
mediationem quorundam J. S. et A. G. 
brocariorum et correctariorum ejusdem 
barganei. — Lib. Alb. 396. Vous jurrei 
que vous ne marchandirei dez nullez 
marchaundisez queux vous ferei lorru- 
tage. — Sacramentum AbrocarLonim in 
Lu), Alb. To correct an exercise is to 
point out the bults. 

Now in most of the Teutonic (espe- 
cially the Pl.D.) and Slavonic dialects is 
found the root brdk or wrak in the sense 
of rejection, refuse, vile, damaged, faulty, 
giving rise to a verb signifying to inspect, 
make selection, sort, tiy out, reject, cast 
out. Lith. brokas, a fault, weak place, 
matter of blame ; brokoti, to blame, to 
criticise (makeln). Russ. brak, refuse ; 
brakovat, to pick and choose, to sort ; 
brukovanU, inspection, rejection ; PoL 
brak, want, lack, refuse ; brakoviai, to 
^rble, to pick, to be wanting. In the 
Teutonic class : Du. brack, rejected, 
.damaged ; bratek goed, goods damaged 
by sea-water. — Kil PID, broken, to 
garble, inspect, try ; wraken, to pro- 
nounce unsound, to reject ; Dan. vraee, 
to reject, find fault with, to sort goods ; 
slacu vrag paa, to throw blame upon, 
find fault with, G. brack-gut (Sanders), 
PLD. varack-good, refuse goods. Prov. 
brcK, refuse, filth, mud, ordure, and as an 
adj. vile, dirty, abject. Fr. bric-a-brac, 
trumpery, brokers' goods. See Brackish. 

The name broker seems to have come 
to us itasa the shores of the Baltic, with 
which much of our early commerce was 
carried oo. In those countries the tehn 
braker, bracker, or viracker is used to 
signify public inspectors, aPI>ointed to 
classify goods according to their quality, 
and to reject the damaged and unsound. 
— Adelung. In Fetersburgh the price of 
tallow is quoted with or without brack, 
the term bragk signifying the official in- 
spection of sworn bracks or sorters,— 
Tooke's Catherine, 1. 38. 


If we advance another step in the in- 
quiry and seek the origin of the term 
brack, -wrak, in the sense of rejection, we 
shall probably- find the original image in 
the act of spitting, as the liveliest expres- 
sion of disgust and contempt for the re- 
jected object, G. brechett, Du. braektK, 
to vomit ; E. dial whrtake, tussis^ 
scrcatio — Junius ; wreak, a cough — 
Hal. ; ON. hraki, spittle ; hrak, any re- 
fuse matter. Fr. raqucr, rocker, cracker, 
to spit i racaille, renise ; Prov. raca, an 
old worthless horse, analogous to Bohem. 
brafyiu, an outcast or rejected sheep. 
The Langued. brume, phlegm, spittle, 
has exactly the force of G. brack in the 
expression brumes de bautige, merctuu- 
dises de rebut ; G. brack-gut, refiise 
wares. See Wreak. 

In the sense of blat'or stain there is a. 
singular confusion with brack, a breach 
or flaw, from break. 

Bionxe. It bronto, Sp. bronct, pan 
metaL— FI. This word shows the same 
relation to It bronze, glowing coals, 
which E. brass does to Sp. brasa, embers. 
BroitMore, to biate, to copper, on. brasa, 
to braze or solder iron with a lute o( 
brass. It would appear then that the use 
of the metal in soldering, an operation 
performed over hot coals, is the origin of 
the designation both of broiue and brass. 
It may be compared with It bromi, Sc. 
bmnas, brands, embers ; to brund, to 
emit sparks. — Jam. Grisons brixzla, 
brascla, a spark, sbrimilar, to sparkle. 

The use of the word brenxed in the 
sense of taimed, sunburnt, is probably 
not originally derived from comparison 
with the colour of the metal brotue, but 
from the primary sense of the It, bnmtt, 
embers. AbbronMare, abbrotuuaukiare, to 
roast on the embers, to scorch, tan, or 
sunburn,— FL 

Brood.— Braed. AS. brod, a brood; 
brid, the young of any animal ; bredam, 
to nourish, cherish, keep irarm. Du. 
broeden, to sit on eggs, to hatch \ G, brut, 
the spawn of fishes, progeny of birds, in- 
sects, and fishes ; briiteti, to hatch, bring 
eggs and spawn into active life. Pl.D. 
brod, brot, fish-spawn ; brSden, bro*n, to 
hatch, bridde, a cnicken. Commonly re* 
ferred to the notion of warming, in which 
sense the ohg. bruoten is used by Not- 
ker : ' also unsih diu uuolla bruotet ande 
uuider froste skirmet,' as wool warms us 
and protects us against frost Bret 
broud, hot, burning, fermenting, w. brmd, 
hot, warm ; brydio, to be hot, ODu> 
britden, to brew. See Broth. 


' Brook. AS. Mvti, a brook ; v.bryckm, 
the bubbling or springing up of water, a 
spring, a source ; Gael brifiek, to boil, 
Bcethe, simmer ; irom the murmuring 
noise. Gr. /^x^i '*> roar,^p£w,to spring ; 
Bohem. bmcetU to murmur. The mean- 
ing of the word brook in the low G. dia- 
lects is very different, signifying low wet 
land (Brem. Wtb.) ; a grassy place in a 
beath. — Overyssel Almanack. 

It is possible that hrook in the B. sense 
may be connected with Russ. brig, GaeL 
iruach, Manx broogh, brink, verge, bank, 
as Fr. riviire, a river, IL rivUra, a shore, 
from fip^, bank. 

ToBrook. Todigest,tobearpatiently. 
AS. hrucan, to use, eat, enjoy ; Goth, 
brukjati, to use ; bruks, useful ; G. braw 
chtH, to use. 'LM,/rui,/ruclus. 

Broom. A shrub with leafless pointed 
branches, o. pfriemkraul, awl-plant. 
See Bramble. 

Brotb. It brodo, Fr. hroutt, broth ; 
Du. broeye, brue; OHC. brod, G. briike, 
PLD.^Mjj, properly boiling water; ir»iA««, 
broUa, to scald, pour boiling water over. 
Ir. bruiUiim, to boil; bruiike, sodden, 
boiled ; bruitkean, heat, warmth ; brutk- 
{Kan, broth ; brolhairt, a caldroa GaeL 
bntick, bruitk, to boU, brothm, broth ; 
Manx broie, to boil, broil, broth. Bret. 
■f broud, W. bnud, hot G. brod^m, brodsn, 
steam from heated bodies, in which 
sense the Sc. broth is sometimes used ; a 
person is said to be in a broth of sweat 
who is steaming with sweat. Du, broem 
(for brodem), spuma, sordes seu strigmata 
rerum decoctarum. The origin is a re- 
presentation of the simmerii^ of boiling 
water. Limousin broudij brudi, to make 
a confused noise of winds, waves, &c. 
Pl.D. bruddeln, to bubble up with noise. 

The softening down of ttie consonant 
(which is barely pronounced in Gael. 
hroihas) gives the OE. browys, brewis, 
brewtt, pottle, broth, and Sc. brost. 
The AS. has briw, infusion, uidts briw, 
kail brose, cabbage soup ; Sc. broo, bru, 
potla'se made by pouring boiling water on 
meal, infusion ; the bailey bree, juice of 
malt, ale ; GaeL brigkAvivx of meat, sap, 
pith, vigour, strength ; Ir. bruth, strength, 
vigour, rage, heat ; explaining the Frov. 
iriu, and It. brio, mettle, spint. 

Brothel Sp. harda, a but or cottage ; 
Fr. borde, a little house or cottage of 
timber, hut, hovel. — Cot. Commonly 
derived from the boards, of which the 
fobric consists. But the Walach. bor- 
daau is an undeiground hut as well as a 
bouse of ill fome. 


The diminutive berdetM, bordtl, was 
originally used in the innocent sense of 
a little cottage. 

Ne laissent en Chartrain ne en Dive tor^l. " 

Ne moison en eatani qui soit fors du chaslel. 


Doaamculum circnmdedil ciim familia. So- 

ren^ vera expergeraclus de bordiUe exilt ct 

fugiens in vivariam exire voluil. — Due. 

Brotlxer. A term widely spread through 
the branches of the Indo-Germanic stodc. 
Sanscr. bhratr; Zend, brStas Gael, brn- 
thairj w. bravid; Slavon. bra/r s Lat. 

Brow. The ridge surrounding and 
protecting the eye. as. branv, breghj 
PoL brew; Russ. brov, brow. Bohem. 
braubiti, to border. Du. braavte, eye-lid, 
eye-brow, and also border, margin, fur 
edging. — Kil. on. brd, eye-lid, eye-lash ; 
bruK, eye-brow,, edge, eminence ; Dan. 
bryn, eye-brow, brow of a hiU, surface of 
the ocean ; Sw. bryn, edge, border, sur- 
face, w. bryn, a hill. & augen-braum, 

The AS. forms appear related to the 
Russ. breg, Bohem. breh, Gael, bruach, a 
brink, bank, shore ; Serv. brtg, a hillf 
bank, shore. 

Brown, Ger. brautt, on. brun, IL 
bruHo, Fr. brun, perhaps burnt colouri 
the colour of things burnt, from Goth. 
brinnart, G. brennen, to bum. 

Browse. Fr, broutir, brouser, brotuUr, 
to knap or nibble off the sprigs, buds, 
bark, &c. of plants ; brousl, a sprig, 
young branch, or shooL— Cot. Bret 
brens, trous, a bud ; brous-koad, brush- 
wood ; brousiaol, broccoli, cabbage 
sprouts ; brotu'gwexon, a shrub ; brtmst, 
briar, thick busn ; brousla, to browse, to 
grow into a bush. Prov. brotar, to shoot, 
bud, grow ; brossa, OFr. braces, brasses, 
Catalan brossa, Sp, braia, thicket, brush- 
wood ; brotar, to sprout, bud, break out 
as small-pox, &c. ; Gris. braussa, low 
shrubs, as rhododendrons, juniper, &c. 
Prov. brus, heath, Fr. brogues, brosses, 
brousses, brouches, brouic, brue, bushes, 
briars, heath. — Roquef. Mid.Lat. brus- 
da, broxia, dumetum. 'Tarn de terr& 
brufcosd quam de aiabiE' — Due. Serv, 
frrfjSprouts; iwft/jj to browse. OWG-bros, 
sprout. Bav. bross, brosst, a bud, a sprout 
It brocco, sprocco, broccolo, shoot, sprout 

Here we find throughout the Romance, 
Teutonic, Celtic, and Slavonic families, a 
variety of forms, broc, bros, brost, sproe, 
spross, sprot, signifying twigs, shoots, 
sprouis, or bushes and scrubby growths, 
plants composed of twigs, or broken up 

,;. Google 



into a multitude of points. There can be 
little doubt that they are all derived Irom 
the sotion of breaking out, which we find 
expressed by similar modiiications in the 
tennitiation of the root, brik, bris, brisi, 
brit, to break or burst. See next article, 
and also Brush, Broach. 

Brnue. as. brysan, OE. brise,to crush. 

And he that schal folle on this slone schaQ be 
btttken, bat oa wbom it sciiall &lle, it ichall id 
to iriteM him.— WicM. 

Fr. brifer, to break, crush, bruise ex- 
tremdy. — Cot. OFr. bruiser. — Diei. 
Prov. brisar, desbrisar, to break to bits ; 
Gael bris, brisd, hristj Port, britar, to 

A modification of the same root which 

fives the E. brtak, the interchange of the 
oal consonants being cleariy shown in 
the derivatives, Prov. brico or brito, a 
cmm ; briketo, briieio, briealio, a little 
bit ; bri*izlf dust, fragments ; briaal de 
carboM, da bris de charbon de terre, coal 
dust. See Breew. 

Bmit. Fr. bruit, It. bruito, Pr. brUit, 
a noise, a rumbling, Fr. and It bruire. 
Pr. brugir, brunr, to make a rumbling. 
. • Xrunt. Sruni, insultus, impetus ; 
styttyn' or bruntoti, or sodenly comyn' 
a^en an enmy, insiUo, iiruo. — Pr. Yta, 
Brunt of a dsunger, escousse, effort — 
Palsgr. The bm^ of an engagement is 
the ^ock of battle when the two armies 
actually come in collision. 

That in aD haste he would join battayle even 
with IheMiat or bresi of the vangarde.— Hall in 
R. The tbn Tjdais put themselves in prese with 
thdr lou« lances to win the Sist bruntt al the 
field ^rabyau. 

OE. brunt, a blow. • 
Bat bajrsment gef m^n herte a truHl. 
AUit. Poems, E. E. Text Soc. A. 174. 
All that was bitten of the besle was at a irMiU 

dede. — K. Alejiander, p. IJ4. 

OE. bur/, to butt— Pr. Pm. Prov. bun, 
shock, blow ; burcar, abroacat, Fr. bron- 
cher, to strike the foot against an obstacle, 
to stumble. 

Bnuh. An implement made of bristles 
or elastic twigs for whisking away small 
extraneous matters from a surface. It is 
singular that the word may be derived 
widi equal propriety from the dust or 
rubbish it is used to remove, or from the 
materials of which it is itself composed. 
Cat broaa, quisquUiae, sordes, fsex ; bros- 
sar, detergere ; Gael, bmsg, a cmm. It. 
brusco, bnucolo, a mote, fescue ; brusca, 
a brush 1 Swiss bruske, Piedm. braise, 
remnants of hay or fodder, orts, brossa, a 
brush; Sp. brvMO, chips, du;^ rubbish, 

broMor, to cleanse, browa, a brush ; GaeL 
bruis (in the pL), shivers, splinters, frag- 
ments, bruis (sm^.), a brush ; E. brii, brut, 
dust, rubbish, Piedm. brmcia, brujiia, a 
horse-brush, wool-card, brusti^, to brush, 
Lang, braustia, a fiax comb, G. bante, 
bUrsU, Sw. borste, a bmsh. 

In E. also the word brush had f om icT ly 
the sense of dvst or fiue. 

(Agea) sidd, Sir by 70UI specbe now dgfat wcS I 
That If n list ye may do the thing that I most 

And that Is, this your heritage fliere jdd Kbad 

Tbalye might give: and ever amoi^;, Ihc trvk 

away she pikid 
From bet clothes here and there, and sigbkl 
>, tbeiewithaL— Omucer, fieryn. 

While cajoling ber husband, she kept 
pu^ng the dust or bits of Hue frram ber 
clothes to hide her embarrassment To 
brush then would be to dust, to clear 
away the brush or dust and rubbish. 

On the other hand, the derivation is 
equally satisfactory from the twigs or 
bristles of which the brush is composed. 
The Lat. seopa signifies in the first in- 
stance twi^, and in the second place a 
besom, while the word besom itself pro- 

Eily signifies twigs, rods. The same ra- 
tion hdds good between G. borste, Sw. 
barsl, a bristle, and C. barsle, biirste, Sw, 
berste, a brash ; ne. brust, a bristle, and 
Piedm. brustia, a brush, wool-card. Bar. 
bross, brosst, a bud or sprout ; Bret brous, 
a bud, shoot ; brouskoad, brushwood, 
wood composed of twigs. > Prov. bmc, 
brus, brusc (Diet. Castr.), heath, quasi 
twigs, a shrub composed of small twigs j 
Lang, brousso, a tuft of heath ; Fr. brosse, 
a bush, bushy ground, also a hettd-lvtisb, 
wool-card, fkx-comb ; brossetles, small 
heath whereof head-brushes are mad& — ■ 
Cot- Brusshe, to make brusshes on, 
brayire. — Palsgr. 201. ^t brusca,hng or 
heath for brushes.— Fl. ON, bruskr, a 
bush of hair, tuft of grass or hay, a bpish. 
Perhaps the explanation of the douUe 
origin is to he found in the fact that the 
words signifying mote, dust, rabbi$h,and 
those signifying a sprig, twig, bush, are 
both derived from modifications (tf the 
multiform root signifying break, appear- 
ing in Goth. brikoH, Gael, bris, brist, Fr, 
brtser, Port, britar. The Bav, bross, 
brosst, Bret braus, OFr. broust, a bud, 
twig, or shoot, seems named from burst- 
ing (ON. brista) or breaking out ; or the 
separate twi^ or bristles may be con- 
siaered u spLnten, ai It tnuco, brusetU, 


brmithetta, a tittle piece of wood or straw, 
fescue, mote. But see Bristle. 

Bubble. It buiboia. From anlmita- 
tion of the sound made by the bubbling 
liquid. Bohem. bublati, to murmur, bub' 
lima, a bubble ; Pol. bi^l, a bubble, a 
tumour ; Lith. btiiseti, to bubble, boil ; 
bubauti, to bellow as a. bull ; bubenti, to 
thunder gtntly ; bubiti, to beat ; bitbUti, 
to bump as a Wttcm. Sc. biti, a blast 
of wind. 

A buUU and a lump or swelling are 
very generally designated by the same 
word, eitber because a bubble is taken as 
the type of anything round and swelling, 
or because the same articulation is used 
to repre»ent the pop of a bubble bursting, 
and the sound of a blow, from which the 
designation of a knob, hump, or projec- 
tion is commonly taken. Fr. bube, a. push, 
wheal, blister, watery bud, hunch or 
bump. — Cot. ' Burble in the water— 
bubttte' — Falsgr. Magy. bo6, bub,pup, a 
bunch, hump, tuft, top,^Aw«^,a bubUe. 

To Babble. See Dupe. 

Boooauier. A set of jHrates in the 
17th century, who resorted to the islands 
and uninhabited places in the West 
Indies, and exercised their cruelties prin- 
cipaUy on the Spaniards. The name, ac- 
cording to Olivier Oeicmelin, who wrote a 
history of adventurers in the Indies, is 
deriv^ from the language of the Caribs. 
It was the custom of those savages when 
thejr took prisoners to cook their flesh on 
a kmd of grate, called barbacoa (whence 
the term barbecues a barbecued hog, a 
hog dressed whole). The place of such a 
feast was called bouean (or according to 
Cotgrave the wooden gridiron itself), and 
this mode of dressing, in which the flesh 
was cooked and smoked at the same time, 
was called in Fr. boucatur. 

The natives of Florida, says Laudon- 
niire (Hist de la Floride, Pref. A.D. 1586, 
in Marsh), 'mangtnt toutes leurs viandes 
rostica surles charbons et bmicartdet, c'est 
a dire quasi cuictes a la fum&.' In Hack- 
Inyt's translation ' dressed in the smooke 
which in their language they call bou- 
caned' Hence those who established them- 
selves in the islands for the purpose of 
smoking meal were called buccaniers. — 
Diet Etym. The tenn boeaa is still ap- 
riied in the W. I. to a place used for the 
oiTing of prodnce. 

portion o( the ends and sides of the main bmldi_„. 
10 allow a itee cuireiic of air.— lUutt News, 
March aB, 1857. 

Buck. The male miat, also applied 
to the male deer, and then to other wild 
animals, as a buck rabbit. W. bwck, 
Gael, boc, Fr. bom. Probably named 
from the tendency of the animal to butt 
or strike with the forehead. Fin. pukkata, 
to butt ; Esthon. pekhama, to butt, to 
kick; Magy. ^ito, to stick, to butt Pol. 
puk, knock, rap, tap ; Gael, boc, a knock 
or blow ; Fr. buquer^ bucquer, to knock 
at a door, to butt or jurr ; Dan. bukke, to 
ram down a gun. It becco is a radically 
different form, from bik I bek I represent- 
ing the bleating of a goat 

To Book. Formerly, when soap was 
not so plentiful a commodity, the first 
o()eration ia washing was 10 set the linen 
to soak in a solution of wood ashes. This 
was called bitcMng the linen, and the 
ashes used for that purpose were called 
buck-ashes. The word was very generally 
spread. In g. it is beuchen, bducken, 
oHchen,buche>t,buchett,buke>tj St/.b/^a, 
Dan. fygxy Fr. buguer, buerj It buca- 
iare; Bret. bugd. Sp. bugada, lye. The 
derivation hasbeen much discussed. The 
more plausible are ; — 

I. Dan. bdg-aske, the ashes of beech- 
wood, chiefly employed in making potash ; 
but the practice of bucking would have 
arisen long before people resoried to any 
particular kind, of wood for the supply tit 

3. It bucala, buck-ashes, supposed to 
be so called from buca, a bole, because 
the ashes are strained through a pierced 
dish, in the same way that the term is in 
Sp, colttda, lye, bucking, the linen at buck, 
from colar, to strain, to filter, to buck, 
lessiver, faire la lessive. But the analogy 
does not hold, because bucare does not 
appear ever to have been used in the. 
sense of straining or filtering. 

The true derivation is seen in Gael. 
bog, moist, soft, tender, and as a verb, to 
steep or soak. Bret bouk, soft, tender, 
boukaal, to soften. The ideas of wet and 
soft commonly coalesce, as G. erweickeH, 
to soak, from laeick, soft ; It melle, soft, 
wet ; Lat. mollire, to soften, and Fr. 
mouUlir, to wet j PoL mokry,yiti ; miekti, 
soft ; mieknai, to soak, to soften ; moasyi, 
to soak foul linen before washing. Bohcm. 
mok, a steep for flax. To buck then 
would originally be to set the linen to 
soak in lye, and as m and b so often in- 
terchange (comp. W. maidH and baton. 




a baby), the word is probably identical 
with tmk, the root of tne Slavonic words 
above mentioned, and of the Lat macero, 
to soak. In Lat. imbuert, the guttural 
termination is lost, as in Fr. buii for 
buquie. In the dialect of the Setti Cem- 
mani, where the G. a* in the beginning of 
words is converted into b, G. wHck, soft, 
becomes bock, boachj and weiehen, ein- 
•wrichm, to soak, become boektti, boa- 
chin, inboachen, arguing (as Marsh sug- 
^sts) an original connection between 
Gael, beg and c. wdch. 

Bock-bean. A water-plant with leaves 
like a bean. Dan. hukke-blad, goat-leaf ; 
K. gjeii-klauv, goat's hoof 

• Bucket. Hardly identical with Fr. 
baguei [dim. of bac, a trough), a pail or 
bucket, a small shallow and open tub. — 
CoL NE.&)»:^ is a pail (and with the dim. 
bucket is probably an equivalent of ft 
bolgia, boh;itia, a budget, also a leather 
bucket — ti.; Fr. ia«^*, a wallet, male or 
case of leather; bougetU, a little coffer or 
trunk of wood covered with leather. Mid. 
Lat. bulga,pulga, OHC. pulga, Bav. bul- 
gin, a leathern sack. See Bulk. 

* Buckle. A buckU at fastening for 
a leather strap probably takes its name 
from the convex shape or fitmi the boss 
with which it was ornamented. Prov, 
bocla, bloca, OFr. bocU, boss of a shield, 
ornamental stud. Fr. bonder, to swell, 
rise or bear out in the middle.— Cot. To 
buckle up, of a surface, is to shrivel up, to 
throw itself into prominences andhollows. 
Fr. boucU, a curl, a ring. The word is a 
mere transposition of the elements found 
in bulk, and as in the case of the latter 
word, the radical image seems to be a 
bubble taken as the type of a rounded 

It. boccula, Fr. boucle, Sw. 

dial, bogia, Pol. bulka, a bubble; It. 
boglire,bollire, to boiL w, bogfyn, bub- 
ble, boss, knob ; dwfr yn boglynu, ivater 
a bubbling; bogel, a navel, nave of a 
wheel ; bogeilio, to boss or swell out ; G. 
buckel, protuberance, excrescence, bump, 
boss, DuUion, stud, clasp of a book. Dan. 
bugle, 3. boss, bump, swelling, dint ; bug- 
<!;i', having a boss, dinted. 

Bnokler. The Fr. boucU, Prov. bocla, 

Noca, a buckle or protuberance, were 

specially applied to the boss of a shield. 

11 fa feni desor I'escu, 

Dnsqu'cD la ioclt la fendu. 

Partonopeus de Bloisin Rayn. 
Hence bouelier, Prov. bioguier, Sp. bro- 
fuel. IL brocckure, a buckler or shield 
with a central boss. So on. bugntr, a 
shield, fiom bugr, convexity. 


It. buekertune, Fr. iou' 

froK, bouearan, Mid.LaL boqueraaiiMS. 
t is explained by Miaier (hhg. Wtb.) as 
if the stuff was made of goat's hair. It 
is commonly mentioned as a precious 
stuff, and the reference to It. buckerart, 
to pierce holes, is doubtless fallacious. 
' Una coltre di bucherame Cipriana biaji- 
chissima.' — Boccaccio. . 

Bnoolic. Lai. bueolicus, from Gr. 
0ouEDX((ic, belonging to the calling of tbc 
herdsman ; /dovnAoc, agreeii^ wiu Gael 
buachailU, a cowherd, from bo, cattle^ 
and gilU, a boy, a servant, w, coil, a 
fold J ceilio, to pen cattle. 

* Bud. The knob or projection fomt- 
ed by the swelling germ of leaves or 
flowers. The entire train of thought is 
seen in Hesse bote, pota, crack, lovd 
noise ; butzen (Du. bolsen, butaen — K.), to 
knock, to butt; butien, clump, bunch, 
tuft ; Bav. botzen, bulxen, lump, knob ; 
botzen, bud ; ' butzen, turgere ; bitczentSg, 
turgidus.' — Schm. Swab, butz, stroke, 
blow, prick in a target, rump of fowls ; 
anything short of its kind, a dumpy 
child. Du. butze, a bump, swelling 
botch.— K. Bret. bSd, biden, a tu^ 
clump, bunch ; explaining Fr. rabodd, 
short and thick of stature. Fr. bouttr, 
to thrust, put, push forwards, to bud or 

C forth as a tree in the spring (Cot) ; 
ton, a bud, a pustule ; bout, the end or 
thrusting part of^ a long body, a stump ; 
un bout akomme, a stumpy man. So 
w, pwtio, to poke, thrust, butt ; pvit o 
ddyn, a short diick man. XiM. poie, pool, 
Daa-pode, a shoot, scion, set of a pumt ; 
Hesse potten, to graft or bud trees, to 
set plants. 

* Bad, Bna. Pronounced bood m Sc 
The two forms arise from further con- 
traction of OSc bekud, behuis, for bt- 
huivtd, behuives. ' It behudavX :' it be- 
hoved to come out — Dunbar, Twa maryit 
wemen, 1. 333.—' quhill^ye bekuis 10 do.' 
— Jam. Supp. ' I bus goe tyll l^de.' — 

Budgo. The dressed fur of lambs, a 
material no doubt early supplied by the 
pastoral nations of Slavonic race, with 
whom it is siill much in use. Russ.pui^, 
fur, skins ; pushit', to line with fur. 

To Budge. Bret, boulj, movement ; 
bouljein, Fr. bouger, to move, stir, budge, 
probably from the notion of bubbling, 
boiling. Port, bulir, to budge. Nao vos 
bulais d'aqui, don't stir from hence, don't 
budge. Pied, sboge, to stir. ON. bulla, 
to u>il ; built, motus creber. 

Budget. Fr. bougetle, dim. of boiige^ 
a. budget, wallet, great pouch, or male of 



leather serving to carry things behind a 
man on horseback. — Cot It. boigia, 
Ar^fCa, a budget, leathern bucket. From 
ht^a, a. skin. 

Bus A buff sound is a. toneless sound 
as of a blow. Magy. htfogni^ to give a 
dull sound ; Pl.D. drtff^ duU, of colours, 
sounds, tastes, smells ; ten duffin toon, a 
deadened tone ; eene duffe couleur, a dull 

Bnft:— Baffle.--Bi)iIUo. LaL buba- 
lus, Russ. buivol, Fr. huffie, the buffe, 
buffle, bu^e, or wild ox, also the skin or 
neck of a buffe.— Cot The term was 
then applied to the skin of the buflato 
dressed soft, buff leather, and then to the 
yellowish colour of leather so dressed. 
IL buffalo, a buffle or a bugle, by meta- 
phor, a block-beaded noddy. — FL Hence 
tie E. buffle-keaded, confused, stupid. 
The name of the beast seems taken fi^om 
a representation of his voice. Lith. bu- 
betiti, to bellow ; Magy. bufogni, to give 
a hollow sound. 

BniE— BuflM. A blow. From buff! 
an imitation of the sound of a blow. 
PLD. bupit, to strike ; e. rebuff, to re- 
pulse; It buffare, Fr. boufftr, to puff, to 
blow ; It buffitio, a cuff or buSet, also a 
blurt or puff with one's mouth. G. puff, 
a clap, tniffet, cuff j Lith. bulriii, to oeat 
In other cases, as Diez remarks, the 
word for a stroke is connected with a 
verb signiiying to blow ; Fr. souffiet, a 
buffet, from iouffler, to blow ; souffUU, 
often blown upon, boxed on the ear ; and 
the word blow itself is used in both 

Bnifbt Fr. buffet, a side-board. Fr. 
bu^, bouffer, to puff, to blow. The 
primary sense of bufftter seems to have 
been to take out the vent peg of a cask, 
and let in the air necessary for drawing 
out liquor, as from Lith. daitsa, air, 
breath, dausinti, to give air to a cask in 
order to let the beer run. 

SI vos chartiers — amenant pour la provision 
. de vol malsons certain nombre de lonneaui de 
vin Ics Bvaimt kvgcUs el beus i. dem), le resle 
empUssant d'eau. &c. — Rabelais. 

Bufftter, to marre a vessel of wine by 
often tasting it ; buffets, deadened, as 
wine that hath taken wind, or hath been 
mingled with water. — Cot Mid.I-at. 
bufetarius, Fr, buffeleur, tabemarius, 
caupo. Bufetarium, the duty paid for 
retailing wine in taverns. Tne verb 
bufftter may thus be translated to tap. 
buffetier, a tapster. Thus buffet would 
signify the tap of a public-house or tavern, 
the place whence the wine was drawn. 



From thence it has been transferred in 
E. to the sideboard on which the drink- 
ables are placed at meals, and in Fr. to 
the office m a department where Other 
kind of business is carried on, while in 
Sp. it has passed on to signify simply a 
desk or wnting-table. 

Boffiion. Fr. bouff)H, a jester, from 
Ii. buffo, a puff, a blast or a blurt with 
the mouth made at one in scorn ; buffare, 
to jest or sport — FL 

A puff with the mouth is probably in- 
dicative of contempt, as emblematically 
making light of an object, 'And who 
minds Dick? Dick's nobody I Whoo ! 
He blew a slight contemptuous breath 
as if he blew himself a*ay.— David Cop- 
pierfield. A Staffordshire artisan giving 
an account of one who had been slighted 
said, ' They rether puffed at him.' 

Bug.— Bugbear. —'Soggwi. — Bogle. 

God's boast seemed to hltn but banes, things 
made to feare children. — Z. Boyd in Jam. 
The meanii^ of Bug is simply an object 
of terror, from the cry Bo! Boo.' Boh! 
made by a person, oilen covering his 
face to represent the unknown, to frighten 
children. The use of the exclamation 
for this purpose is very widely spread. 
GaeL in/ an interj. to excite terror in 
children. — Macleod. W. bw! It bau! 
' Far bau I bau .'—far paura a' bambini 
coprendosi la volta.' — ik Crusca. Alter- 
nately covering the face in this manner 
to form an object of sportive tenor, and 
then peeping over the covering to relieve 
the infant from his terror, constitutes the 
game of Bo-peep, Sc. Teet-bo. 

The two children— were playing in an oppo- 
.sitc corner, IJllo covering his head with bis skirt, 
and roaring at Ninna to frighten her, then peep- 
ing out again to see bow she bore il.— Romola, 
iii. 36s. 

The cry made to excite terror is then 
used, either alone or with various termin- 
ations, to signify an indefinite object of 
terror, such as that conjured up by child- 
ren in the dark. 

L'apporer del ciomo 

Che scaccia 1' Ombre, 11 Bbm e le Befose I 
— the peep of day which sratten spectres, bugs, 
and hobgoblins. — La Cnisca, 

Swiss baui, bau-wi, mumming, bugbear, 
scarecrow ; G. baubau, wauwau, Ksthon. 
popo, Magy. bubus, Sc. boo, bukow {kovr, 
a goblin), bumatt, E. dial, boman, Pl.D. 
/mmann, Limousin bobal, bobaow, w. bw, 
b-mg, bubach, a bugbear, a hobgoblin. 
Far barabao is explained in Patriarchi's 
Venetian diet /(irifld/ bau! tocryboh! 
and // brutto barabao is interpreted U 


no BUG 

TtHitmtiMO, U hrmtio Dtmoiiio, the black 
bug, the buggaboo ; w. bwffin, a bugbear 
(Spuirell), E. diaL bug^-, the Devil.— Hal 
w. ^/ ia used as an mteijectioD of 
threatening, and sieniiies also terror as 
well as the terrific object Manx 6ea,boo, 
lear, afirighL 

The repetition of the radical syllable 
with more or less modification represents 
the continuance of the terrific sound. 
The final guttural of w. bv/g and E. bu^ 
is found in lllyrian bukati, Magy. bbgni, 
to bellow, bigni, to roar ; Swiss baoggen, 
to bellow Lkc an angry bull when he 
paws the ground j boogg, bogk, bok, a 
mask or disguise .(from being originally 
adopted with the intention of striking 
terror), a misshapen person. The name 
of bugabo was given, according to Coles, 
to an 'ugly wide-mouthed picture' carried 
about at May games. Lith. baugiitti, to 
terrify ; bugii, to take fiight, to take bug, 
as it is provincially expressed in England. 
— Hal. To take buggart or boggart is 
used in the same sense, and a Soggarty 
horse is one apt to start, to take frignt 

With a different termination we have 
W. bwgwl, threatening, terrifying ; Sc. 
bogil, bogle, bogil bo (E. bugg^oo), a 
spectre, bugbear, scarecrow ; Lesachthal, 
pogxHCi poggl, a bugbear for children, 
and thence an owl from its nightly hoot- 
ing. — Deutsch. Mundart. iv. 493. Lett 
baiglis, an object of tenor. Russ. jmgaf, 
pujat', to frighten j pugale, pujalo, a 

In bug-bear or bear-bug, the word is 
joined with the name of the beast taken 
as an object of dread. 

The humoitr of melancholye 

Causilh many a man in slepe to ciy. 

For fere of iitis or of bolis blate, 

Or ellis that blake baggys wol him take. 

where we find imaginary bulls and bears 
classed with bugs as objects of nightly 

Bi^. % The name vibvg is given in 
a secondary sense to insects considered 
as an object of disgust and horror, and in 
modem English is appropriated to the 
noisome inhabitants of our beds, but in 
America is used as the general appella- 
tion of the beetle tribe. They speak of a 
tumble-bug, rose-bug. A similar applica- 
''-n of the word sipiifying an object of 

buka, a bug-bear. The w. bwcai signifies 
what produces dread or disgust, and also 

a laxgffA. It iaco, a Mltwoim, abo a 
boa-peep or vain bug-bear; baeo-baco, 
boa-peep. — FL Limousin bobaou, bobal, 
a bug-bear, is also used as the generic 
name tA an insect — B&onie. So in Al- 
banian boube, a bug-bear, and in child's 
language any kind of insect Magy. 
bubus, bug-bear, Seiv. bubo, vennin. It. 
bau, bug-bear, Grisons bau, insect, beede ; 
bau ifureiglia, earwig ; bait da grasdu, 
dung-beetle. Sw. troll, a goblin, monster, 
provincially an insect In Norse ^iplied 
especially to beetles or winged insects. 
— Aasen. Illyr. gad, di^^ust, insect. Lap. 
rabme, an insect, worm, any disgusting 
animal, also a bug-bear, ghost Sp. coeo, 
a worm, also a bug-bear. 

Bug. 8, I, Swelling, protuberant See 

• 2. The word has a totally different 
origin in the expression ^i^nwn^, fierce, 
high-sounding words. ' Cheval de trom- 
fie/le, one whom no big nor bugi wrdi can 
terrify.' — Cot. Parolone, high, big, roai^ 
ing, swollen, long, great or ktg wtvds. — 
FL 'Bug as a lord.' In my time at 
Rugby school bug was the regular term 
for conceited, proud. Bogge, bold, for- 
ward, saucy.— ^ros& 

In this sense of the word i( seems to 
rest on the notion of' frightening with a 
loud noise, blustering, threatening, and is 
thus connected withM^, bug-bear. Swiss 
bo'oggen, to bellow like an angry bull ; 
biogg, liogk, a proud overbearing man — 
Stalder ; bog, larva (a bug-bear, nob^t^ 
lin) ; bo^€, superbire. — Schmidt Idioli- 
con Bemense. 

Bugle. I. Same as buffle, a bufiakk 

These are Ibe beasts whidi ye shall ealaf: 
oxen, sbepe and {rooKs, be«, 100, and in^. — 
Bible, 1551. Deut. liv. 

Hence bugle-hom, properly a buffolo 
bom, then a horn for drinking, or on 
which notes are played in bunting. 

Janus sits tiy the fiie with double bcnl 
And driaketh of his bvgU hem tiK wine. 

LatAww/<r, a heifer. MidLat ^hcw/m, 
OFr. bugit, buffU, bceuf sauvage. — Ro- 

Probably, as Buffalo, from the cry of 
the animal ; Serv. bukati, Magy. bogm, 
Fr. bugUr, beugler, to bellow. 

3. An ornament of female dress con- 
sisting of fragments of very fine glasi 
pipes sewn on. ' Et diciie dominfe nunc 
portant bugolos t|ui »c nominantur, quos 
cooperiunt capillis capitis earum ligatis 



supra dictos bugolos.' — De moribof dvi- 
um Placentkc— A,D. 1388. Muratori. 

To Build. From OK. bua, OSw. 60a, 
bo, G. iaiieH, to till, cultivate, inhabit, were 
formed bol, a. farm, Mi, a habitation, 
OSw. M, biile, fyli, domicilium, sedes, 
villa, habitaculum, whence lyija, to raise 
a habitation, to build, or, as it was for- 
merly written in En^sh to bylle. 


Bulb. Lat bulbus, Gr. /SoAjMc, a tuber- 
ous or bulbous root ; Lith. hilbe, bulwis, 
tiie potato ; G. telle, bulh, iul6e, a bulb ; 
Du. bol, bolU, a globe, ball, head i bol, 
Mleken van loock, the head of an onion. 
Gr. i^oX^ii, Lat. vulva, the womb. 

From the ima^e of a bubble taken as 
the type of anything round, swollen, hol- 
low. In the representation of natural 
sounds,theposition of liquids in the word 
ia very variable. In EngUsh, as well as 
bubble, we have blob at bleb and blubber 
in the same sense. The Walach. has 
^Ibuk, a bubble, and bulbukd, to bubble 
up, to spring, swell, be protuberant See 
next artide. 

Buloh. A bunch or projection. Ne. 
hiUe, a bunch. — Hal. ' Boivser, to gather, 
tiuUu bulch, or bear out as a full purse, 
to bunt or leave a bunt in a sail.' — Cot. 
Ptg. bolso, podcet, also the bunt or hollow 
of a sail. 

Bnlg*. See Bulk. 

Bulk. 1. Bulk, in Sc. and N. of e. 
bouk, the carcase, chest, trunk, body of 
an animal, mass, princiiral portion. My 
liver leapt within my bulk.' — Turberville. 
Bav. bUlkm, the body ; Du. bulcke, 
thorax ; butck, beuck, trunk of the body, 
belly ;— van de kerche, nave or body of 
the church ; — van 't schip, hold or bilge 
of a ship. — Kil. ON. bukr, trunk, bodyr 
belly; ^■v.buk,'DaA.bue,a,bauch,hf^'f; 
Cat. buc, the belly, bed of a river, bulk 
or capacity of anything, body of a ship ; 
Sp. Sugue, the capacity or burden of a 
^ip, hull of a ship. 

The comparison of the Celtic 'dialects 
leads strongly to the conviction that the 
radical image is the boiling or bubbhng 
up of water, whence we pass to the notion 
01 anything swelling or strouting out, of 
an inflated skin, stuffed bag, or of what 
is shaped like a bubble, a prominence, 
knob, boss, lump. For the latter sense 
compare Da. bulk, a projection, lump, 
unevennesB ; Sw. dlaL bullka, a protu- 
berance, knot in thread,a dint in a metal 

vessel. 'BMt^,]ctaAA>y, bulked othom^ 
ed out'— Cot. 

The radical sense is shown in Russ. 
bulkaf, to bubble up ; Pol. bulka, a bub- 
ble ; Gael, balg, bole, bubble (balgoH 
uisge, a water-bubble), blister, bag, wal- 
let, boss of shield, belly, womb, bdlows ; 
builgean, bubble, bladder, pimple, pouch ; 
builgeadh, bubbling up, as water begin- 
ning to boil ; bolg, bulg, belly, anything 
prominent, a lump or mass, the hold of a 
ship ; bolg (as verb), blow, swell, puff, 
blister; Manx bolg, bolgan, bubble, blis- 
ter, belly, boss, knob, ^obule ; bolg-lku- 
ingey, the bilge or hold of a ship ; bolgey, 
to blow, swell, blister, w. bwlg, a round 
bulky body ; bwlgmt, a straw corn-vessel, 
' Bulgas Galli saccules scorteos vocanL' 

Passing to the Scandinavian and Teu- 
tonic dialects we have Goth, bales, skin 
bag; G. bale, skin of an anima^ husk, 
pod ; ON. bagr, skin flayed whole, leather 
sack, belly ; belQO, bolgna, Dan. bulne, 
to swell, to puff up; bolgitiH, swollen; 
OE. bolnyn, tumeo, turgeo ; bolnyd, tumi- 
dus.— Pr. Pm. ' See how this tode bol- 
jw/A.'— Palsgr. MHO. bilge, bale, buleeu, 
gfbolgen,\osvie\L The addition of a £m. 
or feminine termination gives Bav. bulgen, 
it botgia, bolgetta, a leather sack or bud- 
get ; Fr. bau^e, bouge, a leathern sack or 
portmanteau, a strouting or standing out 
in a fiat piece of work, boss of a buckler, 
belly, outlcaning in the middle of a wall 
(Cot.), bulge or convex part of a cask. 
Hence e. bulge or bilge, the belly or con- 
vex part of a ship ; to bulge, to belly out, 
to throw out a convexitv. With these 
must probably be classed ON. bulki, the 
contents of the hold, or cargo of a ship, 
consisting of aheap of sacks bound down 
and covered with skins. Bolke at hepe, 
cumulus, acervus.^Pr. Pm. ON. at riufa 
bulkanu, to undo the caigo, to break 
bulk. Lett, pulks, Lith. pulkas, a heap, 
crowd, herdj swann ; pulki, in bulk, in 

2. A hulk is a partition of boards, the 
stall or projectmg framework for the dis- 
play of goods before a shop. 

Here stand behind Iblj balk, straight win be 

' He found a country fellow dead drunk, 
snorting on a bulk.' — Anat Melancholy, 
In this latter sense the word is identical 
with IL balce, baleone, a projection before 
a window ; ' also the bulk or stall of a 
sbop.'^Fl. Pako, a stage or scaffold; 



palchetto, a box or boarded inclosute at a 
theatre. The original sense seems to be 
a framework of balks, beams or boards, 
as It. assilo, a beam or rafter, also a par- 
tition of deals instead of a waU. — FL 
Dan. dial, bulk, bulke, boarded partition 
in a bam. A bulk-kead is a boarded par- 
tition in a ship. 

Bnll. I. The male of the ox kind. 
W. 6wla, Lith. bullui, ON. balli, bault, a 
bull, baula, a cow, from battla, N.Fris. 
boUi, to bellow. G. bulU, bullocks, a bull ; 
Swiss bulUit, to bellow. 

2. A papal rescript, from Lat bttlla, 
the seal amxed to the document. The 

Srimary signification of bulla is a bubble, 
om the noise, whence bulliri, to bubble, 
to boil Thence the term was applied to 
many protuberant objects, as the orna- 
mental heads of nails, the hollow oma- 
it of gold hung round the neck of the 

band to a legal instrument. It. bolla, 
seal, stamp, round gloss phial, boss, stud, 
bubble, blister, pimple. See Billet. 

Bull&ce. The wild plum. Bret, bolos 
W polos, V. bwlas, Fr, bellocier, a bul- 
lace tree. It. bulloi, bullos, sloes. — Fl. 

BnUbeggar. Terriculamentum, a 
scare-bug, a bul-beggtr,s. sight that fray. 
eth and frighteth.— Higins in Pr. Pm. 

—Scot's Deso. of Witchcr. in N. 

The word is of a class with Pl.D. 
bullerbai, bullerbrook, a noisy violent 
fellow, W. bwbtuh, Du. bullebak, a hob- 
goblin, bugbear, scarecrow, where the 
former element signifies the roaring 
noise made to terrify the child by the 

?:rson who represents the hobgoblin. 
i.D. bullem, Du. buldenn, G, poltern, 
to nmke a loud noise ; Du. bulaergkees- 
/;/(, lemures noctumi nigri. — Kil. G. pol- 
tergeist, a hobgoblin. The final element 
in the forms above cited seems a corrupt 
repetition of the syllable bug, signifying 
roaring, and thence terror, as in E. 6ug- 
gabeo, G. buUibau, Du. Hetebau. The 
connection between the ideas of loud 
noise and terror is well illustrated by the 
useof PLD.^/^r in addressing children 
to si^ify something terrible : ' Gae du 
nig bi dat buller-waier,' do not go by the 
dangerous water, as a mill-dam or the 
like. See Bug, Bully. 

BuUet. Fr. boulet, dim. of boule, a 
bowL See BowL 


As an instance of the arbitiaiy way ia 
which words acauire their precise mean- 
ing, it may be observed that a bullet in 
E. is applied to the ball of a gun or 
musket, while the projectile of a cannon 
is called a ball In Fr., on the contrary, 
it is boulet de canon, balle de fusiL 

Bullhead. — EuUnuh. — Bnllfiro;, 
Bullhead Is the name of the miller's 
thumb, a litde fish nearly all bead, also 
of the tadpole or young frog. BuUrmh 
is a large kind of rush. The elemeitt bull 
is probably not taken from the quadrupol 
of that name, but b more probably i^n- 
tical with Sw. bal, bole or trunk of a tree, 
bulk of a thing, large, coarse, thick, blunt, 
large of its kind, as geting, a wasp, b^- 
g'ting, a hornet V.pwl, blunt, ^ex^ie/, 
a blockhead, a tadpole ; GaeL pallet, 
lumpish, stupid ; poll-cheannach, lump- 
headed ; poll-ekeoMHan, a tadpole. Tlie 
buIlfro|f, however, is said to make a Ipud 
bellowing noise, which may probably be 
the origin of the name. 

Bullion. This word is used in several 
senses, i. Aboss or stud, anyembomed 
work. . Sp. boUar, to emboss ; boUo*, 
stud, brass-headed nail ; bollos de relieve, 
embossed work, Fr. bouillon, a stud, 
any great-headed or studded nail. — Cot. 
Flyot translates bulla 'a bullion set on 
the cover of a book or other thynge.' 
' Bullyon in a woman's girdle — clow.' — 
Palsgr. ' Bullions and ornaments (^ 

Elate engraven, a bullion of copper set on 
ridles or poitrels for an ornament' — 
Baret's Alveary in Hal, Here the notion 
of swelling or embossment is derived 
from the bubbling of boiUng water. 

2. Bullion is applied to a particular 
kind of gold and silver lace, from Fr. 
bouillon, explained by Chambaud as 
being made of a very fine sheet of gtW 
or silver twisted. Doubtless from bouil- 
lon in the sense of a puff or bunch, fnoa 
the puffy texture of this kind of lace. 

3. Gold or silver uncoined. Consider^ 
able difficulty has been felt in accounting 
for the word in this sense, from the use of 
the equivalent terms, billon in Fr. and 
vellon in Sp., in the sense of base metal, 
silver mixM with a large alloy of cap- 

The original meanmg of the word iul- 
lion, boillon, billon, was the mint or office 
where the precious metals were reduced 
to the proper alloy and converted into 
stamped money, from the Lat bulla, a 
seal, whence Mad.Gr. ^uU^m*, to seal, 
to stamp ; poDX\k4-^|iw)-, the matrix or die 


with which coins were stamped. — Diet 

In this sense the word appears in our 
early statutes. The Stat 9 E. IIL st 2, 
c z, provides, that all persons 'puissent 
sauvement porter Si Ics eschai^es ou 
hiUion et ne mie ailleurs argent en plate, 
vessel d'argent et toutz maners d'aj^ent 
sauve faux monoie ct I'esterling couDler- 
fait,' for the purpose of exchange 

In the English version these words are 
erroneously translated ' that all people 
may safely bring to the exchanges biUlion 
or silver in plate, &c,,' which has led to 
the assertion that 'bullion' in the old 
statutes is used in the modem application 
of uncoined gold or silver. The 27 Ed. 
in. St. 2, c. 14, provides, 'que toutz mar- 
chauntz — puissent savement porter — 
plate d'argent, billettes d'or et tut autre 
maner d'or et touti moneys d'or et d'ar- 
genl a nostra bullions ou a nous es- 
changes que nous ferons ordeiner a nous 
dites estaples et ailleurs pemant illoeqs 
money de notre coigne con ven able ment 
& la value.' Again, 4 Hen. IV. c. 10, 
' que la tierce partie de tout la monoie 
d'argent que sera porte k la boillion sera 
iajte es mayles et ferlynges' — shall be 
coined into halfpence and farthings. 

In these and other statutes all traftick- 
ing in coin was forbidden, except at the 
bullion or exchanges of the king ; and 
similar restrictions were enforced in 
France, where the tampering with the 
coin was carried to a much greater ex- 
tent than in England, insomuch as to 
earn for Philippe le Bel the titleof/^/wr 
monnoyeur. Hence among the French 
the carrying to the bUlon their decried 
money beome a familiar operation of 
daily life, and ' porter au billon,' * mettre 
au billon,' are metaphorically applied to 
things that require remaking. 

The decried coin brought to be melted 
up was termed ' monnaie de billon,' and 
hence billon and the equivalent S;Kinish 
vellott were very early used to signify the 
base mixture of which such coin was 
made, or generally a mixture of copper 
and silver. ' Ne quis aurum, argentum 
vcl billionem extra regnum nostntm de- 
ferre prEesumat'— Stat PhiLp le Bel in 
Due. A.D, 1305. 

In England the fortunes of the word 
have been different, and the Mint being 
regarded chiefly as the authority which 
determined the standard of the coin, the 
name of bullion has been given to the 
siltuy or composition of the current coin 
permitted by the BuIUqh or mint. Thus 


bullion {3 translated in Torriano'sdiction- 
ary (a.D. 16S7), 'Icga, legaf^io di me- 
tallo,' and traces of ue same application 
are preserved in the Spanish reckoning 
in ' reals vellon,' reals of standard cur- 
rency. From metal of standard fineness 
the signification has naturally passed in 
modem times to all gold and silver de- 
signed for the purpose of coinage. 

• Bully. The proper meaning of the 
word is that ^iven by Jam. for the Sc. 
form of it, Billy, companion, comrade, 
fellow, brother, lover. ' Bless thee, bully 
Doctor.' ' I kiss the dirty shoe, and from 
my heartstring I love the lovely bully.' — 
Shaksp. ■ Sc. billie Willie, brother Willy. 

It is no doubt identical with mhg. 
buole, brother, spouse, dear friend, partner 
in dancing. It was only in later times 
that, in the shape of G. bukle, Du, boel, 
it came to imply illicit love. The B. 
bully seems to have acquired its bad sense 
from the conduct of boon companions : 
'a crew of roaring bullies, with their 
wenches, their dogs, and their bottles.' — 
L'Estrangc. Or perhaps from the special 
appUcation to the bully of a courtesan, 
the mate or lover with whom she lives, 
and calls in to intimidate her customers. 

Bulwark. A defence originally made 
of the boles or trunks of trees, then in 
general a rampart, bastion, or work of 
defence. Du. bol-vierck, block-iuerck, 
propugnaculum, agger, vallum. — KiL Fr. 
by corruption boulevart, boulevard, pri- 
marily the ramparts of a town, then ap- 
plied to the walks and roads on the inside 
of the ramparts, and now at Paris to a 
broad street surrounding what was fomi- 
erly the body, but now is the central part 
of the town. It. baluarte. 

Bum. Forbottom. Ftis. Mm, ground, 
bottom, from boden, bodem, ON. boUn, AS. 
botm. Fris. ierd-boeyme, ierd-beame, the 
soil. Hence bom and bon, a floor. D. 
buene, boene, G. bUhne, a stage, scaffold. 

To Bum. — Boom. — Bump. — Bum- 
ble. To bum, to hum, to make a droning 
sound. — Hal. Du. bommen, resonare, to 
beat a drum ; bombammen, to ring (he 
bells. Lat bomiilare, to bumble or make 
a humming noise ; bombilus, Du. boiH- 
meU, kommele, a bumble-, or a humble- 
btt. The cry of the bittern, which he is 
supposed to make by fixing his bill in a 
reed or in the mud, is called bumping or 

Bum-bailifiE From the notion of a 
humming, droning, or dunning noise the 
term bum is applied to dunning a person 
for a debt. Toiaiw,todun.— HaL Hence 




bum-bailiff, a person employed to dun 
one for a debt, the bailitT employed to 
arrest for debt. The ordinary explana- 
tion of bound-bailiff '\% a mere giiess. No 
one ever saw the word in that shape. 
Moreover the bum-bailiff is not the per- 
son who gives security Co the sheriff, nor 
would it concern the public if he did. 
I!ut his special office is to dun or bum for 
debts, and this is the point of view from 
which he would be regarded by the class 
who have most occasion to speak of him. 

Bumboat. A boat in which provisions 
are brought for sale alongside a ship. 
Du. bum-boot, a very wide boat used by 
-fishers in S. Holland and Flanders, also 
for taking a pilot lo a ship.- — Roding, 
Marine Diet Probably for bun-bcol, a 
boat fitted with a bun or receptacle for 
keeping figh alive. 

Bump. Pl.D. bums/ an inteiiection 
imitating the sound of a blow. Bums I 
getrofftn. Bang ! it's hit. Bumsen, bam- 
sen, to strike so as to give a dull sound. 
To bam, to pummel, to beat. — Hal. w. 
pwmpio, CO thump, to bang. Lang. 
iouHtii, to knock ; poumpido, noise, 
knocking. Then, as in other cases, the 
word representing the sound of the blow 
is applied to the lump raised by the blow, 
or lo the mass by which it is given, and 
signifies consequently a mass, protuber- 
ance, lump. See Boss, Thus E. bump, 
a swelling, w. pwmp, a round mass ; 
ptvmpl, a knob, a boss ; Lith, pumpa, a 
\iiiV.a-n,pumpuTras, a bud. Fr. pompetU, 
a pumple or pimple on the skm— CoL ; 
pompon, a pumpion or gourd, a large 
round fruit. 

Bumpkin. A clumsy, awkward clown. 
Probably from bump, signifying one who 
does things in a thumping, abrupt man- 
ner. Pl.D. buns-wise, inconsiderately, 
from bunsen, to strike ; E. dial, bungtr- 
j<?»«, clumsy, lungeous, awkward.— Hal. 
Suffolk bonnka, large, strapping, applied 
to young persons, especially girls,— Moor. 
Manx bankan, a clown. 

Bun, 1.— Bun&ioiL Fr. *j(^/,abump, 
knob rising after a knock ; bignef, bugnet, 
little round loaves or lumps made of fine 
meal, &c., buns, lenten loaves. — Cot. It 
bugno, bugiuim, any round knob or bunch, 
a boil or blain, — Fl. Hence e. bunnion, 
a lump on the foot ; bunny, a swelling 
ftom a blow. — Forby Bony, or grete 
knobbe, gibbus, gibber, callus. — Pr. Pm, 
Sc. banufict, bonneck, Gael, bonnack, It. 
boiiteep, a cake, are dim. forms. Radi- 
cally Identical with Dan. bunki, a heap. 
See QiiDch. 

Bun, 8.— Bonny. Bun, a dry stalk ; 
biimiel, a dried hemp-stalL — Hal 'Kyx. 
or bunne, or dry weed {bunn* of dry weed, 
H.S.P.), calamus.' — Pr. Pm. Btin, the 
stubble of beana. — Mrs Baker. Sc. bunt 
or boon, the useless core of flax or bcmp 
from which the fibre is s^arated. Buat- 
•wand, a hemp-stalk. 

The word is probably to b< 
from Gael, bun, root, stock, s 
torn ; bun feoir, hay stubble ; iunan, 
stubble ; Manx bun, stump, stalk, root, 
foundation ; w. bon, stem or base, stock, 
trunk, butt end. The buns are the dried 
stalks of various kinds of plants left after 
the foliage has withered away. Ga^ 
bun tick, an old stump of a horse. Bun- 
feamati (stump-tail), a tail (Macleod), 
should probably be a short tail, explain- 
ing K bunn^, a rabbit, whose short tail 
in running is very conspicuous. Btm, a 
rabbit, the tail of a hare.'— Hal. Dan. 
bund, bottom, seems to imite Gael bun 
with ON. botn, E. bottom. 

Bunck. — BtuJt. — Bnn^. Bunch, a 
hump, cluster, round mass of anything. 
To hunch was formerly and still Is pro- 
vincially used in the sense of stiikuig. 
Dunchyn or bunchyn, tundo. — Pr. Pra. 
' He buttchetk me and beateth me, il me 
pouEse. Thou bunchest me so that I 
cannot sit by thee.>— Palsgr. Related on 
the one side to Pl.D. btmsm, bumsen, to 
knock. ' An de dor bunsen, oder anklop- 
pen dat idt bunset,'—to knock at the 
door till it sounds again. Daal bunsen, 
to bang down, throw down with a bai^. 
' He fiilt dat ct bunsede' he fell with a 
bang. Du. bans, a knock. See Bounce. 
On the other hand bunch is connected 
with a series of words founded on forms 
similar to the ON. banga, Dan. bauke, 
OSw. bunga, to beat, to oang ; on. hunki, 
a heap ; OSw. bunke, a heap, a knob ; 
and related with on. bunga, to swell out ; 
E. dial, bung, a heap or cluster, a pocket ; 
Sw, binge, a heap ; Wall, bonge, bongie, 
a bunch ; Magy. bunka, a knob, a boil 
{bunkos bot, a knotty stick) ; Sw. bunke, 
a bowl j Pl.D. bunken, the large promi> 
nent bones of an animal (as G. knocken, 
E. knuckles, from knock) ■ It bugne, bug- 
none, any round knob or bunch, a boil or 
blain.— FL 

Again, as we have seen £■ bulk passing 
into Sp. bulto, and E. bull, a bag or sack, 
while biilch was traced through Gris. 
bulscka, a wallet, E. bulse, a bun^ — Hal, ; 
Sp. bolsa, a purse ; so the fonn bmik, a 
knob or heap, passes into Dan. buudi, 
Sw. bunt, a bunch, bundle, tniss ; E.. 


haa 6f a tail, the middle part of it, 
which b purposely formed into a kind of 
bag to catch the ivind. — B. 

Bundle. AS, tyndel. Da. bond, ^it- 
del, bundel, someUiing bound t<^ether ; 
ghebondU, ghebundte, coUigatio, ^cis, 
et contignatio, coassatio ; bondel-loot, 
loosed from bonds. — KiL on. bindini, a 

BiUir. The stopper for the hole in a 
barrel. From the nollow sound made in 
driving in the bung. OG. bunge, a drum ; 
OSw. bungande, the noise of drums.^ 
Ihre. M^y. bengani, to hum. So Du. 
hewtmem, to hum, and bomme, or 6onde 
»an t* vat, the bung of a bairel ; Lim. 
hounditA, to hum, Prov. bondir. Cat. 
iomr, to resound, and Du. bonae, Fr. 
iamde, bondoH, a bung. It is possible, 
bowerer, that the primitive meaning of 
hittg may be a bunch of something thnist 
in to stop the hole. Bung of a tonne or 
pype, boiuUl; bundell, bandeau. — Palsgr. 
302. The Fr. bouchon, a cork, boucher, 
to stop, are from bousche, bouche, a bunch 
or tufi, and the Sw. tapp (i»he;ice lappa, 
to itt^, and E. tap, the stopper of a cask), 

To timigle. To do anything awk- 
wardly, to cobble, to botch.— B. From 
dte superfluous baneing and hammering 
made by an unskilful worker. ON. ban^, 
knocking, racket, working in wood (especi- 
aOy withan axe), ^om^, to knock, to work 
at can>en[iy; baitgan, bongun, knocking, 
tmsldUul working, especially in wood- 
work ; inHgkagr, a bungler. Sw. bang, 
nmfie, racket ; bangia, to gingle. Sw. 
diaL bamgla, to work ineflectually. — Rietz. 
Campare c kleti^em, klimpern, to 
giiKM, tinkle, tinker ; to strum or play 
DnsldUiilly on an instrument ; liiimpeln, 
Stliit^em, to stnim on an instrument, 
to bviu^le, do a thing bunglingly. Banff. 
buMMUt, to strum on an instrument, to 
sing or play in a blundering manner ; 
buntmU, a botch, chimsy performance, 

Buiu^. See Bun. , 

Bant. The belW or hollow of a sail, 
the middle part of a sail formed into a 
kind of bag to receive the wind— Hal. 
Dan. bundt, a bunch, bundle. 

To Bnnt. — Bunting. To hunt in 
Soroe w et is to sifi, to bolt meal, whence 
bunthig, bolting-cloth, the loose open 
doth «ed for sitting flour, and now mere 
generaDy known »& the material of which 

Tha nulical knpoit is probaMy the 



impulse by which the meal is driven 
backwards and forwards. Bret, bounta, 
bsinta, to push, knock, shove ; E. dial, 
punt, to shove, to push with the head 
(Mrs Baker), to kick. To bunt, to push 
with the head. PLD. bunsen, to Icnock. 

• Buoy. Du. boH, Sw. boj, G. boie, 
boyi, Fr. bouii, Sp. boya, the float of an 
anclior or of a net ; boyar, to float. Lat. 
baia, Fr. buu, a. clog or heavy fetters for 
the neck or feet. It. boiie, buove, fetters, 
shackles, gyves, clogs, stocks or such 
punishments for prisoners. — Fl. The 
most usual form would be a heavy clog 
fastened by a chain to the limb, and 
hence the name would seem to have been 
transferred to the wooden log which 
would be the earliest float for an anchor, 
N.Fris. bui, the heavy clog of a foot- 
shackle ; an anchor buoy. — Johansen, p. 

Biurbla. A bubble. Sp. borbollar, to 

)il or bubble up. Lith. burboloti, to 
guggle as water, rumble as the bowels. 
Burbuleu, a water bubble made by rain. 
See Barbarous. 

Burden. A load. as. byrthen, G. 
biirde, from beran, to bear. 

Bniden, of a song. See Bourdon. 

Bureau. The Italian buio, dark, was 
formerly pronounced buro, as it still is in 
Modenaand Boiogna. — Muralori, Russ. 
buruii, brown ; burjat, to become brown 
or russet. ' Burrhum antiqui quod nunc 
dicimus ruftim.'^ — Festus in Diei. OFr. 
biirc, buret, Sp. buriel, Prov. buret, 
reddish brown, russet, speciiilly applied 
the colour of a brown sheep, then to 

: coarse woollen cloth made of the 
fleeces of auch sheep without dyeing. 
So in Pol. bury, dark grey ; bura, a rain- 
cloak of felt. Then as the table in a 

lurt of audience was covered with such 

cloth, the term bureau was applied to 
the table or the court itself, whence in 
modem Fr. it is used to signify an office 
where anv business is transacted. In 
English the designation has passed from 
a writing-table to a cabinet containing a 
writing-table, or used as a receptacle for 
papers. See Borel. 

Bm^anet. OFr- bourguignote, ^p. 
borgonota, a sort of helmet, property a 
Burgundian helmet. A la Borgonoia, in 
Burgundian fashion. 

Burgeon. — Burly, To burgeon, to 
grow big about or gross, to bud Ibrdi. — 
Bailey. Fr. bourgeon, bourjon, the yoimg 
bud, sprig, or putting forth of a vine, also 
a pimple in the face. — Cot. The word is 
variously written in oe. burUm, bourion. 



burjown. Sp. bonijon, protuberance, 
knob. Lang. boure,bourou, a bud, boura, 
bouronna, to bud ; Fr. aiaurioner, lo 
bud or sprout forth.— Cot. Burryn, to 
bud.— Pr. Pm. 

The primary origin of the word, as of 
so many others signifying swelling, is an 
imitation of the sound of bubbling water, 
preserved in Gael bururus, a purling 
sound, a gurgling ; Fin. purraia, cum 
sonitu bullio ut aqua ad proram navis, 
Strideo ut spuma vel aqua eit teriA ex- 
pressa ; purct, a bubble ; Dvi. borrelert, 
to spring as water ; borrel, a bubble. 
From the notion of a bubble we pass to 
the Gael, dorr, to swell, become big and 
proud, explaining the e. burgen. ' Bouffer, 
to puff, blow, swell up or strout out, to 
burgen or wax big.' — Cot The Gael, has 
also borr, borra, a knob, bunch, swelling ; 
borr-skuil, a prominent eye; borracka, a 
bladder, explaining Sp. borracha, a wine 
skin. Sw. dial. jJKrra, to puff up ; borr' 
utsa, to swell oneself out as birds j borras, 
to swell ^.rith pride. From the same root 
E. burly, big, occupying much space. 
Elpes am in Inderiche 
Oq l)0di berlU bergcs, ililie. 

Beiliaiy. NbI. AuUq. i. 193. 

Bni^eaa. — Bnr§^lier. oe. burgeise, 
OFr. burgiois, hora Lat. burgensis. 

Burgh. See Borough. 

BurglEir. A legal term from the Lat. 
burgi latro, through the Burgundian 
form Idre (Vocab. de Vaud.), OFr. lerre, 
a robber. It. giancelli, roguing beggars, 
bourgiain. — H. Bret, laer, robber. . 

Oinnes burgatores domoTum vel fraclores 
Ecclesiarum vel muroram vel porlarum civiialis 
tegis vel burgonim intranles malilios^ et felonici 
condemoenlur morti.^-Offidum Coronaloi ^ 
Burin. See under Bore. 
To Burl.— Burler. In the m 
facluring of cloths the process of clearing 
it of the knots, ends of thread, and the 
like, with little iron nippers called burling 
irons, is termed i«r/i>(p'.— Todd. A burl- 
^r is a dresser of cloth. Lang, bouril, 
CastraisdnwmV, the flocks, ends of thread, 
&c,; which disfigure cloth and have to be 
plnckcd off. Bourril de neou, flock of 
snow. OE. burle of cloth, tumentum. — Pr. 
Pm. From Fr. bourre, flocks. See Burr. 
BnrlOBque. IL burlare, to make a 
jest of, to ridicule. Probably a modifica- 
tion of the root which gave the OE. fouri/, 
a jest. Limousin bourdo, a lie, a Jest, 
bourda, to ridicule, to tell lies. The in- 
terchange of d and / is clearly seen in the 


Gael burd, burl, mockery, ridicule, jdkiiw; 
buirte, a jibe, taunt, rq^jtee ; butrUoM, 
language of folly or ridicule. 

Burly, See Burgeon. 

To Burs. Prol^bly, as Diefenbach 
suggests, from the roaring sound of flame. 
Thus G. briniuu or brennen was formerly 
used in the sense of to roar. Also tin 
IttVii brennen. — Dief- Supp. Herumge- 
hen "wu ein briitntnden lew, sicut leo 
rumens. Prennen,{ieniexe. — Notk.Ps.s6. 
;. m Schm. Swiss Rom. brinna, to roar 
like the wind in trees. — BrideL Hence 
C brandung, the roaring surge of the 
sea. In the same way on. brimi, fire, is 
connected with brim, surge or dashing of 
' sea; brima, to sui^e, and OG. brim- 
!, bremmen, to roar (as lions, bears, 
&c.). So also Sw. brasa, a blaze, Fr. em- 
braser, to set on fire, compared with C. 
brausen, to roar, and Dan. brast, to fry. 

It is probabie indeed that Fr. brOler, 
which has given much trouble to etymol- 
ogists, must be explained on the same 
principle from G. brUllen or briilen (Diet 
Supp.), to roar, the i in OFr. bmsler 
being a faiilty spelling, as in cousleau^ 
Compare also Piedm. bruii, to bum, 
Prov. bruiir, to roar, with Dan. bruse, to 
roar, to eflervesce. Han bruser op, he . 
fires up, E. brustle, to rustle, crackle 
like straw or small wood in burning — 
Hal. ; It. brustolare, to bum, toast, broil, 
singe or scorch with fire. — Fl 

Bum. A brook. Goth, bntnna, ON. 
brunttr, G. bom, brunnen, a well, a spring ; 
Gael, iijm, water, spring-water; bumoA, 
watery. Swiss Rom. bomi, a fountain. — 
Vocab. de Vaud, As we have seen the 
noise of water bubbling up represented 
by the syllable bor, pur (see Burgeon), 
the final « in bunt may be merely a sub- 
sidiary- clement, as the / in purl, and the 
word would thus signify water springing 
or bubbling up. Bav. burren, to hum, to 
buzz ; GaeL bururus, warbling, purling, 
gurgling, Walach. sborru>i, to murmur. 

BtLraish. Fr. bninir, to polish. Sw. 
bryna, to shaqjen, to give an edge to, 
brynsten, a whetstone, from bryn, the 
brim or edge of anything, N. oruH, an 
edge or point. Then as sharpening A, 
weapon would be the most familiar ex- 
ample of polishing metal, the word seems 
to have acquired the sense of polishing. 
So from Fin. tahko, an edge, a mai^n, 
latus rei angulata; ; tahkoinen, angular ; 
takkoa, to sharpen on a whetstone, thence, 
to rub, to polish. Bav, schieiffrn, to 
sharpen, to grind on a whetstone, hmibett 
I ichleiffen, to polish helmets, — Schm. 


The AS. br6n seems to have been used 
in the sense of an edge. 
Geata diyhlen 
Gryrc-bmic sloh 
Incgc lafe> 
Thst sio ecg gewdc, 
BruH on bane.— Beowulf, j'So- 

Translated by Kemble,— 

'The Loid of the Geats struck the terribly 
colound witb the l^acy of Incg so^ thai the 
edge grew weak, irmoii ufn the ioiu;' 

but it would both make better sense and 
be more in accordance with as. idiom if 
iniH were understood as a synonym of 

SUIT. I. The whining sound made by 
some people in pronouncing 'the letter r, 
as in Northumberland. This word seems 
formed from the sound.— Jam. ' Hearing 
the old hall dock — strike 12 with a dis- 
jtal, shuffling, brokenharpstringed-like 
whirr and ^rr.'— Matrimonial Vanity 
Fair, iiL aaj. Burr is related to 6ux3 as 
wJarr to nrkixs. With a sliehtly different 
spelling, Mrr signifies the wbizzmg sound 
Of a bixly burled through the air, whence 
Urr, force, impetus, any rapid whirling 
motion. — Hal The noise of partridges 
when they spring is called birring. G. 
iurren.purreit, to bura, whirr, coo, purr, 
Swiss iurren, to mutter ; Sw. dial, iorra, 
to tMin like a beetle ; burro, blurra, to 
chatter, tai^ fast and indistinctly. 

2. Burr or Bur is used in several 
senses, ultimately resting on the Gael 
root borr, signifying protrude, sweB, men- 
tioned under Bui^eon. Hence Fr.Aoa/rc, 
stuffing, whatever is used to make a tex- 
ture swell or strout out, and thence flocks 
'of wool, hair, &c., also ' any such trash 
as chaff, shales, husks, &c.'— Cot It 
borra, any kind of quilting or stuffing, 
shearing of cloth, also all such stuff as 
hay, moss, straw, chips or anything else 
that birds make their nests with, — FL 
Fr. bourrer, to stuff; bourreUt, bourlet, a. 
pad, a stuffed wreath used for different 
purposes, as for the protection of a child's 
head, or for supporting a pail of water 
carried upon tlie bead, a borse-coUar 
(whence baurrelier, a harness or collar 
maker) ; and met. an annular swelling, 
as the swelling above the grafted ^rt of 
the stem of a tree, the thickened rim at 
the mouth of a cannon. Hence must be 
explained E. bur, die rough annular ex- 
crescence at the root of a deer's horn, the 
ridge or excrescence made by a toot in 
turning or cuttii^ metal, the superfluous 
metal left in the neck of the mould in 



casting bullets. A hirr-fump is one 
used in a ship ' into which a staff seven 
or eight feet long is put having a burr or 
knob of wood at the end.'— Harris in 
Todd. In a met. sense a burr round 
the moon is the padding of hazy light by 
which it seems to be encircled when it 
shines through a light mist. 
And iurrtd moons foreleU giMt stonns at 
night,— Oare. 

3. When the hop begins to blossom it is 
said to be in burr. See Burgeon. 

4. Fris. borre, bum, Dan. borre, Sw. 
kardborre, iarborre, a bur, the hooked 
capitulum of the arctium lappa. Sw. dial 
borre is also a fircone. 

BufTow. Shelter, a place of defence, 
safety, shelter Provincially applied to 
shelter from the wind : 'the burrow side 
of the hedge ; ' ' a very burrmu place for 
cattle.' The same word with burgh, 
borough, bortovi, from AS. heorgan, to 
protect, shelter, fortify, save. Du. ber- 
ghen, to hide, cover, keep, preserve, and 
thence bergh, a port, a bam or cupboard, 
— Kil. G. hergen, -verbtrgen, to hide ; O.N. 
biarga, to save, preserve. A, rabbit bur- 
row is the hole which the animal digs for 
its own protection. So in w. ccur is a 
castle or fortress, caining-gaer, the fortress 
of a coney or rabbit, a rabbit burrow. 

Burse, — Biuser. -buTM. Burse, 
Fr. bourse, Du, ieurs, an exchange, from 
Fr. bourse, It. borsa, a purse. Bursar, the 
officer who bears the purse, makes the 
disbursements of the college. 

Borsa is derived by Diei from Gr. 
&ii^a, Mid.Lat byrsa, skin, leather, but 
it is more probably a development of It. 
bolgia, bolssa, Grisons bulscha, buscha, a 
wallet or scrip, from whence we pass 
through Sp. oolsa to It. borsia, borza, 
borsa, a purse, as from Sp. peiuca to Fr. 
perruque. See Bulge. 

To Bnrst. In OE. bresl, brast. G. 
bersten, AS. berstan, byrstan, OHG. bres- 
tan, brisien, Sw. brisia, ON. brjota, Fr. 
briier. Port britar, to break, Gael. 
bris, brisd, break ; brisdeach, bristeack, 
brittle. The root appears under the 
forms brik, bris, brist, brit. Lang. 6rico, 
briso, briketo, briseto, a morsel, fragment ; 
E. brist, small firagraents. Compare also 
OE. brokil and brolils brittle, and, as it 
is Still pronounced in N. of England, 
brickh. Serv. irsnuU, to burst. 

To Bury.— Burial AS. byrgoH, bir- 
gan, birigean, to bury ; byrgeu, byrgels, 
byrigtls, a sepulchre, tomb, burial place. 
OHG. burgisli, a sepulchre ; ehreoburgtum 


ii8 BUSH 

(cireo, AS. hrtaw, a corpse), a monument 
or erection over the dead. — Gloss. 
Malberc. The radical idea is seen in 
Goth, bairgati, AS. beorgan, to keep, 
preserve, protect ; whence beorg^ beork, a 
rampart, defence, mount, a heap of stc— 
burial mound. ' Worhton mid sta 
anne steapne btork him ofer : ' they 
raised a steep mound of stones over him. 
Thence byrigean, to bury, apparently a 
secondary verb, signifying to entomb, to 
sepulchre, and not directly (as Du. btr- 
ghen. borgken, condere, abdere, occultare 
— K.) to Hide in the ground. 

Biub.— Buobel. The huh of a wheel 
is the metal lining of the nave or hollow 
box in which the ajde works. Du. busie, 
a box, busken, a little box ; Dan. basse, 
a box, a gun ; G. buchse, a box, rad- 
biichsi, Sw. kjul-bosie, the bush of a 
wheel; Se. bush, box wood ; to bush, to 
sheath, to enclose in a case or box. The 
Gr. iriEic, -iJdj, a box, gave Lat pyxis as 
well as buxis, -idis, and thence Mid.Lat. 
buxida, bossida, buxta, boxta, bosla, Prov. 
boisHa, boissa, OFr. boiste, with the 
diminutives, Mid.Lat. buxula, bustula, 
biistellus, bussellus, OFr. boistel, boisUau, 
Fr. boisseau, a box for measuring corn, a 
bushel. See Box. 

Biuh.— Busk. 

Sibriht Ihal I of lold, thai the tond had lam 
That a awineherd slouh under a. busk oS Ibom. 
R. Bninne. 

The foregoing modes of spelling the 
word indicate a double origin, from the 
ON. busitr, a tufl of hair, bush, thicket 
(iuski, a bunch of twigs, bescun), and 
from the Fr. bousche, bouche, a wisp, 
tuft, whence baucken, a tavern bush, 
betieher, to stop, to thrust in a bouche or 
tuft of hemp, tow, or the like. Bouchel, 
a bush, bramble. It has beett shown 
under Boss that words signifying clump, 
tuft, cluster, are commonly derived from 
the idea of knocking. So from Fr. bous- 
ser, It bussare, Du. bossen, buysschen, to 
knock, we have Fr. basse, bausse, a hump, 
hunch ; Du. ias, a bunch, knot, bundle ; 
batch (a diminutive ?), a tuft, then a tuft 
of trees, a grove ; bosck van haer, a tuft 
of hair ; — van inijnbesien, a bunch of 
grapes. Fris. bosc, a troop, lump, dus- 
ter; qualster-boscaen, a clot of phlegm 
(Epkema). Du. bussel, a bundle ; It, 
bussane, a bush, brake, thicket of thorns ; 
Bret bouch (Fr. ek), a. tuft, wisp. G. 
bausch, projection, bulk, bunch, bundle, 
wisp ; iausckett, bausen, to swell, bulge, 
bunch ouL 

The; basked and nwked tbem boan. 

Jamieson thinks it probable that it may 
be traced to the on. bua, to prepare, to 
dress, al bua sig, induere vestes ; and it 
is singular that having come so near the 
mark he fails to observe that busk is a 
simple adoption of the deponent form of 
the ON. verb, al buast, for at buasc, con- 
tracted from the very e;q>ression quoted 
by him, 'a/ bua sUe.' The jKimitive 
meaning of bua is simply to bend, whence 
at bua sik, to bend one's steps, to betake 
oneself, to bow, in OE. ' Haralldur kon- 
gur bidst austur um Eyttascog.' HarcJd 
the king busks eastwards thmugfa the 
forest of Eyfla. ' Epter thetta fyr sik 
jarl sem skyndilegast ur landi.' After 
that the earl busks with all haste out of 
the land. Compare the meaning of busk 
in the following passage : — 

Many of the Danes privily were left 
And iuskid westwards forto robbe ell. 

It is certain that buast must once ha,va 
been written buasc, and we actually find 
iruasc,fiasc, in the For Skirnis ; barsc a 
Heimskringla, which would later have 
been written truasi, fiast, barst. The 
firequency with which to busk is used, aa 
synonymous with to make one boun, is 
thus accounted for^ as bouH is simpfy 
buinn, the past participle of the same veib 
bua, the deponent form of which is re- 
presented by the E. busk. 

To bow was used in a umilar manner 
for to bend one's steps, to turn. ' Baaaelk 
forth by a brook : ' proceed by a brook. 
—P. P. 

Forth heo samten bi^tn 
Id to BnitiBjae 

And her ful tone 

To Arthurs coukd. — I^yamoo^ a. 4I0> 
In the other copy—* 

Forth hii gonne btmn 
lo to Bnitaine. 

.1. borcegui, f\%. bon»- 
guint. Ft. brodefuin. The primary senso 
seems to have been a kind of leather, 
probably Morocco leather. Thus Frois- 
sart, ' li roy Richard mort, il fut couch^ 
sur une liti^re, dedans un char couvert de 
brodequin tout noir.' The buskin is said 
by Cobarruvias to have been a fafshion of 
the Moors and of Morocco, and he citcft 
from an iM romance ' Borzeguies Mar- 
roquies.' The word is exfdained by- 



Dozy from Anb. XBiqui, or Cherqi 
precious kind of leather made from 
sheepskins in the North of Africa. 
Edrtst, making o( the costume of the 
King of Gana, says, ' he wears sandals of 
ciUrqui.' it b true that from hence to 
bor^mi is a long step, but Doiy cite 
the OldPtg. forms morstquill, moseguit., 
and sapposes that the common Arab.- 
prefix mu or »»> has been erroneously 
added, as in mokarra from harbe, the 

K'nt of a lance, mogangas from gonj, 
e gestures, wmAm^ from ^i/iia, forest, 
Thua we shonld have nweherqin, and by 
transposition morchtqid, morsequi, bor- 

sam. I. A vessel employed in the 
bening fishery. Du. h^te, a vessel with 
a wide hull and blunt prow, alto a flagon. 
ON. busio, a ship of some siie. I^v. 
bus, a boat or small vessel ; Cat. hic, 
bulk, ship \ Sp. bucha, a lai^ chest or 
box, a fishing vesseL A paiticulaj appli- 
cation of the many-formed wordsignifymg 
bulk, trunk, body, chest See Boss, Box, 
Bulch, Bust. 

3. A kiss. Sp. buB, a kiss of reverence. 
Sw. iussa, putta, Bav. buistn, Swiss 
butxiuti, to kiss (from the sound — 
Stalder) ; buiscken, puUchen, to knock ; 
vmtdbHUck, a stroke of wind. Comp. 
smack, a kiss, and also a sounding blow. 
On the other hand, Gael, bus, a mouth, 
lip, snout; Walach.te'd, lip ; Pol. bu- 
gia, mouth, lips, also a kiss. So Wes- 
terwaU munds, mims, a kiss, from mund, 
mouth. LaL basium, It. bacio, Sp. beso, 
Fr. baiser, a kiss. The two derivations 
would be reconciled if Gael bus and Pol. 
busia were themselves taken from the 
smacking sound of the lips. 

Biiat.-~Buak. These seem to be mo- 
di&cations of the same word, originally 
signifying trunk of a tree, then trunk of 
the body, body without arms and 1«^, 
body of garment, especially of a woman's 
dress, and finally (in the case of busk) 
the whalebone or steel support with 
which the front of a woman's bodice is 
made stiff. 

I. With respect to busk we have on. 
buir, trunk, body ; Fr. buscke, a li^, a 
backstock, a great billet — Cot ; Rouchi, 
busch, a bust, statue of the upper part of 
the body without anns ; Fr. but, hisq, 
busque, a busk, plated body or other 
quilted thing, worn to make the body 
Straigfat ; buc, busc, bust, the long, small, 
or sharp-pointed and luird-quilted body 
of a douWct.— Cot. Wall, buc, trunk of 
a tte«^ of the human body (Graiulg.). 



t. With respect to brnt; ON. butr, a 
log ; Mid.Lat busta, arbor ramis trun- 
cata — Gloss. Lindenbr. in Diei ; Oris. 
biist, bist, trunk of a tree, body of a man, 
body of a woman's dress i It bttslo, a. 
bulk or trunk without a head, a sleeveless 
truss or doublet, also a busk. — FL 

The Prov. inserts an r after the initial 
bj bruc, brut, irusc, bust, body, as in 
ON. iruskr as well as buskr, a bush, tuft, 
wisp, Prov, brosHa as well as boslia, a 
box. The form brust, corresponding to 
brut xi brusc Xa bruc, would explain the 
G. brust, the breast, the trunk, box, or 
chest in which the vitals are contained. 
The ultimate origin may be found in the 
parallel forms buk, but, representing a 
blow. Pol./«it, knock, crack ; Yi.buquer, 
Namur busquer- (Siffart), Lang, biita, to 
knock. Swab, busch, a blow, a bunch of 
flowers ; buls, a blow, a projection, slump, 
lump. From the figure of striking against 
we pass to the notion of a projecdon, 
stump, thick end, stem. 

Bnat&rd. A large bird of the gallin- 
aceous order, Fr. outard. A great slug- 
gish fowl — B. Sp. aiutarda,ot avittarda; 
Champ^ne Hstards; Prov. auitarda, 
Fr. outarde. It eltarda. 

Named from its slowness of flight 

'roxims iis sunt quas Hispania aves 
tardas appellat'— Plin. 10. 22. HencQ 
probably au-tarda, otardn, utarda, and 
then with avis again prefixed, as in aV' 
estrux (^avis struthio), an ostrich, avu- 
tarda.~'D\e-z. Part aiotarda, bttarda. 

To Buatle. To hurry or irake a great 

ir. — B. Also written buskle. 

It is like (he smouldering fire of Mount Chim- 

n, which boilioE long lime wilb great Juiii/iii/ 

the bowels of the earth doth at lensth burst 
forth with violent rage. — A.D. 1555. — Hal. 

Here we see the word applied to th« 
bubbling up of a boiling liquid, from 
which it is metaphorically applied in or- 
dinary usage to action accompanied with 
'a great stir.' ON. buslla, to make a 
splash in the water, to bustle. So in 
Fin. kupata, kupista, to rustle (parum 
strepo) ; kiiyn kupajatt crepans iVa, I go 
clattering about, inde discurro et operosu'^ 
sum, I bustle. 

Buiy. — Buaineaa. as. biseg, bisg, . 
bisegung, bisgiing, occupation, employ. 
ment ; biigan, bysnax, Fris. bysgji, to 
occupy; Du.i^s/f,e«mj', busy, occupied j 
bemgen, to make use of. Business can 
hardly be distinct from Fr. besoigne, be- 
smgHt, work, business, an affair.— Cot 
The proceedingsof Parliament, A.D. 1372, 
speak of lawyers ' piursuant busoignes en 


no BUT 

la Court du Roi.' Perhaps besogiu may 

be from a g. equivalent of AS. bis^ng. 

But. As a conjunction but is m every 
case the compound be-out, Tooke's dis- 
tinction between but, be out, and bot, 
moreover, to-boot, being wholly unten- 

AS. butan, buta, inie, without, except, 
besides ; buian a, without taw, an oiidaw ; 
butan laite, without punishment ; butan 
wi/um and cildum, Msldes women and 
children. Pl.D, bUten; iiiUn doar, out 
of doors ; biiten dat, besides that ; Du. 
buiten, without ; buiten-man, a stranger ; 
buiten-sorgh, without care. 

The cases in which Tooke would ex- 
plain the conjunction as signifying boot, 
add, in addition, moreover, are those in 
which the word corresponds to the Fr. 
mais, and may all be reduced to the 
original sense of without, beyond the 
bounds of. Whatever is in addition to 
something else is beyond the bounds of 
the original object. 

In Sc we find ben, from as. binnan, 
within, the precise correlative of but, 
without ; but and bcu, without the house 
and within ; then applied to the outer and 
inner rooms of a house consisting of two 

The rent of a room and a kitchen, or what in 
the language of the place is styled a but and a 

of Stirlingshire in Jamieson. 

Sen-house^ the principal apartment. 

The elliptical expression of buttor only 
is well explained by Tooke. Where at 
the present day we should say, ' There is 
but one thing to be done,' there is really 
a negation to be supplied, the full expres- 
sion being, 'there is nothing to be done 
but one thing,' or 'there is not but one 
thing to be done.' Thus Chaucer says, 

I n'am but a leude compilatour.^ — 

where now we should write, ' 1 am but a 
compiler,' 'that I may have but. my 
meat and drink.' 

As an instance of what is called the 
adversative use of but, viz. that which 
. would be translated by Fr. mats, — sup- 
pose a person in whom we have little 
trust has been promising to pay a debt, 
we say, ' Bui when will you pay it ? ' 
Here the but implies the existence of an- 
other point not mcluded among those to 
which the debtor has adverted, viz. the 
time of payment ' Besides all that, when 
will you pay ? ' 


■'All tlie breibren are entertained 
bountifiilly, but Benjamin has a five-fold 
portion.' Here the but indicates that Ben- 
jamin, by the mode inwhichhe is treated, 
is put in a class by himself, outside that 
in which his brethren are included. 

Butcher. Fr. boucher, Prov. bockur, 
Lang, boquier, from boc, a goat (and not 
from bouch4, the mouth), prt>perly a 
slaughterer of goats ; 'que en carieras 
publicas li boquien el sane dels bocs do 
jhidton, ni av^isson los bocs en las 
plassas '— that the butchers shall not cast 
the blood of the goats into the public 
ways, nor slaughter the goats in the 
streets.— Coutume d'Alost in DicL Lang. 
So in Italian from ^1:1:0, a goat, beccaro, 
bcceaio, a butcher ; becearia, a butchery, 
slaughter-house. But It. bvccino, young 
beef or veal flesh ; bocdero, a butcher. 
Piedm. (children) boc, bocin, ox, calf. 

Butler. Fr. bouttillier, as if from bou- 
teille, a bottle, the servant in charge of 
the bottles, of the wine and drink. But 
the name must have arisen before the 
principal part of the drinkables would be 
kept in bottles, and the real origin of the 
word is probably from buttery. Butler, 
the ofRcer in charge of the buttery or 
collection of casks, as Pantler, the iM<Xt 
in charge of the pantry. Buttery, from 
butt, a barrel ; Sp. boteria, the store of 
barrels or wine skins in a ship. 

Butt. A taive barrel It Fr. botU, 
a cask. OFr. bous, boug, bout, Sp> beta, 
a wine skin, a wooden cask. Sp. boHja, 
an earthen jar ; botilla, a small winelK^, 
leathern bottle. 

The immediate origin of the term is 
probably butt in the sense of trunk or 
round stem of a tree, then hollow trunk, 
body of a man, belly, bag made of the 
entire skin of an animal, wooden recept- 
acle for liquors. A similar development 
of meaning is seen in thecaseof E. trunk, 
the body of a tree or of a man, also a 
hollow vessel ; G. rump/, the body of an 
animal, hollow case, hull of a ship- The 
E. bulk was formerly applied to the trunk 
or body, and it is essentially the same 
word with Lat. bulga, belly, skin-bag, and 
with It. bolgia, a leathern bag, a budget 
A similar train of thought is seen in ON. 
bolr, the trunk or body of an animal, bole 
of a tree, body of a shirt ; w. bol, bola, 
the belly, rotundity of the body, bag. 
The Sp. barriga, the belly, is doubtle^ 
connected with barril, a barrel, earthen 
jug; and in E. we speak of the barrel of 
a horse to signify the round part of the 
body. Wall, bedim, beUy, calf of tbe 


leg; hodi, rabodi. conrtaud, trapu. — 
Grande- Bav. boding, a barreL — 
SchmdL From Grisons butt, a cask, 
is formed the augmentative buttatsch, the 
stomach of catue, a large belly. The 
word body itself seems identical with g. 
botfick, a tub. Tlie Bavarian potig, 
potacha, botHg, signiiy a cask or tuD, 
while bottich, iod^, arc used in the sense 

To Butt, To strike with the head 
like a goat or a lam. From the noise of 
a blow. To come full butl against a 
thing is to come upon it suddenly, so as 
to make a sounding blow. Du. bot, tout 
& coup ; bot blijven staan, s'arrSter tout 
i, coup. — Halma. Ou. batten, to thrust, 
to push ; It botto, a blow, a stroke ; di 
bctio, suddenly ; botta, a thrust ; It. but- 
tare, to cast, to throw ; Lang, buta, to 
strilte, to thrust ; Fr. bouter, to thrust, to 
push ; W. pwtiaw, to butt, poke, thnist. 

The buU or butt end of a. thing is the 
striking end, the thick end. A butt, on. 
butr, the trunk, stump of a tree ; Fr. bout, 
end ; W. pwt, any short thick thing, 
stump. G. butt, butx, a short thick thing 
or person — Schmeller ; Fr. bette, a bun- 
dle ; Du. Fr. bot, thick, clumsy ; pUd- 
bot, a stump or. club foot. — Cot Gris. 
iott, a hill, hillock ; botta, a blow, a boU, 
a. clod. Fr. butle, a. mound, a heap of 
earth ; butter un arbre, to heap up earth 
round the roots of a.tree; ^//wlecderis, 
to earth up celery ; butter un 

port a target for the purpose of shooting 
" at 

Fr. but, the prick in the middle of a 
target, a scopie, aim ; whence to make a 
butt of a person, to make him a. mark for 
the jests of the company. 

Fr. inter, to touch at the end, to abut 
or butt on, as in G. from slossen, to strike, 
to thrust ; ait etwas anstassen, to be 
tiguouB to, to abut on. 

Hence the butts in a ploughed field 
are the strips at the edges of the field, o 
headlands upon which the furrows abut 
bat-lands, waste ground, buttals, a come 
of ground. — -Hal. 

Batter. Lat. butyrum, Gr. ^oirupDi. 
as if from ^it, an ox, but this is probably 
a mere adaptation, and the true derivation 
seems preserved in the provincial German 
of the present day. Bav. butiem, butteln, 
to shake t>aclcwards and forwards, to iioult 
flour. • Butter-glass, a ribbed g^s for 
shaking up salad sauce. Butlel-triib, 
thick from shaJEing. Butter-sckmalx, 


grease produced by churning, i. & butter, 
as distinguished from gelassene schmalM, 
dripping, grease that sets by merely 
standing. — S clunelL 

Buttor-fly. So called from the excre- 
ment being supposed to resemble butter. 
Du. boter-sckijte, boter-vliege, boter-vogel. 

Buttery. Sp. boleria, the store of 
wine in ships kept in botds or leather 
bags. So the buttery is the collection of 
drinlcables in a house, what is kept in 
butts. See Butler. 

Buttook. The large muscles of (be 
seat or breech. 

From Du. bout, a bolt, or spike with a 
lai^e head, then the thigh or leg of an 
animal, from the large uiobbed nead of 
the thigh-bone. Bout van ket sehouder- 
blad, caput scapulas ; bout van f been, 
femur, coxa, clunis. — Kil. Boutje, a little 
gigot, the thigh of a goose, fowl, &C. 
Hamele-hout, lams-bout, a leg of mutton, 
leg of Iamb. A buttock of beef is called 
a but in the w. of E.— Hal. 

Button. Fr. bouton, a button, bud, 
pimple, anysmall projection, from bouter, 
to push, thnist forwards, as rejeton, a 
rejected thing, from rejeter, n 
nursling, from « 

thriist,j*«ftin, a button. It is remark- 
able tha.t Chaucer, who in general comes 
so close to the Fr., always translates 
bouton, the rosebud, in the K. R. by bo~' 
thum and not button, w. both, a. boss, A 
nave ; botkog, having a rotundity ; botwm, 
a boss, a button. 

Buttress. An erection built up as a 
support to a wall. Fr. bouter, to thrust ; 
arcboutant, a flying buttress, an arch 
built outside to support the side thrust of 
a stone roof. Mur-buttant, a wall but- 
tress, a short thick wall built to rest 
against another which needs support ; 
butter, to raise a mound of earth around 
the roots of a tree. Boutant, a buttress 
or shore post. — Cot. 

Buttric». A farrier's tool for paring 
horses' hoofs, used by resting the head 
against the farrier's chest and pushing 
the edge forwards. Perhaps corrupted 
from Fr. boutis, the rooting of a wild 
boar, the tool working forwards like the 
snout of a swine. Fr. bouter, to thrust, 
bouloir, a buttrice. 

* Buxom. AS. bocsam, buksom, obe- 
dient, from bugoH, to bow, give way, 
submit ; Fris. bocgsum, Du. geboogsaem, 
flexible, obedient, humble. — KiL 


r bougksomtneis. Pli- 
ubleoess or bowsomentst, te wit, humbly 
stooping or bowing down in sign of obe- 
dience.— Teistegan in R. 

The sense of buxom, used in com- 
mendation of women, depends upon a 
train of thought which has become obso- 
lete. To bow down the enr is to listen 
^vourably to a petition. Hence bo-wmg 
or bendii^ was understood as symboUcal 
of good will, and a bowed or crooked 
coin or other object was presented in 
order to typi^ the good will of the sender, 
or to concihate tnat of the person to 
whom it was addressed. 

He sent to him his urvuit'ie««tl]> the nigbi 
before his departure for Newbury ifith a ieued 
eroal in lokni of his good heart towards him- — 
Fcaes Martyrs, lii. 519. Also when she had 
iaaid a piece tk stiver to t, saint for the health ol 
bir ahiU.— lb. li. xi. in N. & Q. Many good 
old people— of meeni Undue*! gave nie itvd 
slipences and eroals, bksains me with their 
bartr prayers and God speedes. — Kenipe's nine 
iaji wonder, p. 3. 

BowabU or bowstmte (buxom) thus 
came to signify well indined to, favour- 
able, gracious. 

Thow whiob buist tlie Lord nuke the jmr 
Iroun — for to be to us inclineable or ieum.' ' 
Tcdi to hcen: ns.— Pcsock Repressor, aoo. 
Mercy highl that mayde, a mekc tbyn^e with 

30113 of speech.— 

A buxom dame or lass is then a 
gracious, good-humoured one, and when 
the derivation of the word was forgotten 
It drew with it the sense of good health 
and spirits so naturally connected with 
good humour. 

To Buy. AS. bycgan, bohU, OE. ^gge, 
to purchase for money. .' Sellers and 
biggers.' — Wichff. The two pronuncia- 
tions were both current in the time of 
Chaucer, who makes abigg, to able, 
rhyme with rigg. See Abie. 


Goth, bugjan, baukta, to buy ; frahitg' 
jan, to selL 

To Bnzs. To make a humming noise 

ce bees. A direct imitation. Then 

applied to ipeakiDg low, indistinctly, con- 

fiisedly. It, iuBsieart, to whisper, to 

BnuaLTd. A kind of hawk of little 
esteem in ftlconry. LaL ^Uo; Fr. Aum, 
husard; Prov. buxac, butarg, lUbotMt^, 
boisagre, abowsagv, a buzzard or puttock. 
The name is also given to a beetle, inmk 
the buzzing sound of its flight, and it is 
to be thus understood in the expression 
blittd busxard. We also say, as blind as 
a beetle, as Fr. itourdi eomms um Aa«- 
ntlon, as heedless as a cock-chafer, from 
the blind way in which they fly ^aiiut 

By. Goth, bi, as. bt, Ug, G. bti. Do. 
bij, Sanscrit athi (Die£). Too used a 
wtud to leave any expectation of an ety- 
mological explanation, hut the senses 
may generally b« reduced to the nodes 

To jAiiu'^ is to stand aside; to^oMd 
by one, to stand at his side ; a by-patk is 
a side path ; to ^om by, to pass at the 
aide ofT Te iwtar by God is to swear 
in the sight of God, to swear with him 
by ; to adjure one by any inducement ii 
to adjure him with that In view. When 
it indicates the agent it is because the 
agent is oonsidereid as standing by his 

i^-law. OrigiDaliy the law of a par- 
ticular town. Sw. byiag, from br, a 
borough, towu having separate jurisdic- 
tion. ON. byar-log, Dan. bylove, leges ' 
urbaniE ; ON- byar-reilr, jus municipiL 

Subsequently api>lied to the separate 
laws of any association. 

Byre. A cow-house, stall The OK. 
byr, bar, a town, village, fairo, does not 
appear ever to have been used in the 
sense of a staU. The &nal r moreover is 
only the sign of the nominalive, and 
would have been Iwt in K. as in Da., Sw. 

CabaL The Jews believed that Moses 
received in Sinai not only the law, but 
also certain unwritten prTncipdes of inter- 
pretation, called Cabala or Tradition, 
which were banded down from father to 

son, and in which mysterious and magi- 
cal powers were supposed to reside. — 
Diet. Etym. 

Hence the name of caballiMg was 
applied to any secret machinations fcr 


efleciiiw a purpose ; and a aiAo/ is a con- 
clave oTpenoiu, secretly plotting t<%ether 
for their own ends. 

Cftbbttgs. From IL capo, OSp. c^«, 
bead, come the Fr. ci^oche, a head 
(whence ci^edtard, heady, wiUiil), caius, 
headed, raimd or great headed. Cktmx 
cuius, a headed cole or cabbage ; laibie 
eahuM, lactuca capitata, headed or cab- 
bagelettace. — Cot. U.caiticew,capuccii>, 
a. cabbage ; Du- caiuysioele, biassica 
capitata.— KiL 

To Cabbag«. To steal or pocket. 
Fr. cabas, Du. kabai, SpL cabache, a fiail, 
or rush basket, whence Fr. cabasser, to 
put or pack up in a fiail, to keep or 
hoard together.— Cot. Du. kabassen, 
convasare, surripere, sufluTan, manticu- 
lari — KiL j precisely in the sense of the 
K. eaUage. 

LomiD catasinr de ptEiuK. — Diet. Etym. 

Cabin. — Cabinst. w. cai, caian, a 
booth or but It. capoHHtt, Fr. cabam, a 
shed, hovel, hut. Tugurium, parva casa 
est quam iaciunt sibi custodes vinearutn 
ad tegimen sui. Hoc rustici capannam 
vocanL— Isidore in Diei. Item habeat 
archimachenis capaitasn (parvam came- 
ram} in coquinA ubi species aromaticaa, 
&c., deponat : a store closet— Neckam 
in Nat Antiq. Cappa in OSp. signifies 
a mantle as well as a hut, and as we find 
the same radical syllable in Bohem. k^l, 
a tunic, kabane, a jacket ; Yr.gahan, It 
cabarino, E. gabarditu, a doak of felt or 
shepherd's (rock, it would seem funda- 
mentally to signify shelter, covering. 
Af od.Gr. Eamrdn, a covering. 

Cable. Ptg. calabre, eabre; Sp. cabre, 
cable; Fr. c&bU, OFr. caabU, chaaile. 

The double a in the OFr. forms indi- 
cates the loss of the rf extant in the Mid. 
Lat cadabulitm, cadaboln, originally an 
engine of war for hurling large stones; 
and the Fr. ckaabU, Mid.liat cabulus, 
had the same signification ; ' une grande 
peri^re que I'on dajme chaaiu:—-fnu:,. 

From the sense of a projectile engine 
the designation was eariy transferred to 
the strong rope by which the strain of 
such an engine was exerted. 

CoQceuerint — descaiki 



s, sdlicot caailis et windasio 

Examples of the fiiller form of eadabU 
in the sense of cable are not given in the 
dictionaries, but it would aeem U> explain 

' Oe ON. fonn ka4^ a rope or caUe. It 
is remarkable that the Estbon. has ioMr^ 
a rope, string, band, and the Arab, 'habl, 
a rope, would correspond to ciMe, as 
Turk, 'havyar to caxnare. 

The Sp. and Ptg. cabo, a rope, is pro- 
bably imconnected, signifying propeny a 
rope's end, as the part by which the rope 
is commonly handled. 

The name of the engine, cadabuta, or 
eadabU, as it must have stood in French, 
seems a further corruption of calabrt (and 
not vice vers4, as Diei supposes), the 
Prov. name of the projectile engine, for 
the origin of which see Carabine, Capstan. 
We see an example of the opposite change 
in Champagne calabrt for cadavrt, a car- 
case.— Tarbe. 

Oabliah. Brushwood~-B., properiy 
windfalls, wood brcdcen and thrown down 
by the wind, in which sense are ei^bined 
the OFr. caables, cables, cab/is. The 
origin is the OFr. ekaabU, caatU, an 
engine for casting stones, MidLat cAo- 
dabula, cadabulum, whence Lang, ckabla, 
to crush, overwhelm (Diet Castr.), Fr. 
aceabler, to hurl down, overwhelm, OFr. 
caable (in legal language), serious injury 
from violence without blood, MidLaL 
eadabalum, prostratio ad terram, — Due. 
In like manner It traboccare, to hurt 
down, from trabocee, an engine for casting 
stones ; Mid.Lat. mangaMrt, It mt^gO' 
mare, OFr. nUkaigaer, E. Moim, muuit, 
Irom manganum. 

Cack. Very generally used, especially 
in children's language, for discnarging 
the bowels, or as an interjection of dis- 

Du. kack / phi ! respuendi par- 
ticula.~KiL Common to Lat and Gr., 
the Slavonian, Celtic, and Finnish lan- 
guages. Gael, ceack / exclamation of 
disgust ; eac, dung, dirt ; caca, nasty, 
dirty, vile. The origin is the exclamation 
ack I aek ! made while straining at stocd, 
Finn, akisia, to stmin in such a manner ; 
aah! like Fr. caca! vox pueiitis detes- 
tandi immundum ; aakka, stercus, sordes ; 
aakkata, cacare. Swiss aa, ag^a, agge, 
dirty, disgusting ; agge macken^'o.'aam'S 
language), cacare ; gaggi., gaggele, atggi, 
stercus ; gatsch, filth. Gadge I is pro- 
vincially used in E. as an expression of 
disgust Gr. uu^, bad. 

To Caokle.— Omml«, Imitative of 
the cry of hens, geese, &c Sw. kakla, 
Fr. caqutUr, Lith. kakaloti, to chattel^ 




J rattle ; Turk, kakulla, to cackle ; Du. 
aeckiUnj Gr. Eocnxltn'. 

Oadaverona. Lat. cadaver, a corpse, 
dead body. 

Caddj. Teor^adify, a tea-chest, from 
the Chinese catty, the weight of the small 
packets in which tea is made up. 

* Cade. A pet lamb, one that is brought 
up by hand ; a petted child, one unduly 
indulged by, and troublesomely attached 
to, its mother. — Mrs B. The designation 
seems taken from the troublesome bold- 
ness and want of respect for man of the 
petted animal, on. idtr, joyous ; Sw. 
dial, kat, frisky, unruly ; Dan. kaad, 
wanton, frolicsome ; kaad mund, a flip- 

ent tongue ; kaad draig, a mischievous 
y. — Amnson. 

Cadence. It. cadema, a falling, a ca- 
dence, a low note. — Flo. Fr. cadence, a 
just fallinK, a proportionable time or even 
measure m any action or sound.— Cot. 
A chacuru cadence, ever and anon. It 
seems to be used in the sense of a certain 
mode of falliiw fivwn one note to another, 
hence musical rhythm. Lai. cadere, to 

Cadet. Ft. cadet, Gascon capdet, the 
younger son of a family ; said to be from 
capitetu-m, litde chief. Sp. catdillo, lord, 
•master.— Due, 

Cadger. See Kiddier. 
Ca^. Lat. cavea, a hollow place, 
hence a den, coop, c^e. Sp- gavia. It 
gabbia, gaggia, Fr. cage. Du. kauive, 
ievie, G. kdfick. 

Caitiff It. cattivo (from Lat. cap- 
tivus), captive, a wretch, bad ; Fr, ckltif, 
poor, wretched. 

To C^ole. Fr. cageoler, caioler, to 
prattle or jangle like a jay (in a cage), 
to ^rate much to little purpose. Cajol- 
Uru, jangling, babbling, chattering.— 
CoL The rrference to the word cage 
hinted at by Cot. is probably delusive. 
It is more likely a word formed like 
cackle, gtiggie, gabbU, directly represent- 
ing the chattering cries of birds. As Du. 
gabberen is identical with e. Jabber, 
gabble corresponds with Fr. ja-violer, 
gabble, prate, or prattle. — CoL From 
hence to cageoler is nearly the same step 
as from It. gabbia, to cage. 

Cake. Sw. kaka, a cake or loaf. En 
kaia brod, a loaf of bread. Dan. kage, 
Du. koeck, G. kuchen, N. ktikje, cake. 

Oalamarr. A cuttle-fish, from the 
ink-bag which it contains. LaL calamus, 
Turk. Arab, kalem, a reed, reed-pen, pen ; 
Mod.Gr. KoX^uifN, an inkstand ; SttXav- 

mv4v KoKaiiafH, A sca inkstand, cuttle-fish. 

Calamitjr. Lat. calamitas, loss, mis- 
fortune. Perhaps from W. cell, loss, 
whence Lat incolumis, without loss, safe. 

Calaah.— Caloch. An ojwn travelling 
chariot. — B. A hooded carriage, whence 
calash, a hood stiffened with whalebone 
for protecting a head-dress. 

Fr. caliche. It caletsa, Sp. ealesa. 
Originally from a Slavonic source. Scrv. 
kolo, a wheel, the pi. of which, tola, sig- 
nifies a waggon. Pol. kolo, a circle, a 
wheel ; kolata, a common cart, an ugly 
waggon ; kolaska, a calash ; Russ. kolo, 
kolesb, a wheel ; koletnitaa, a waggon ; 
kolyaska, kohasochka, a calesh. In the 
same way Fin. ratas, a wheel ; pL f»/> 
taat (wheeU), a car. 

"" Ac-. Lat. calx, colds, limestone, 
lime ; whence calcareous, of the nature of 
lime ; lo calcine, to treat like lime, to 
bum in a kiln. 

Calculata. LaL calculo, to compute, 
from calculus, a small stone, a counter 
used in casting accounts. 

Caldron.— Oauldron. Lat. caliitu, 
hot ; caldarius, caldaria, Fr. chaudiire. 
It (in the augm. form) calderone, Fr. 
chaudron, cauldron, a vessel for heating 

Calendar. Lat calendarium, from 
calenda, the first day of the month in 
Roman reckoning. 

To Calendar. — Fr. calendrer, to sledk 
or smooth linen cloth, Sx. — Cot. Calan- 
dre, a roller, from Or. KvAivJpoc, Lat g^- 
lindrus, a cylinder, roller. 

Calanturs. A disease of sailors (nim 
desire of land, when they are said to 
throw themselves into the sea, taking it 
for green fields. Sp. calentura, a fever, 
warmth ; calentar, to heat Lat calidut, 

Call The young of oxen and similar 
animals. G. kaib. 

Calf of the Leg. on. kalfi, Sw. ben- 
kalf, Gael calpa, catba, or colpa na ceise, 
the calf of the leg. The primary mean- 
ing of the word seems simply a lump. 
Calp is riadh, principal and interest, the 
lump and the increase. It is another 
form of the E. collop, a lump or large 
piece, esfwcially of something soft The 
calf of the leg is the collop of flesh be- 
longing to that member. The Lat. ana- 
logue is pulpa; pulpa cruris, the fleshy 
^aTl of iht\e% ; pulpaligni.DM. kalf van 
hout, the pith or soit part of wood. Dan. 
dial, kail, calf of 1^, marrow, pith. 

* Calibre.— OalGper. Fr. calibre. It 
ealibro, colibm, the bore of a cannooi 

,^i. Google 

CtUliper-con^aues, compasses contrived 
tomeasurc thediameterof theborc. Sp. 
ealibre, diameter of a ball, of a column, 
of the bore of a firearm ; met. quality. 
Scr de buen 6 mal ealibre, to be of a good 
or bad quality. 

Derived by some from Arab, gdiah, 
kaiib, a last, form, or mould, which docs 
not give a very satisfactory explanation 
either of the form or meaning of the word. 
Mahn derives it from LaL qui librd, of 
what weight ? a guess which should be 
supported by some evidence of the use of 
liira in the sense of weight According 
to Jal (GL nautique), the Fr. form in the 
i6th century was i^ualibre. 

Calioo. Fr. caltcot, cotton cloth, from 
Calicut in the E. Indies, whence it was 
first brought 

O&Iiph. The successors of Mahomet 
in the command of the empire. Arab. 
khalifak, a successor. 

• Oaliver. A harquebus or handgun. 
The old etymologers supported their 
theories by very bold assertions, in which 
itjifs dangerous to place implicit fotth, 
Sir John Smith in Grose, Mil. Antiq. i. 
1 56 (quoted by Marsh), thus accounts for 
the origin of the word ; ' It is supposed 
by many that the weapon called a caliver 
is another thing than a harquebuse, 
whereas in troth it is not, but is only a 
harquebuse, saving that it is of greater 
circuite or bullet than the other is ; where- 
fore the Frenchman doth call it ^pUcede 
calibre, which is as much as to say, a 
piece of bigger circuite.' But it is hard 
to suppose that E. caliver, or caliever, can 
be distinct from ODu. koluvre, klover, 
colubrina bombarda, Eclopu3.^Kil. Ca- 
tapulta, donderbuchs — donrebusse vel 
clmier. — Dief. Sup. Now these Du. 
forms are undoubtedly from Lat. coluber, 
Fr. couUuvre, an adder, whence couleuv- 
rine, eouUvrine, and E. culverin, a kind 
of cannon, and sometimes a handgun, 
Slange, serpens, coluber ; also, bombarda 

geschut, colubraria canna, fistula. — Bi- 
glotton. The adder or poisonous serprent 
was considered as a fire-spitting animal, 
and therefore it lent its name to several 
kinds of firearms. Among these werethe 
drake (Bailey), and dragon, the latter of 
which has its memory preserved in Du. 
dragonder, E. dragon, a soldier who 
originally carried that kind of ann. 

To Calk. To drive tow or oakham, 
&c., into the scams of vessels to make 
them water-tighti Lat caleare, to tread, 



to press or stuff. Prov. taUa, ealeua, Fr. 
caugue, a tent or piece of lint plaCM in 
the orifice of a wound, as the caulking in 
the cracks of a ship. GaeL calc, to calk, 
ram, drive, push violendy ; caUaick, to 

am, calk, harden by pressure. 

To Call. Gr. uXlu, 0N.4'iT//a, to call, 
to say, to affirm. Du. kal, pratUe, chat- 
ter ; kallen, to prattle, chatter. Lat. ca- 
lare, to proclaim, to call. Probably from 
the sound of one knllooing, hollaing. 
Fin. kalloltaa, a!ta voce ploro, ululo ; 
Turk, kal, word of mouth ; kil-H-kal, 
people's remarks, tittle-tattle. Heb. kol, 

• Oallet. A depreciatory term for a 
woman, a drab, trull, scold. ' A calat of 
leude demeaning.' — Chaucer. 'A eallei 
ofboundless tongue.'— Winter's Tale. Fr. 
cailletle, femmc frivole et babillarde. — 
Diet. Lang. Probably an unmeasured 
use of the tongue is the leading idea. 
NE. to collet, to rail or scold ; adleling. 
pert, saucy, gossiping. ' They snap and 
caltit like a couple of cur dc^.' — Whitby 
GL To call, to abuse ; a good calling, a 
round of abuse.— Ibid. 

Calloua. Hard, brawny, having a thick 
skin. — B. Lat callus, callum, skin hard- 
ened by labour, the hard surface of the 
ground. Fin. kallo, the scalp or skull, 
jaa-kallo, a crust of ice over the roads 

Callow. Unfledged, not covered with 
feathers. Lat. caivus, AS. calo, caluw, 
Du. iael, katwwe, bald. 
. quiet The primitive 
meaning of the word, however, seems to 
be heat Sp. dial calma, the heat of 
the day. — Diez. Ptg. calma, heat, col- 
maso, hot The origin is Gr. tmpa, heat, 
from nfti, to bum. Mid.Lat cauma, the 
heat of the sun. ' Dum ex. nimio caumaU 
lassus ad quandam declinaret umbiam.' 
Cauma — incendium, calor, sestus-^Duc 
The word was also written cawme in OE. 
The change from a k to an / in such a 
position is much less common than the 

given. So It oldire from audire,Xc 

palmento for paumttito from pavimen- 
turn, Sc. ihalmer for chawmer from 

The reference to heat is preserved in 
the It. scalmato, faint, overheated, over- 
done with heat — Alt. ; scalmaccio, a sul- 
try, faint, moist, or languishing drought 
and heat.^Fl. Thus the word came to 
be used mainly with a reference to tbo 




oppmsive eSkcts of heat, and gave tiae 
to the Lang, cdouma, ehaonma, to avoid 
the heat, to take rest in the heat of the 
day, whence the Fr. ehommer, to abstain 
from work. The Grisons cauma, a shady 
spot for cattle, a n)Ot in which they take 
refuge from die heat of the day, would 
lead us to suppose that in expressing ab- 
sence of wind the notion of shelter may 
have been ttansferred from the sun's rays 
to the force of the wind. Or the word 
may have acqivred that signification from 
the oppressiveness of the sun being 
mainly felt in the absence of wind. 

0alo7«r. A Greek monk. ModGi 
•aUffpac, KoA jyttper, monk, properly good 
old man, from lAit, good, and yip^y, 

Calumny. Lat ea/utrmia, a slander, 
fidse imputation. 

CalTsred Salmon. Properly calvtr 
mIihoh, the lish dressed as soon as it is 
caught, when its substance appears inter- 
flpet^ed with white flakes like curd. From 
Sc, callonr, collar, fresh. Calver of 
samon, escume de saumon. -^ Pals^. 
'Take calniiar samon and seeth it in 
lewe water,'— Forme of Cury in Way. 
'Quhen the salmondis faillis thair loup, 
thay fall callour in the said caldroums 
and are than maist delitious to the mouth.' 
— Bellenden in Jam. 

Calyx Lat. calix, a cup, a gobkt ; 
caljx, the bud, cup, or hollow of a 

Oanitariiie.~{lainb»L A ship's deck 
is said to lie cambering when it does not 
lie level, but is higher in the middle than 
at the ends.— B. Fr. cambrer, to bow, 
crook, arch g cambn, cambrt, cnxrfced, 
arched. Sp. eemiar, to bend, to warp, 
to jut. Bret kamm, arched, crooked, 
lame. Gr. Ka^rru, to bend, nofiirftXac, 
crooked, hooked, t^ camber-naud,hsmng 
Kit aquiline nose. — Jam. Cambrel, eaift- 
htti, w. camirem, crooked-sticl^ a crook- 
ed stick with notches in it on which 
butchers hang their meat — B. 

Oambrie. A sort of fine linen cloth 
bought from Cambral in Flanders. — B. 
Fr. Cambray, or toile de Cambraf — Cam- 

OuneL Gr. k<!/ii}Xi>c, Lat. camelus. 

Oameo. It cammeo, Fr. camie, ea- 
maieti, Sp. Ptg. camafeo, Mid.Lat cama- 
Aelus, camahutus. 

Oamisade. Sp. camisa. It. camiscia, 
a shirt, whence Fr. camisade. It. camis- 
(iaia, a night attack ufion the enemies* 
camp, the shirt being worn over the 
clothes to distinguish the attacking party, 

or nUber paibaps a niipriae of the 

enemy in thrir shirts. 

Camlet. Fr. aitiuUl A stuff made 
of camel's or goafs hair. It was distin- 
guished by a wavy or watered surface. 
Caitulol a ondes, water chamlet ; eaaiiigl 
pienier, nnwater chamelot j m camtloUr, 
to grow rugged or full of wrinkles, to be- 
come waved like chamlet — Cot 

Oamp. — Cunpaijrn. ~~ Champaign. 
Lat eampui. It. campo, Fr, champ, a 
plain, field ; It. campo, Fr. cantp, a camp 
or temporary residence in the open fieJci, 

From campus was formed Lat. caw^a- 
nia. It. campagna, Fr, champagnt, a field 
country, open and level ground, E. cham- 

In a different application It cati^agna, 
Fr. campagne, E. campaign, the space of 
time every year that an army continnes 
in the 6^ during a war. — B. 

Canal — Channel. Lat canaiis, a 
conduit-pipe, the bed of a stream, the 
fluting or furrow in a column ; catuM, a 
cane, the type of a hollow pipe. 

OanceL Lat cancdlo, to make lik^a 
lattice, cross out by scoring across and 
across ; toHcelli, a lattice. 

Canoor. See Canker. 

Candid. — Candidate. Lat Candidas, 
white, foir, plain-dealing, frank and sin- 
cere : candidatus, clothed in white, 
whence the noun signifying an applicant, 
aspirant, because those aspiring to any 
pnncipal office of State presented them- 
selves in a white toga while soliciting the 
votes of the citizens. 

Candle.— Chandelier. Lat camdcla, 
Fr. chandelle, from caitdtre, to glow. 

Candy. Sugar in a state ai crystallis- 
ation. Fers. Arab. Turk, kand, sugar. 
Sanscr. kkanda, a piece, sugar in pieces or 
lumps -J kkand, to break. 

Canibal. An eater of human fledi. 
From the Cannibals, or Canbs, or Gati- 
bis, the original inhabitants of the W. 
India Islands, the name being differently 
pronounced by difio^nt sections of the 
""''m, some of whom, hke the Chinese, 
nor in their language. Peter Martyr, 
who died Id ija6, calls them Cannibals 

The Caribel I lotmad to I 
uinitMls, and great Connies li 

of Trinid&d.— HBcUuyt in R. 
Canine. Lat cants, a dog. 
Oaniater. Lat. canistrum, a basket 
Canker. Fr. chtincre, an eating, spread- 
g sore. Lat cancer, a crab, also an 

eating sore. 
Oaan, om, ka»m», a bi8<t drinking 


vessel Perhaps from v. eannu, to con- 
tain, as mmmtr, a drinking glass, from 
Dan. rumttu, to coniain. But it may be 
from a different source. Prov. earn, a 
reed, cane, also a measure. Fr. cane, a 
measure for cloth, being a yard or there- 
abouts ; also a can or such-like measure 
for wine. — Cot A joist of a hollow stalk 
would be one of the earliest vessels for 
holding liquids, as a reed would afford 
the readiest measure of length. 

Guk&al Onal. Coal burning with 
much bright flame, like a torch or candle. 
N, l^ndel, kymul, a torch. 

Camion. It. caHHone, properly a large 
pipe, from canna, a reed, a tube. Prov. 
ttaion, a pipe. 

Okno*. An Indian boat made of the 
hollowed trunk of a tree. Sp. canoa, from 
the native term. Yet it is remarkable 
that the g. has kahn, a boat OFr. cane, 
a ship ; canol, a small boat.— Diei. 

Oaaon.— To OanoniM. From Gr. 
M(vq, ni>vo, a cane, was formed taytm, a 
straight rod, a ruler, and met a rule or 
standard of excellence. Hence Lat. antan 
wai used by the ecclesiastical writers for 
a tried or authorised list or roll. The 
amfft of scriptures is the tried roll of 
sacred writers. To eanenUe, to put upon 
the tried list of saints. 

Again we hare Lat. eanonicus, regular, 
canoniei, the canons or regular cleigy of 
a cathedral 

Cuiop7. Mod.Gr. KHMnriitw , a mos- 
quito curtain, bed curtain, from kwvhi^, a 

Oajib Cant il properly the language 
rooken by thieves and beggars among 
themselves, when they do not wish to be 
tmderstood hy bystanders. It therefore 
CKimot be denved from the sing-song or 
whining tone in which they dem and alms. 
The word seems to be taken from Gael 
cainnt, speech, language, applied in the 
first instance to the special language of 
Tt^es and beggars, and subsequently to 
the peculiar terms used by any other pro- 
fession or community. 

The Doctor here, 
Whpi he diaoounelti of dissectioa, 
a cava uid of vena porta. 




What does he el 


)r if he ru 

Dae» be not eanl T who here can Dnderstand hi 

OasUr. A slow gallop, formerly cal'ett 
a Canterbury gallop. If the word had 
been from cantkerius, a gelding, it would 
have been found in the continental lan- 
guages, which is not the case. 

OatLtle. A piece of anything, as a 
cantle of bread, cheese, &c. — B. Fr. 
chanlel, ckanteau, Picard. eanteau, a 
comer-piece or piece broken off the cor- 
ner, and hence a gobbet, lump, or cantelt 
of bread, &c.— Cot Du. kandt-broedts, 
a hunch of bread. — Kil ON. kantr, a 
side, border ; Dan. kant, edge, border, 
region, quarter ; It canto, side, part, 
quarter, comer. A ccmtle then is a comer 
of a thing, the part easiest broken off. 
Fin. kanta, the heel, thence anything pro- 
jecting or comered ; kuun-kanta, a horn 
of the moon ; teiwan kanta, margo panis 
diffracta, a cantle of bread. Esthon. kati, 
ktutd, the heel 

Cutton. Fr. canlon^t. cantone, a di- 
vision of a country. Probably only the 
augmentative of canto, a comer, although 
it has been supposed to be the equivalent 
of the E. territorial hundred, W. eantref, 
cantred, from cant, a hundred, and tref, 

Oonvae. From Lat. eoitnahis, hemp, 
It catmevo, canafia, hemp, cannevaeaa, 
canapacda, ca^tit hemp, coarse hempen 
cloth ; Fr. canevas, canvas. To canvas 
a matter is a metaphor taken from sifting 
a substance through canvas, and the verb 
sift itself is used in like manner for ex- 
amining a matter thoroughly to the very 

• Cap.— Oape.~^Ii>p0. as. cceppe, a 
cap, cape, cope, hood. Sp. eapa, a cloak, 
coat, cover ; II. cappa, \t. chape. Words 
beginning with// or elxtt frequently ac- 
companied by synonymous forms in which 
the / is omitted, and probably the origin 
of the present words may be found In the 
notion of a piece of something flat clapped 
on another surface like the Aap of a gar- 
ment turned back upon itself. Flappe of 
a gowne, eappe. — Palsgr. See Chape. 
Swab, ichlapp, kimschlappu, a SCuU- 
cap. Gugef, capello Italis, Germanis 
kappen, Akmanms, schlappen.—GolAoAX 
in Schmid. Schwab. Wtb. 

The root cap, signifying cover, is found 
in languages of very different stocks. 
Mod.Gr. rarwilei, a cover ; Turk, kapa- 
mak, to shut, close, cover ; kt^, a door ; ' 
kaput, a cloak ; kapali, shut, covered. 

Capable.— Capaciooa. It eapevele, 
capace, Lat capax, able to receive, con- 
tarn, or hold. SeeCapt-. 

Oapamon. Sp. e^arateit, carcase 




of a fowl, cover of a saddle, of a coach, 
or other thines. 

Caps, A headland. It. ai^d, a head. 
See Chief. 

Caper. To caper or cut capers is to 
make leaps like a kid or goat. It. capro, 
a buck, from Lat. capers caprio, capriola, 
a capriol, a chevret, a young kid ; mcL a 
capriol cr caper In dancing, a leap that 
cunning riders teach their horses. — FL 
Fr. capriole, a caper in dancing, also the 
capriole, sault, or goat's leap (done by a 
horse).— Cot. 

Capers. A shrub. Lat. capparis, Fr. 
cdpre, Sp. alcaparra, Arab, algabr. 

Capimiry. Hair-Uke. Lat. capillus, 

Capital. Lat. capitalis, belonging to 
the head, principal, chief. From caput, 
the head- Hence cafitalls the sum lent, 
the principal part of the debt, as distin- 
guished from the interest accruing upon 
It. Then funds or store of wealth viewed 
as the means of earning profit. 

To Capitulate. Lat. capilulare, to 
treat upon terms ; from capitulum, a little 
head, s. separate division of a. matter. 

Capon. A castrated cock. Sp. eapar, 
to castrate. Mod.Cr. aiotiitTiii, to cut 
off, abridge; air^Diroc, cut, castrated. 

Caprice. It. cappriccio, explained by 
Diez from capra, a goat, for which he 
cites the Comask nucia, a kid, and nucc, 
caprice; IL ticchio, caprice, and OHG. 
siki, kid. The true derivation lies in a 
different direction. The connection be- 
tween sound and the movement of the 
sonorous medium is so apparent, that the 
terms expressing modifications of the one 
are frequently transferred to the other 
subject. Thus w£ speak of sound ■vibrat- 
ing in the ears ; of^ a tremulous sound, 
for one in which there is a quick succes- 
sion of varying impressions on the ear. 
The words by which we represent a sound 
of such a nature are thenapplied to signify 
trembling or shivering action. To twitter 
is used in the first instance of the chirping 
of birds, and then of nervous tremulous- 
ness of the bodily frame. To chitter is 
both to chirp and to shiver. — Hal. It is 

Srobable that Gr, fpi»im originally signi- 
ed to rustle, as Fr. frisser {frissemmt 
d'un trait, the whizzing of an arrow — 
Cot.), then to be in a state of vibration, 
to ruffle the surface of water, or, as Fr. 
Jnssoner, to shudder, the hair to stand on 
end. *p'Coc, bristling, curUng, because 
the same condition of the nerves which 
produces shivering also causes the hair 
to stand on end. The same imitation of 

a rustling, twittering, cracklii^ sound 
gives rise to Sc, brissle, birsU, to broil, to 
fiarch, Lang, bretilia, to twitter as binls, 
Genevesc bresohr, brisoltr, to broil, to 
tingle (fos quibresole, the singing bone). 
It. Brisciare, to shiver for cold, and with 
an initial ^r instead of br,Yu greiiUer, 
to crackle, wri^le, frizzle, grisser, to 
crackle, \\.. gricciare, to chill and chatter 
with one's teeth, agpicciare, to astonish 
and affright and make one's hair stand od 
end. In Lat ericius, a hedge-hog, It. 
riccio, hedge-h<%, prickly husk of diest- 
nut, curl, Fr. rissoler, to fry, lUrisser, It. 
arricciarsi,xhe hair to stand on end, the 
initial mute of forms like Gr. fpiloc. It. 
briyciare, gricciare, is either wholly lost, 
or represented by the syllable e, M, as in 
Lat. erica, compared with Bret, brug, W. 

O, heath, or Lat eruca compared with 
■uco, a caterpillar. 

We then find the symptoms of shiver* 
ing, chattering of the teeth, roughening 
of the skin, hair standing on end, em- 
ployed to express a passionate longing f<M' 
a thing, as in Sophocles' i^r t'p^ri, I have 
shivered with love. 'A tumult of delight 
invaded his soul, and his body brisUtd 
with joy' — Vikrain, p. 75, where Burton 
adds in a note. Unexpected pleasure, ac- 
cording to the Hindoos, gives a bristly 
elevation to the down of the body. 

The effect of eager expectation in pro- 

speak of Wri//i'n^ with e 
and this symptomatic shuddering 
the primary meaning of earn or 
yearn, to desire earnestly. To earn* 
•within is translated by Sherwood by 
frissonner ; to yeame, sTi^risser, frisson- 
ner ; a yearning through sudden fear, 
h£rissonnemenl, horripilation. And simi- 
larly lo yearn, arricciarsi. — Torriano. 

Many words signifying originally to 
crackle or rustle, then to shiver or shud- 
der, are in like manner used metaphori~ 
cally in the sense of eager desire, as Fr. 
grisser, greziller, griller, brisoler; ' Elles 
grissoient d'ardeur de le voir, they longed 
extremely to see it' — Cot. ' Griller d'im- 
patience.'— Trev. ' II bresole (01. G^ 
n^.) — greziUe (Supp. Acad.) d'Stre 

The It brisciare, to shiver, gives rise 
to bretta, shivering, ribreano, a chillness, 
shivering, horror, and also a skittish or 
humorous toy, riiregaoso, humorous, fan- 
tastical, suddenly angry.— FL So from 
Sw. krus, brislhng, ctirly, knis-htijvmd 


(bristly-bead), one odd, fantastic, hard 
to please. — Nordfoss. Du. krul, a ca- 
price, fancy. The exact counterpart 
to this is It. arricda'Capo (FL), or the 
svnonyinous tapriccio (capo-riccio), a 
Uiivering fit (^tieri), and tropically, a 
sudden fear apprehended, a fantastical 
Iiumour, a humorous conceit making one's 
hair to stand on end. — FL Fr. caprice, a 
sudden will, desire, or purpose to do a 
thing for which one has no apparent 
reason. — Cot. 

Oqoiol*. See Caper. 

Oap«tAn.~Capatem.— Orab. Sp. ca- 
btstanie, cahesiratite ; Fr. cabeslan. The 
name of the goat was given in many lan- 
guages (probably for the reason explained 
under Carabine) Co an ei^pne for throw- 
ing stones, and was subsequenfly applied 
to a machine for raising heavy weignts or 
exerting a heavy pull. OSp. caira, ca- 
treia, an ei^nefor throwing stones. IL 
capra, a skid or such engine to raise or 
mount great ordnance withal ; also tres- 
sels, also a kind of rack. — Fl. g. bock, a 
trestle, a windlass, a crab or instrument 
to wind up weights, a kind of torture. — 
Kiittner. Fr. chevre, a machine for rais- 
ing heavy weights. In the S. of France 
the transposition of the r converts capra 
into crabo, a she-goat, also a windlass for 
laising heavy weights (ex|ilaining the 
origin of E. crab, a sawii^-block or 
trestles,— Diet. Castr, 

The meaning of the Sp. eabrtstante 
(whence K. capstern or capstan) now be- 
comes apparent It is a standing crab, a 
windlass set upright for the purpose of 
enabling a lar^ number of men to work 
at it, in opposition to the ordinary modi- 
fication erf the machine, where it is more 
convenient to make the axis horizontal 

C^Vanle. LaL capiula, dim. of capia, 
a coffer, boK, case. 

Capt-. -cept, -ceive. Lat capio, 
eaptas, to take, seiie, hold, contain, 
whence cloture, capHvt, captivatt, &c. 

The a of capio changes to an < in com- 
position, and of captus to an e, as in 
accipio, aceepbis, to take to, to accept; 
rtctpio, recefilus, to take back, to receive ; 
Tfceptio, a taking back, a reception. But 
in passing into Spanish the radical sylla- 
ble -c^ of these compound verbs, re- 
eipere, concipcre, Sec, was converted into 
-ct^ or -cii-, and in French into -cev- ; as 
in Sp. redbir, concebir, Tt. recevoir, conce- 
voir. Passing on into E,, which has re- 
ceived by far the greater^art of its Latin 
tlerivatives through the French, the -ceV' 
of the Fr. verbs gives rise to thie ekmeat 


•ceive in reetive, conceive, perceive, de~ 

The participial form of the root in com- 
pound verbs, -c«ii/, didnotsuflerthesame 

corruption in French, and has thus de- 
scended unaltered to English, where it 
forms a very large class of compounds, 
accept, except, precept, intercept, deception, 
conception, &c. In cases, however, where 
the -cept was final or was only followed 
by an « mute, the p was commonly not 
pronounced in French, as in OFr. concept, 
recepte, decepu, and has accordingly been 
lost in E. conceit, deceit, vbileii stUl keeps 
itsgroundinthe writing of «ajjS/ although 
wholly unpronounced. 

Captain. It a^itana, a head man, 
commander, from Lat caput, capitis, 

Capachla. It eapuccio, eappuccio, a. 
hood (dim. of cappa, a cloke) ; capuccino, 
a hooded friar, a capuchiiL 

Oar,— Cart. — Carry. Lat earrus. It 
carro, Tt. char. In all probability from 
the creaking of the wheels. ON. karra, 
Du. karren, kerren, to creak, also to carry 
on a car ; karrende warden, a creaking 
waggon. Fin. karista, strideo, crepo. Sp. 
chirriar, to creak, chirrion, a tumbrel or 
strong dui^-cart which creaks very loudly. 
— Neumann, Derivatives are Fr. ckar- 
rier, to carry ; It caricare, Fr. charger, to 
load ; It carretta, Fr. cht/rrel, a cart 

Carabine.— Carbine. The It. cala- 
brino, Fr. calabrin, carabin, was a kind 
of horse soldier, latterly, at least, a horse- 
man aimed with a carbine or arquebus. 
Carabin, a carbine or curbeene; an arque- 
buzier armed with a murrian and breast- 
plate and serving on horseback.— Cot. 

Les earabint lonl des Brquebusiers k cheval 
qui voni deiHDt Is compagniis ds ecus de guerre 

moucher.— Caseneuve in Diet Etym. 

As the soldiers would naturally be 
named from their peculiar armament, it 
is infened by Diez with great probability 
that the term calaire, originally signifying 
a catapult or machine for casting stones, 
was transferred on the invention of gun- 
powder to a firelock, and that the cola- 
brins or carotins were named Irom 
carrying a weapon of that designation, as 
the dragoons (Du. dragonder) irom carry- 

machines for casting stones should be 
transferred to the more efficient kinds of 
ordnance brought into use on the dis- 
covery of gunpowder. Thus xhe musket. 
It mtucieUa, was originally a missile 


discharged from some kind of spring ma- 
chine. Ptg. espiHgUrda, a firelock, is the 
ancient springald,^ machine for casting 
large darts, and catapuUa, properly a 
siege machine, is the word nsed in mo- 
dem Lat for a gun. 

The teim caLibre as the name of a pro- 
jectile engine is probably a comtplion of 
cabre from cobra, a goat, in the same way 
that the Sp. calamhre has been formed 
from the same source with the synon- 
ymous E. eratnp. Ptg. c^re and caiaire 
are both used in Che sense of a caUe, an 
instrument ibr exerting a heavy strain. 

The reason why the name of the goat 
is used to designate a machine for cast- 
ing stones is probably that the term was 
first applied to a battering-cam (G. bock, a 
he-goat, a battering-ram), a machine 
named by the most cdtvious analogy after 
Uie goat and ram, whose mode of attack 
is to rush violently with their heads 
against their opponent From the bat- 
tering-ram, the earhest instrument of 
muial attack, the name might naturally 
be transferred to the more cotnpUcaled 
military engines made for huriing stones, 
from whence it seems to have descended 
to the harmless crabs and cranes of our 
mercantile times, designated in the case 
of G. bock and Fr. chevrs by the name of 
the goaL Sp. cobra, cabreia, cabrita, an 
engine for hurling stones, a crane.— Neu- 

Coracol. The half turn which a horse- 
man makes to the right or left ; also a 
winding staircase. Sp. caracol, a snail, 
a winding staircase, turn of a horse. 
Gael, car, a twist, bend, winding ; carach, 
winding, turning. AS. cerran, to turn. 

Carat. Gr. updnov, Venet caraU, 
seed of carob. Arab, kirai, Sp. guUato, 
a small weight Fr. silique, the husk or 
cod of beans, &c., and particularly the 
earob or carob bean-cod ; also a poise 
among physicians, &c., coming to four 
grains. Carrob, the carob bean, also a 
small weight, among mint-men and gold- 
smiths making the 24th of an ounce. — 

CarsTaiL Pers. kerwan. 

CoraTcL II caravtla, a kind of ship. 
Mod.Gr. nipci^ Gael, carbk, a ship. Fr. 
earabt, a conade or skiff of osier covered 
with skin.— Cot. See Carpentw. 

OarbookCMini. — CarbunoU. Lat 
carbo, a burning coal, charcoal ; carbun- 
culus {dim. of carie), a gem resembling a 
live coal, also (as Gr. &>A)pai, of the same 
primary meaning) a malignant ulcer, the 
suppuration of which seems to be re- 


garded as internal burning. Comp. 
OHC. Hi, fire ; eitar, matter, poison ; 
n>, an ulcer. 

Carboy. A large ^aM botde cased ia 
wicker for holding vitriol Dnived in 
the first edition from Mod.Gr. mpaiiriyia 
(caraboyia), vitriol, copperas. But Mr 
Marsh points oat that the Gr. word is 
only an adoption of the Turk kari boyi, 
black dye, aad is applied exclusively to 
copperas or green vitriol, a sohd bod]r 
which could never have beea packed in 
battles, and so could not have given ks 
name to the carboy. There b no doubt 
that the name comes from the Fast 
Thus Kaempfer (Am«en, ExoL p. 379) de- 
scribes vesaels for containing wine made 
at Shirai, ' Vasa vitrea, alia sunt majora, 
ampuUacea et circumdato scirpo tunicata, 
qufc vocant karabd.' From the same 
source are SiciL carabba, a bottle with 
big belly and narrow neck ; It corona, 
Sp. gara/a, Fr. cara^, decanter, wioe- 

Mod.Gr. nqicacR, a qniver, 
carcase ; — roG iutpttmanm v^nroc, the 
skeleton ; — r^r x'^^'^'i'Ci the shell of a tor> 
Coise. It, carcasso, a quiver, the core of 
fruit ; careame, a dead carcase, skeleton, 
carcanet Fr. carguatte, the dead body 
of any creature, a pelt or d^ui biid to 
take down a hawk withal ; carqtutis, a. 
quiver ; carguim, a collar or chain for the 
neck. — Cot Sp, iarcax, a quiver ; car- 
casa, a skeleton. Cat earcoModa, the 
carcase of a fowL The radical meaning 
seems to be something holding together, 
confining, constraining; shell, case, or 
framewoiic w. carck, restraint ; GaeL 
carcair, a coffer, a prison. Bohem. kreiH, 

The word is explained oy Diez from 
camit cafsa, the case of the flesh. It 
cassa, a case or chest ; easso, the trunk or 
chest of the body ; Parmesan castiram, 

Onid. I. An implement Ibr dresuitf 
wool Lat carere, earmmare, to comb 
wool ; cardmis, a thistle. It cardo, a this- 
tle, teasel for dressing woollen cloth- 
Lith. karsfti, to ripple Sax, to strip off the 
heads by drawing the fiax through a 
comb, to card wool, to curry h(Hves ; 
banxtuwai, a tipple for flax, wool card, 
curry-comb. Gael card, to card wooL 
&c., eirlag, a lock of woi^ ; carla, a wool 
card. The fiiadamental idea is the n». 
tion of scraping or scratching, and the 
expression arises from an imitation of the 
rvoise. ON. karra, to creak, to hiss (as 
geese), to comb; karri, a card or comb ;- 


tarr'iamier, wool cards. G. sckarren, 
to scrape J kratten, to scratch. 

Cwd, 3,— Cartel.— Caart—Oharter. 
Lat ckvta (Gr. x<"P^^' J'^P*'', paper 
written oa or the writing itself, whence 
the several meanings of the words above : 
Fr. carit, m caKi, uiarU, thartre, a deed, 

OnrdinaL From. Lat corab, eardinis, 
a hinge, that on which the matter hinges, 
principal, fundamental. GaeL cor, a turn, 

O&re. AS. ctanan, carum, to take 
heed, care, be anxious. Goth, kara, 
care ; uttkatja, careless ; gakaroH, to 
take care of. 

Probably the origin of the word is the 
set of moaning, murmuring, or gnunUing 
at what -is fdt as grievous. Fin. iarista, 
rauci voce loquor vel ravum sonum edo, 
strideo, morosus sum, murren, zanken ; 
Many, asper, morosus, riiosus, A like 
connection may be seen between Fin. sur- 
rata, atridere, to whirr (schnurren), and 
suru, sorrow, care ; ON. kutnra, to growl, 
mutter, and G. kummrr, grief, son- 
distress ; Fin. murista, murahlaa, 
growl, and imirhei, xgritudo animi, n 
ror, cura intenta. The Lat cura may be 
compared with Fin. kurista, voce strepo 
stridente, inde muimuro vel asgre fero, 
quirito ut infans. 

To OarMa. To re6t a ship by bring- 
ing her down on one side and supporting 
her while she is repaired on the other. 
Properly, to clean the bottom of the ship. 
It. carina, the keel, bottom, or whcJe 
bvlk of a ship ; dart la careita alU navi, 
to tallow or calk the bottom of a ship. 
CartHort, Fr. tar*ner, from LaL carina, 
the keel of a vessel. Venet. carena, the 
hull of a ship, from the keel to the water 
line ; etitre i/t careita, Co lie on its side. 

OarMT. It carriira, Fr. carriire, a 
highway, road, or street, also a career on 
hOTseback, place for exercise on horse~ 
back.— Col Properly a car-road, from 
farrus. — Diei. 

aar«M. Fr. caressf. It. camsa, an 
endearment W. caru, Bret karoMt, to 
love. Bret, karantex, love, affection, ca- 
sesa, caritia, from carus, dear. 

El qncim Pandhipus iDtrasKt doTnum ubi es- 
MDt bfrvtid, vktentibiu omzubns fecit mai^nax 
tarUiat et ostendit magnam amkltiam et f^iili- 
atjtatem diclii tuerellds. — Mm. in Caip, 

Owr&x. A place where four roads 
meet Mid.Lat qitadrifurtum from ^ta- 
tuarjurca (Bui^y), as gitadrivium from 


quatuOT vise, OFr. carrefourg, guarrf 
four, the part of a town where four streets 
at a head. — Col 

A rentree de Luicmbourg 
Lieu n'y avoit Di carrtfimrg 
Dont I'en n'eust veu venit lea gens. 

Rom. de Panhenay. 
Translated in MS. Trin. Coll^ 

No place there had, ndther carpuia none 

But peple shDid se ther come many one. 

W W. Skeal, In N. & Q., Sept 8, i866. 

'Tbd enbosshed befn agdn a tarfiw^ OS six 
weyes.'— Meriin, p. 873. 

Oar^. Sp. cargo, the load of a ship. 

. earicare, carcare, Sp. cargar, Ptg. car- 
regar, Fr. charger, to load. From carrus, 
whence earricare, to load, in St Jerome. 

OftTioatnre. It can'cafura, an over- 
loaded representation of anydiing, from 
earicart, to load. 

Oark. AS. etarig, sollicitus ; OSax. 
mod'Carag, miestus, OHG. charag, charg, 
carck, asCutus. G. karg, Dan. karrtg, 
stingy, niggardly ; ON. kargr, tenax, piger, 
ignanis. . w. carats, solicitous. 

Oarl. A clown or churL as. ceorl, 
ON. karl, a man, male person. 

Carliiiga. — Curled peMi. Peas steep- 
ed and fried, G. kroll-eriser. Fr. grallir, 
to parch, grolU, parched or carted, as 

a, beans, &c.— Cot Groler, to fry or 
,— Roquef. Champ, guerlir, to fi7, 
from the crackling sound ; Fr. crollcr, 
to murmur — Roquef. ; crosier, to shake, 
tremWe, quaver ; Bois crolaitt d'un ladre, 
a laTar's clack, E. crawl, crawl, to rumble. 

Caxminative. A medical term from 
the old theory of humours. The object 
of carminatives is to expel wind, but the 
theory is that they dilute and relax the 
gross humours from whence the wind 
arises, combing them out like the knots 
in wooL It carminare, to card wool, 
also by medicines to make gross humours 
fine and thin, — FL 

For the root of carminare, see Garble, 
and compare Bret, kribina, to comb flax 
or hemp, as carminare, to comb wooL 

Carnage. — Carnal — Chamal. Lat 
caro, carnis, the flesh of animals ; cama- 
lis, appertaining to the flesh. Fr. ckamel, 
carnal, sensual, charneux, fleshy ; cham- 
age, the time during which it is lawful 
to Rom. Cath. to eat flesh. 

CamavaL The period of festivities 
indulged in in Catholic countries, imme- 
diately befiare the long fast of Lenf. It 
camavale, camovale, carnasciale, Fare- 
well flesh, that is to say, Shrove tide.— 
FL This however is one of those ac- 



commodations so frequently modifying tbe 

form of words. The true derivation is 
seen in MidLaL camelevamen or camis 
levamen, i. e. the solace of the flesh or of 
the bodily appetite, permitted in anticipa- 
tion of the long fast In a MS. descrip- 
tion of the Carnival of the beginning of 
the 13th century, quoted by Carpentier, 
it is spoken of as ' delectatio nostri cor- 
poris. The name then appears under 
the corrupted forms of CameUvarium, 
CanulrvaU, Camevale, 'In Dominica 
in caput Quadragesima oux dicitur 
Camelevale.' — Ordo Eccles, MedioL A.D. 
1 130, in Carp. Other names of the sea- 
son were Camicapium, Shrove Tuesday, 
and Camem laxare (It eiuTulasda), 
whence the form camasciale, differing 
about as much from its parent camelaseia 
as camaval from cameievamen. 

CeltoI. Properly a round dance, Fr, 
Carole, querole. Bret, koroll, a dance, W. 
coroli, to reel, to dance. 

Tho mJEhliM (hou karellit sene 

And (olke daunce and merie ben. 

And made many s Taire lournlng 

Upon (he grenc grasse springing. — R. R. •fits. 

' Chatisott de caroh, a song accompany- 
ing a dance ; then, as Fr. balade from It 
ballare, to dance, applied to the song it- 
self. Die; suggests chsmlus from chorus 
as the origin. But we have no occasion 
to invent a diminutive, as the Lat. corolla 
from corona gives the exact sense re- 
quited. Robert of Bninne calls the cir- 
cuit of Druidical stones a carol. 

This BretoM renged about ihe ffelde 

The kamle of Ihe stones behelde. 

Many tyme yede (ham about, 

Bibeld within, Wheld without.— Pref. citdv. 
Oaroase. The derivation from kroes, 
a drinking cup, is erroneous, and there is 
no doubt that the old explanation from 
G. garaus! all out! is correct. 'The 
custom,' says Motley (United Meth. 1. 
94), ' was then prevalent at banquets ibr 
the revellers to pledge each other in rota- 
tion, each draining a great cup and ex- 
acting the same feat from his neighbour, 
who then emptied his goblet as a chal- 
lenge to his next comrade.' When the 
gobiet was emptied it probably would be 
turned upside down with the exclamation 
gar ausl This was what was called 
drinking carouse. 
The tippling sots, at midnight which 

To qitnff earouie do use, 
Will hate thcc if at any time 

To pledge them thou refuse —Drant in R. 
Sp. cardiis, cardos, act of drinking a full 
bumper to one's health.— Neum. * Ein 


narr schuttet sein iietz gar ant;' a Tool 
empties his heart compktely out ' Some 
of our captaines^nrinuiri/ot his wine till 
they were reasonably pliant — And are 
themselves at their meetings and feasts 
the greatest garousers and drunkards in 
existence.' — Raleigh, Discov. of Guianai 
cited by Marsh. 

The derivation is made complKely 
certain by the use of ail oui in the same 
sense. 1 quaught, I drink all out, Je bois 
d'autant. — Palsgr. Alluz (G. all aus), all 
out, or a carouse fully drtink up. — Cot. 
Rabelais uses boire carrous ei allux. 
Why give's Goioe wine theo, this wiU Bt us all : 
Here's to you stUi my captains fiieDd. AD oat I 
B. and F. B<^gais Bosh. 

ToOaip. I. Citfj(*"<<n'talkyn,(abul(H-, 
con£ibulor, garrulo. — Pr. Pm. 

So gone the^ foctbe. carftnii dot 
Ou Ihij^ on iImU.— Cower in Way. 

Bobem. kr^ati, ganire, to diatter ; 
krapanj, tattle, chatter, ON. skraf, dis- 
course, chatter \ skrafa, to rustle, to talk. 
Analogous to E. chirp. 

1. Lat carpo, to gather, pluck, pluck 
at, to find faUlt with. 

Civp«nter. Lat. carpentunt, a car ; 
carpentarius, a wheelwright, maker <rf 
waggons I It. carpeniiere, a wheelwright, 
worker in timber ; Fr. charpentier, as E. 
carpenter only in the latter sense. Mid. 
Lat. carpenta, zimmer, tymmer, rimmer- 
span. — Dief. Sup- The word seems of 
Celtic origin. Gael car6h,!i plank, ship, 
chariot ; earbad, Olr. carpat (Stokes), 
a chariot, litter, bier. 

Carpet, From Lat. earpere, to pluck, 
to pull asunder, was formed Mid-Lat 
carpia^ carpita, linteum carptum quod 
vulneribus inditur. Fr. chatpie, lint, 
Mid.Lat. carpetrix, a carder. — Nomin. in 
Nat. Ant 216. The term was with equal 
propriety applied to Hocks of wool, used 
for stuffing mattresses, or loose as a couch 
without further preparation. ' Carpitum 
habeat in lecto, qui sacco, culcitra, vd 
coopertorio carebit'— Reg.Templariorum 
in Due. 

It seems then to have signified any 
quilted fabric, a patchwoA table-cover 
with a lining of coarse cloth — La Cnisca, 
or the cloak of the Carmelites made ti 
like materials ; a woman's petticoat, pro- 
perly doubtless a quilted petticoat Car-' 
peta, gonna, gonneUa. — PatriarchL ' Qui- 
libet Rater habeat saccum in quo dormit,' 
carpetam (a quilt?), linteamen.' — Stat. 
Eq. Teut. in Due. On the other band' 
we find the signification transferred from 


the flocks with which the bed was stufTed 
to the sacking which contained them. 
Rouchi carpite, coarse loose fabric of 
wool and hemp, packinf^ cloth. 'Eune 
tapisserie ^carp^te, des ndeanx Hcarpdie? 
— H&art. 

Oaninge. The cairying of anything, 
also a conveyance with rorings for con- 
veying passengers. In the latter sense 
the word is a corruption of the OE. ca- 
tvcke, awoach, from It. earroccio, earroc- 
cia, earroMxa; Rouchi carocke, Fr. car~ 
rosse, augmentatives of carra, a car. 

It carrtaggio, carriaggio, all manner 
of carts or carriage by carts, also the car- 
nage, lu^age, bag and baggage of a 

Oairion. It earsgna, Fr. ekarogng, 
-Rouchi eannu, an ai^mentative from Lat 

Ourot. Lat eaivta. 

To 0»rry, Fr, ckarrier, Rouchi carier, 
property to convey in a car. Walach. 
«aro, to convey in a cart, to bear or cany. 
- OarL AS. hrat. It. camtte, eamtla. 
Fr. charrttu, dim, of c&rro, a car, 

OarteL It. earUlla, pasteboard, a 
piece of pasteboard with some inscription 
on it, hung np in some place and to be 
removed. — Flor. Hence a challenge 
openly hui^ up, afterwards any written 
challenge. See Card. 

Oar^sgro- Lat cartilago, gristle, 
tendon. Probably, like all the names of 
eristle, from the sound h makes when 
bitten. Alban. kirlselig I cranch with 
the teeth. See Gristle. 

Oartooa. Preparatory drawing of a 
subject for a picture: It. carlone, augm. 
of carta, paper. 

Oartovoh. — Oartooie. — Oartridga. 
Fr. cartouche. It tartoccio, a paper case, 
coffin of paper for groceries, paper cap for 
criminak ignominiously exposed. — FL 
The paper case contaimng the chaise of 

a gun. 
Xo C 

> Oarva. as. eeorfan. Do. kerven, 
to cut or carve; O. kerben, to notch. 
-Lith. kerpu, kirpti, to shear, cut with 

Oaacada. It cateata, Fr. cascade, a 
bll of water, from It cascare, to iaXL The 
radical sense erf' the word seems to be to 
come down with a sguash. Sp. cascar, 
to crack, crush, break to pieces. OE. 
fuash, to dash. 

Oaaa. — Oaaual. — Oamlat. Lat cams, 
a bU, an act of falling, a chance or acci- 
dent, something that actually occurs, a 
form into which a noun/a//i in the pro- 
cess of declension ; casnalis, fortuitous. 

Fr. casuelj Fr. casuisti, one who rt 

It c 

I, Sp. . 

a chest, coffer, case, from Lat. capsa 
(Diei), and that apparently from capi'a, 
to hold. 

Oaaa-mata. Fr. cast-mate; Sp. casa- 
mataj It. casa^matta. Originally a loop- 
holed gallery excavated in a bastion, 
from whence the garrison could do exc- 
upon an enemy who had obtained 
sion of the ditch, without risk of 
toss to themselves. Hence the designa- 
tion from Sp. casa, house, and matar, to 
slay, corresptHiding to theo. mord-kellcr, 
mord'grubt, and tnc OE. slaughter-house. 
' Casa-matla, a canomy or slaughter- 
house, which is a place built low under 
the walls of a bulwark, not reaching to the 
height of the ditch, and serveth to annoy 
the enemy when he entereth the ditch to 
scale the wall.' — FL ' Casemate, a loop^ 
hole in a fortified walL' — Cot. ' A vault 
of mason's work in the flank of a bastion 
next the curtain, to lire on the enemy.' 
— Bailey. As defence from shells became 
more important, the term was subse- 
quently applied to a bomb-proof vault in 
a fortress, for the security of the defend- 
ers, without reference to the annoyance 
of the enemy. 

Oaah. Ready money. A word intro- 
duced from the language of book-keeping, 
where Fr. caissc, the money chest, is the 
head under which money actually paid in 
is entered. It was formerly used in the 
sense of a counter in a shop or place of 
business. It cassa, Fr. caisse, a mer- 
chanes cash or counter.— FL Cot 

To Oaahier. — To ftuash. Du. kasse- 
row.— KiL Fr. easier, quasser, to break, 
also to coise, cassere, discharge, turn 
out of service, annul, cancel, abrogate. 
^Cot To quash an indictment, to an- 
nul the proceeding. Lat cassus, empty, 
hollow, void ; £aMrir;r,to annul, discharge; 
It casso, made void, canceUed, cashiered, 
blotted out.— FL 

Oaak.— Oaaket.^Caaqua. The Sp, 
casco signifies a skull, crown of a hat, 
helmet, cask or wooden vessel for holding 
liquids, hull of a ship, shell or carcase of 
ahous& It seems generally to signify 
case or hollow receptacle. See Case. 
Hence casket, Fr. cassette, a coffer or 
small ease for jewels. 

Oaaaock. GaeL casag, a long coat. 
It. casacca, Fr. casiique, long man's gown 
with a close body, from casa, a hut, the 
nolion of covering or sheltering being 
to a house and a garment, as we 




have before seen under Cape and Cabin. 
So also from It. casipola, casupola, a little 
house or hut, Fr. chasuble, a garment for 
performing the mass in, Sp. caiulla, OFr. 
casuie, Mid.Lat cimb/*, quasi minor casa 
CO quod totum hominem legat — Isidore 

To Oa«t. ON. ktula. Essentially the 
same word with Sp. cascar, to crack, 
break, burst ; Fr. casar, to Iveak, crush ; 
It cascare, to fall The fundamental 

image is the sound of a violent collision, 
represented by the syllable quash, squash, 
cash, cast. It accasciare, accastiare, to 
squash, dash, or bruise together. — FL 
Tile E. dash with a lilce imitative origin 
is used with a like vaiiety of signification. 
We speak of dashing a thin^ down, dash- 
ii^ it to pieces, dashing it out of the 
wmdow. To cast accotinis was properly 
to reckon by counters which were bodily 
transferred from one place to another. 
See Awgrim. 

Castaneto. Snappers which dancers 
of sarabands tie about their fingers. — B. 
Sp. easlana, a chesnut ; castaHetaso, a 
sound or crack of a chesnut which bursts 
in the fire, crack given by the joints. 
Hence castaSeta, the snapping of the 
fingers in a Spanish dance ; castaneta, 
castanuela, the castanets or implement: 
for making a louder snapping ; castantt- 
ear, to crackle, to clack. 

Oaat«. The artificial divisions of so- 
ciety in India, first made known to us by 
the Portuguese, and described by them 
by the term casta, signifying breed, race, 
kind, which has been retained in K under 
the supposition that it was the native 

Outle. It. casttllo, Lat. castellum, 
dim. of castrum (casira), a fortified place. 

Caatrato. Lat. castro, perhaps from 
coitus, to make clean or chaste. 

Cat, G. katse, Gael cat, on. iiittr, 
Fin. iasi, kisia, probably from an imita- 
tion of the sound made by a cat. spitting. 
Cass 1 a word to drive away a cat. — HaL 
Lang, i^ujii / cry for the same purpose. 
The Fin. kutis ! is used to drive them 
away, while if'j.r / Pol. iiif/iwiV are used 
&s E. puss ! for calling them. 

Oat o' nina tails. Pol kat, eTtecu- 
tioner ; kaJowaJ, to lash, rack, torture. 
Lith. kotos, the stalk of plants, shaft of a 
lance, handle of an axe, &c. ; bot-kotis, 
the handle of a scourge ; kotos, the exe- 
cutioner ; kotawotifta scourge, to torture. 

Russ. koshka, a cat ; koshkt, a whip 
with several pitched cords, cat-o'-nine- 


Oataoomb. Grottoes or subtenaneoaa 
places for the burial of the dead. The 
Diet Etym. says that the name is given 
in Italy to the tombs of the maityts 
which people go to visit by way of devo- 
tion. This would tend to support Dim's 
explanation from Sp. catar, to look at, 
and tomba, a tomb (as the word is also 
spelt calaiomia and catatumba), or comia, 
a vault, which, however, is not 5atisliu> 
tory, as a.shtv is not the primary point 
of view in which the tombs of the mar^n 
were likely to have been considered in 
early times. Moreover the name was 
apparently confined to certain old quar- 
ries used as burial-places near Rome, 
Others explain it from cani, down, and 
tili0et, a cavity. 

Oatalogue. Gr. tariOurfoc, an entuner- 
ating, a hst 

Cataract. Gr. nn-ap^in^ wara^iarrK, 
from rara^pAaett, to hurl down, to fall' as 
water does over a precipice. 'Patau, 
ifiaau, to dash. . 

Oataatroph«. Or. atfifH, to turn; 
[aroorpifM, to overturn, to bring to aa 

To Catch.— Chaae. The words caUk 
and chase are differoit versions of the 
same word, coming to us through dilTei^ 
ent dialects of French. In the dialect of 
Picardy, from which much of the French 
in our language was introduced, a hard c 
commonly corresponds to the soft ch at 
ordinary Fr., and a final ck in Picard to 
the hard s of ordinary Fr. Thus we have 
Pic. or Rouchi cat, Fr. chat, a cat ; Roti- 
chi caleur, Fr. chaleur, heat \ Roucht 
forche, Yt. force; "^ca^^ tqueririckt, Fr. 
ecrevisse; Rouchi /caches, Fr. ichasset, 
stilts. In Uke manner Rouchi cocker, 
Fr. ckasser, to hunt, from the first of 
which we have e. calch, and from the 
second chase, the earUer sense of catch, 
Uke that of It cacciare, Fr. chasser,^xai% 
to drive out, drive away. 
Maid thQigh theLundreisfro London i&lcalduii. 
R. Bnune. lao. 

' Caichyn away — abigo.' ' Catehyn or 
drive forth bestis, mino.'— Pr. Pro. Fr. 
ckasser, to drive away, follow after, pur- 
sue.— Cot. It. cacciare Juera, to driv« 
out ; cacciare per terra, to cast or beat lo 
the ground ; cacciuolo, a thump, punch, 
push.— Fi 

The origin is the imitation of the sound 
of a smart blow by the syllable clauh / 
passing on the one hand into ceUch and 
on the other into latch, tnr the loss of 
the / or c respectively. N. ilakka, kakka^ I 
to strike a resounding objea as a board-. 


— Aasen> Fr. daquer, Wal cdker, to 
clop ' hands, to chatter with the teeth ; 
MM, clap widi the huid. — Grandg. c. 
*6i/j(* / thwick-thwack I a wotd to imi- 
bte the sonnd made by striking with the 
hand against a partition wall ; klatsck, 
ndi a sound or the stroke which pro- 
daces it, a clap, flap ; klatxhe, a whip or 
hA. — KiJttner. Du, kletsen, resono ictn 
veiberare ; khts, kletst, ictus resonans, 
fragor; kletsoore,keisoore,a.-«\i\.^; Rou- 
chi eachoire, eaxchoin, a whip, properly 
the lash or knotted piece of whipcord 
added for Ae purpose of giving shaipness 
tothe crack. — Hecart. Norn).«icA^,s.s. 
—Pat de Bray. Fr. chaisoin, a. caitert 
whip. — Cot Galla aitchixa, to crack 
with a whip, catcki, a whip.— Tutschefc. 
Dn. kaette, a smack, dap, blow, and spe- 
cially the stroke of a ban at tennis.— KiL 
Fr, chasse, E. cAaf«,the distance to which 
the ball is stmck. Arbalite de courU 
^tasse, a cross-bow that carries but a 
little way. 

In the sense of seizing an object the 
'lerm eateh is to be explained as clapping 
one's hand upon it, snatching it with a 
smack, in the same way that we speak of 
catching one a box on the ear. In the 
sense of a sudden snatch the Sc. has both 
forms, with and without an I after the c. 
Clauekt, snatched, laid hold of eagerly 
and suddenly ; a catch or seizure of any- 
thing in a sudden and fo,rcible way. 
V/hen one lays hold of what is falling it 
Is said that he ' got a elaucht of it'- Jam. 

And clatukt anoDe the courser by the me. 
Gael glac, to take, seize, catch. 

In ue s. s. cmicht. 
Tumus at Ihis time waxis bauld and biythe 
Weii3'ng (o AMwA' Mie stound his ■(Tenth lokytbe. 

1. e. to catch an opportunity to show his 

Galla catckamxa, to snap, to snatch 
{said of dogs). For the equivalence of 
'Similar forms with and without an / afier 

Sp. ckachara, chatter ; Du. klinke, E. 
chink. — Kil. Gael, gliong, e, pngle. 
Rouchi clincailUux, Fr. guineauler, a 

On the other hand the loss of the initial 
c gives rise to a form lash, latch, with 
similar meanines to those belonging to 
"words of the form clatch, catch, above 

Thus we have the lask of a whip cor- 
tCBponding to the G. klatseht and Norm. 


eachf. As Sc. chai expresses ' the sharp 
sound nude by any iron substance wfaea 
entering its socket, as of the latch of a 
door when it is shut, to click;' and to 
ckak is 'to shut with a sharp sound' 
(Jam.) ; the representation of a like sound 
by the syllable latck gives its designation 
to the latch of a door, formerly called 
cliket, from shutting with a click. And 
on the same principle on which we have 
above explained the actual use of the 
word catch, the OE. latch was commonly 
used in the sense of seizing, snatching, 
obtaining possession of. 

And if ye lalclu Locie let hym not ascapie. 


Oatch-poU. A bailiff, one employed 
to apprehend a person. From fit>ll,tht 
head. On the same principle he was 
called in Fr. kapp«~ckair, catch-flesh. 
Fr. ckacepal, an officer of taxes. 

Oataohum. Elementary instruction 
in the principles of religion by question 
and answer. Properly a system of oral 
instruction, from Gr. amfxit", nartn^i, to 
sound, resound, to sound In the ears of 
any one, to teach by oral instruction, 
teach the elements of any science. KaTT>- 
X^nc, Ihe act of stunning by loud sound 
or of charming by sound, instruction in 
the elements of a science. 'Hxq, sound. 

Category. Gr. mir^yopfa {«an|jiiipi», 

from tari and ijottm, to harangue, speak 
in order), an accusing, but specially an 
order of ideas, predicament 

* Caterpillar. In Guernsey the name 
of catte pelaturt seems to be given to 
caterpillars, weevil^ woodlice, mille- 
pedes. — Met! vier. Chate ptleuse, a com- 
devouring mite or weevil. — Cot As the 
weevil is not hairy probably the element 
peleus! is a corruption. Metivier explains 
the word from the habit of all these in- 
sects of rolling themselves up like a pill ; 
Guernsey ptlUure, OFr. pillouire (Ro- 
quefort), a pill. On this principle wood- 
lice, centipedes, and such insects as roll 
themselves up ate called in America pill- 
bugs. The name of dog or eat is often 
given to insects in the grub state. Swiss ' 
teufelskatz, Lombard gatta, gattola, Fr, 
chenille [eanicuia, a little dog), a cater- 
pillar ; Milanese can, cagnon, a silkworm. 
Guernsey catti, grub of cockchafer. 

* Oatea.— Caterer, Cases, dainty vic- 
tuals. — B, The word is rendered by 
Sherwood by frigaleries, companaige, i. e. 
dainties, or any kind of reUshing food 
(including meat) eaten with bread. In 
all probability the su^estion of Skinner 
that it is curtailed from dtlicates, which 



was used substantively in the same sense, 
is correct Delycates, deyntie nieates. — 


Richly she feeds, nnd at the rich maii'i cost— 
By sea. by land, of dilUatit the most 
Her (oltr seeks, and spareth for no perelL 

Wyall in R. 
All kind of daintyes and dititata svrfaM 
Was brought forthcbanquett— Bessie of BednalL 

The eatery was the storeroom where 
provisioos were k:pt, and the eatenr 
cater the person who provided them. On 
the other hand, the officer whose business 
it was to make purchases for a household 
was called acatour or acAatour, from 
Prov. acaptar, Ft. ackepter, ackeUr{hat. 
atkaptare, MidLat ofcapiiare — Diei), 
Rouchi abater, to buy, It. accaUare, to ac- 

A gentil manciple was Ihtr of a temple. 
Of which achalcari mighlen take eosemple 
For to ben wise in bying of viudlle. 
For whether that he paide or lokc by taiUe 
Algale he wailed so in his ackate, 
tSox. be was ay before in his estate- 
Prologue, Manciples Tale. 
Coempcyon is to loie comen achalt or buying 
together (joint buying]. — Chaucer, Boethius, B. 
9. Pr. 4. 

Hence achatti or acatts signified pur- 
chases, and the nicer kind of food being 



Provider, acattr, despencier. — Palsgr. 

Oathttrtic Gr. ta&afritltq, having the 
property of cleansing, from codaipw, to 
pu^, make clean. 

C&thedr&L Gr. ca3iipa, a seat, chair, 
specially the seat of office of a master or 
professor in science, &c, a pulpit, whence 
calhedraiis, applied to 1 church contain- 
. ing a bishop's seat 

Oatkm. It is probably not so much 
from the resemblance to a cat's tail as 
from a cat being taken as the type of 
what is furry or downy that the name of 
catkin, Fr. colons, Du. katU, katteken, G. 
■ kaizchen, little cat, is given to the downy 
or feathery flowers of the wiUow, hazel, 
&c. Thus Bav, mudtl, puss, is used in 
the set)se of cat'Skin, fur in general, flock, 
flue, catkin ; mitz, mutz, puss, fur, cal- 
kin ; Magy. macska, cat ; macaoka, kitten, 
lamb, caUcin ; PoL kocie, kitten ; kotki, 
kocianki, cations ; Fr, ntiaon, puss, cat- 

CaUla. See Chattel 

Oaudle. A warm comforting drink. 
Fr. ckaudetai, from chaud, hot. 

Caul. The omentum or fotty netwoilc 
in which the bowels are wramted. It. 
rete, reticella; reU delfigalo, the caul of 
the liver. A caul is also a small net to 
con£ne the hair, and hence a skoO-capL 
also the membrane covering the face of 
some infants at their birth. The proper 
meaning of the word seems to be a net, 
whence it is provincially used in the 
sense of a spider's web. — Hal. lUtt, any 
net or caul-work. — FL 

Her liead with ringlets of her hair is rauwned. 

And In Bgddencds/ Ihecuitsaie bound. 

Fr. caU, a kind of litde ca{> ; caioUe, a 

The primitive meaning is a shale at 
peel, what is shaled or picked off. Fr. 
caU, challe de noix, the green husk of a 
walnut { caloH, walnut with the husk on ; 
ckaller, to shale or peeL — Jaubert. 

The word is otherwise written kcli. 

Oauldron. Fr. chquderon, cAaudron^ 
chaudiire, a kettle for heating water. 
Chaud, It. caldo, Lat calidus, hot. 

Oauliflowar. Fr. ckoufleur (iritw, 
cabbage), the cabbage whose eatable part 
consists of the abnormally developed 
flower-buds. Lat caulu, a stalk, cab- 
bage-stalk, cabbage. 

Oauae. Lat causa. 

Oauaswajr. Fr. chauss/e, a paved 
road. MidLat. calctata,calceta, a road ; 
calceata, shod or protected from the tread- 
ing of the Horses by a coating of ivood or 
stone. Fr. chausser, to shoe ; Port, cai- 
qar, to shoe, also to pave ; cai^ada, a 
pavement, the stones of a street Du. 
kiutUiJe, kaussijdt, kassije, via strata. — 

Oaoatio.— OauteriM. Gr. Hmmnc^ 
apt to bum ; eobt^^, novTqpui-, a branding 
iron, from talm, to bum, 

Oaution. Lat. cauHs, from cavto (p.ik 
cautus), to beware. 

Cavalier. — Oavalry. — Cavalcade, It. 
cavaiiert, Fr. chevalier, a horseman. It 
cavallo, Fr. cheval, a horse, Lat ctballut, 
Gr. Ka&a>.\jK, OE. caple. 'Caballus, a 
horse ; yet in some parts of England 
they do call an horse a cable' — Elyot in 
Way, w. ce0l, a horse j Gael, aipull, 
PoL kobyla, Russ. kobuiC, a mare. 

Gave. — Cavern. — Cavity. Lat cawis, 
hollow. The origin of the word seems a 
representation of the sound made by 
knocking against a hollow body. Fin. 
kcfiista, dumpf t6nen, klopfend knallen, 
to sound like a blow ; topano, caudei 
arboris cavus pulsu resonans ; koparo, 
koparel, a receptacle for small things. 



cofTer, pit ; kofiera or kowera, hollow, 
curved, crooked ; kopio, empty, sounding 
as an empty vessel ; koppa, anything hoi- 
lowed or vaulted. So from kommata, 
kemista, to sound deep or hollow as an 
empty vessel ; kotna, hollow, giving a 
hollow sound ; komo jaa, hollow ice ; 
tmioren komo, a cavern in a mountain. 

To cave ia Property, as it is still 
pronounced in Lincolnshire, to calve in, 
IS for a mass of earth to separate from 
the walls of a cutting, and to fall in. 
Speaking of an accident to a Cornish 
man, Wesleysays, " He was sittingcleav- 
ing stones when the rock calved in upon 
him." And Mr. Peacock in N. and Q., 
iv. S. Jdi., i66, "The first time I heard 
the word I was walking with my father to 
look at some bankers who were widening 
a drain. Suddenly three of them jumped 
out of the cutting, shouting out, 'Tak 
heed, lads, there's a cowl/ a coming.' '' 
The metaphor is ohvious. 

OftTiL Lat. cavillor, to argue cap- 
tiously, quibble. 

Csase.^CeHatloa. Lat. cesso, to 

-ceaae. — Deoeaae. Lat, decessui, de- 
parture, Fr. d^eis, departure from this 
life, death. See -cede. 

Cede, •cede,'-ceed, -ceM. Ijii.cedo, 
teintm, to go forth, step away, give place, 
yield Hence eottcede, exceed, proceed, 
recede, succeed, &c,, with their substan- 
tives concession, excess, 3i.c. 

Ceiling. The It cielo,Yz. oV/,heaven, 
sky, were meL applied to a canopy^ the 
testem of a bed, the inner roof of a room 
(rf state. — CoL In the same way c> Mm- 
mel, heaven, is applied to a canopy, the 
roof of a coach, or of a bed. The import- 
ation of Fr. del into English without 
translation gave cele, stele, a canopy. ' In 
this wise the King shall lide opyn heded 
nndre a seele of cloth of gold baudekyn 
with four staves gilt.' — Rutland papers. 
Cam. Soc. pp. 5, 7, &c. 'The chammer 
was hangea of red and of blew, and in it 
was a cyll of state of cloth of gold, but 
the Kyng was not under for that sam 
day.' — Marriage of James IV. in Jam. 
The name was extended to the seat of 
dignity with its canopy over. ' And seik 
toyour soverane, semely ony/ll.' — Gawan 
and Gol. in Jam. From the noun was 
formed the verb to cele or sile, to canopy ; 
^A^ canopied, hung, 'AUthe tentewiuiin 
was lyled wyth clothe of gold and blew 
Telvet'— Hall, H. VIII. p. 32; sylure, 
telure, selar, cellar, cyling (W. Wore, in 
HaL}, a canopy, tester of a bed, ceilii^. 

layntily dight. 
Cawaine & Sii 


Cellar for a bedde, ciel de lit.— Palsgr. 
'A eeller to hange in the chamber.' — 
Ordinances and Reg, in HaL 

As the canopy or covering of a bed or 
tent would not only be stretched overhead, 
but hang around at the sides, it was natu- 
ral that the same name should be given 
both to the roof and the side hangings. 
Thus silyng is found in the sense of ta- 

' The French kyng caused the lorde of 
Countay to stande secretly behynde a 
silyng or a hangyng in his chamber.' — 
Hall, E. IV. p. 43. And as taftestry and 
wainscoting served the same purpose of 
hiding the bareness of the walls and shut- 
ting out the draught, it was an eas^ step 
to die sense of wainscoting, which is still 
known by the name of ceiling in Craven. 
To seele a room, lambrisser une chambre ; 
seeling, lambris, menuiserie. — Sherwood, 
The sense of roofing, and all conscious 
reference to the notion of the heaven or 
sky being now completely lost, and the 
main object of the wainscoting being to 
shut out draughts, it is probable that the 
word was confounded with sealing in the 
sense of closing, and it was even applied 
to the planking of the floor. ' Plancher, 
to plank or floor with planks, to seele or 
close with boards ; plancher, a boarded 
floor, also a seeling of boards.' — Cot. 
The ceiling was called the upper ceiling. 
Ft. sus-lambris, to distinguish it from the 
wainscot or seeling of the walls. 

The hne of descent from Fr. ciel is so 
unbroken, that, unless we separate the 
sense of canopy or hangings from that of 
wainscoting, the ground is cut away from 
Aufrecht's derivation from as. thil, thel, 
Ihelu, a log, beam, rafter, plank, board ; 

plank, wainscot ; tkiljar (in pi.), the deck 
of a ship ; o/MiV/a, to panel or wainscot j 
MHG. dil, diile, a plank, wall, ceiling, 
flooring ; E. deal, a fir-plank. In the 
Walser dialect of the Grisons, obardili is 
the boarded ceiling of a room. Aufrecht 
idenlilies with the foregoing, AS. syl, a 
log, post, column j E. sill in window-sill, 
door-sill; Sc. sill, a log, syle, a beam. 
And it is certainly possible that syling in 
the sense of planking or ceiling may have 
come from this source. 'The oldejyA'ffP 
that was once faate joyned together with 
nailes will begin to cling, and then to 
gape.'— Z. Boyd in Jam. In the n. of B 




tkill, a shaft, is in some places called sill; 
a thill horse and a sill horse, a shaft horse. 
To seel or close the eyes, Sc sile, syll, 
to blindfold, and thence to conceal, b 
totally distinct from the foregoing, being 
taken from Fr. ciller, cillier, stlltr Its 
yeux, to seele or sew up the eyelids ; (and 
thence also) to hoodwink, blind, ke^ in 
darkness.— Cot. IL cigliare, to twinkle 
with the eyes, to seal a pigeon's eye, or 
any bird's.— Fl. Fr. cil. It. aglio, Lat. 
tilium, an eyelash, eyelid. The tenn 
properly signifies the sewingup the eyelid 
of a hawk for the purpose of taming it. 
' And he must take wyth hym nedyll and 
threde, to Mut&the haukes that ben taken. 
— Take the nedyll and threde, and put 
it through the over eyelydde, and so of 
dtat other, and make them faste und the 
becke that she se not, and then she 
ensiled as die ought to be.'— Book of 
StAlbans, in Marsh. 

•oein, -oept, -oslt. Lat. eopio, cap- 
tuiH, in comp. -cipio, •ceptum, to take. 
Prov. c^er, to take, in comp. -ubre {fon- 
cebre, decebre) ; It. {f<ni)cipere, -cepire, 
•cfpere, OFr. -ciper, -civer {fonciver— 
Roouef.), -foivre, Fr. -cevoir. 

The p of the participle -ceptus is seen 
in OE. conceipt, deceipt, receipt, but was 
gradually lost in conceit, deceit, &c., as in 
It. concetto. 

Oelebrftte.^Celebrity. Lat. celeber 
(of a place), much frequented, thronged ; 
hence (ofa day), festive, solemn ; (of per- 
sons) renowned, as entering lai^ly into 
the ^k of men, in accordance with the 
expression of Ennius, ' volilo vivus per 
oia virCtm.' CeUbritas, a numerous con- 
course of pwople, abundance, renown ; 
celebro, to visit in numbers, to attend on 
a solemnity, to celebrate. 

Celerity. — Aooelwata, Lat. celtr, 

CelestiaL Ceelum, heaven, the hollow 
vault of heaven ; Gr. (iiX«c, hollow. 

Celibacy. Lat. ^-^/e^j, unmarried. Fr. 
Ulibat, single or unwedded life. 

OalL— Cellar. Lat. cella,& storehouse 
for wine, oil, provisions generally ; also 
a hut, cot, quarters for slaves. 

Cement. Lat. cameiUum, stones 
rough from the quarry, rubble, materials 
for building, mortar. 

Oemstery. Gr. txitimriifmt (from nt- 
fiia^oA, to sleep), the place where the de- 
parted sleep. 

-oend, -oenM, Oenaer. — To Si c en— . 
Lat candeo, to glow, to bum ; ineendo, 
•sum, to set on (ire, and met to incense, 
make angry. Ineensum, Fr. emeens, what 

is bmnt in sacrifices, inceote, and tbenc* 
censer, a vessel in which incense was 

Cenotf^k Or. ■«»■%<» («w4c anpty, 
and rifot, a tomb, from Aimt, t» bmy), 
a monumeiU erected for one bwied cbe- 

Oensns.— Oaneor.— Oensnn. Lab 
census, a valuation of evenr man's ectate, 
a registration of one's uAi, age, fam^, 
possessions, &c, from cestseo, to tbink, 
judge, estimate. Censor, the officer ap- 
pointed to take such returns ; Centura, Ins 
office, abo grave opinion, criticisni. 

Centre. Gr. unritt, to prick, goad, 
sting; xlvrpw, a prick, point, the point 
round which a circle is drawn. 

Centurion.— Oeotnry. Lat aemtim, 
a hundred ; eenturia, a bsndred of wbat- 
soever persons or ejects ; cesiturio, the 
captain over a hnndred foot-tfrfdiers. 

Cereal. Lat. cereaiis, of or pertaininf 
to Ceres the goddess of com and the' 
harvest, thence belonging to or connected 
with com. 

Ceremony. Lat. cteremania, certmo' 
nia, a religious observance, a solemnity, 
sacred show. 

-eem.~Certaia. Gr. ■(>{•«, to sepa- 
rate, pick out, decide, judge ; Lat eerna, 
crevi, crelum, to sei»Jate, sift, distin- 
guish, observe, see, judge, contend. la 
certus, sure, we have a modified form of 
the participle eretus, with tran^kosition 
of the r, a form whidi also gives rise ta 
the derivative certo, to contend. 

-. concenter, to concern, appertain, or 
ig unto (Cot.), is the opposite otdiS' 
cem, to distinguish. Lat, cencemor, ta 
be embodied with, to be regarded as ons 
object with, 

cess. See Cede. 

Jess. A tax. For sess from assess, 
but spelt with a c from the influence ut 
the Lat census, the rating of Roman citi- 
according to their property. Sec 
Assize, Assess. Fr. center, to rate, assess, 
tax, value. — Cot 

Chafe, L— Chaflug-dlsli. Tot^A<i^<ris 
I heat by .rubbing, to rub for the purpose 
of heating, then to rub without reference 
to the production of heat Lat. calefaare, 
IL eaUfare, Fr. chauffer,ich4iMfir, to beat, 
to warm, to chafe. Fr. chmtfirette, % 
chaling'^h or pan of hot coals for waim- 
g a room where there is not fire. 

OhkfB, a. In the sense of cht^ng-w^ 
anger two distinct words are probaUy 
confounded ; ist from It riscaldarsi, to 
become heated with anger, TT.esciasiffir, 
t in a chafe. — Sherwood. 


Foe certe* Ibe herte of nianne by istkaa^itf 
Aikd movine of his blode waieth so troubled th^ 
. It is out rf all inanere judgement of reson. — 
FanoD's tale. De lA. 

But to eha/e has often ft much more 
precise sense than this, and signifies to 
snort, fiime, breathe hard. It sborfare, 
to huff, snuff, or puff with snorting, to 
Aafe and fret with lage and anger ; 
trvnfe, tronfio, puffed or niifled with 
cha^ng.— YL Bouffard, often puffing, 
much blowing, sweffing with anger, in a 
great chafe, in a monstrons fiime.— CoL 
In this application it is the correlative 
of the G. keuchen, to puff and blow, breathe 
thick and short, to pant, Bav. kauehen, to 
breathe, puffl 

* Chanr. — OhaSbm. Cock-chafer ; 
fent-chafer. G. Wer, as. ceafer, Du. 
kever, any insect of'^the beetle kind, hav- 
ing a bard case to their wings. Perhaps 
from Swiss kafeln, kc^elen, to gnaw. 

Chaff AS. ceaf, G. kaff. Pers. kkak. 
— Adeltmg. Fin. koMsta, leviter crepo 
vel susutTo, moTendo parum strideo ut 
gramen sub pedibus euntis vel anindo 
vento agitata (to rustle) ; whence ioAmu, 
a rustling ; kahu, kahuja, hordeum vel 
avena vilior, taubes kom oder hafer, light 
nistltng com, consisting chiefly of husks ; 
kuhata, kuhista, to buzz, hiss, rustle ; 
kuhtHO, a rustling noise, rustling motion 
as of ants, &c. ; kuhu-ohrat {oktat, bar- 
ley), refuse barley ; tuhufa, quisquilis 
vel palese qua: motas leviter susurrant, 

To OhaC In vulgar language, to 
Tally one, to chatter or talk hghtly. From 
arcprcsentation of the inarticulate sounds 
made by different kinds of animals utter- 
ing rapidly repeated cries. Du. keffen, to 
yap, to bark, also to prattle, chatter, tattle. 
— Halma. Wall, chawe, a chough, jack- 
daw ; chaweUr, to caw ; cha-wer, to 
cheep, to cry ; ckafeter, to babble, tattle . 
Fr. cauveiU, a jackdaw, a prattling wo- 
tnan. — Pat. de Btai. c. kaff, idle words, 
impertinence.™ K iittn . 

• To Ohaffbr. To buy and sell, to 
bargain, haggle. OE. ckapfare, chaffare, 
properly the subject of a chap or bai^n 

Lenere cortq« (courteous letider). that lenelh 
without ckaf/are makiinde. — Ayenbite, p. 35. 

TbeiB were cbapmea jchose the ekaffan to 
prdse.— P. P. vis. 11. 

Oh«ft. The jaw ; chafty, talkative.— 
HaL ON. kiaftr, jaw, muzzle, chaps ; 
Uafta, kiamta, to move the jaws, to 
taltl& See Cheek. 

ChagrlB. Fr. chagrin, care, grief. 
According to Diei, from the shark-skin, 



or rough substance called shagreen, Ftv 
peau de chagrin, which from being used 
at a rasp for polishing wood was taken 
as a type of the gnawing of care or griefs 
Genoese sagrind, to gnaw, sagrindse, U 

itaphorically to 
fret— FL ; far lima-Uma, to fret inward- 
ly.— Altiert 

Ohain. Lat cattHa, Prov. cadena, 
eana, OFr. chaene. Ft, ehastie, on. ktdja, 

Chaix. — Ohai««. Gr. naSitpa, from 
Koeitofioi, to siL Lat. cathedra, Fr. chaire, 
a seat, a pulpiL As the kiss of a ^ in 
cadena gives chain, a double operation 
of the some nature reduces cathedra 
(ca'e'ra) to chair. Prov. cadieira, cadera, 
OFr. chayire, Chayire, cathedra. — Pr, 

The conversion of the r into j gives 
Fr. chtdte, a pulpit— Cot, now a chair. 
Then, as a carriage is a moveable seat, 
the word has acquired in E. the sense of 
a carriage, pleasure carriage. 

Cludioa. Fr. calice, Lat calix, a gob- 
let, cup. 

Chalk. Fr. chaulx, lime ; Lat calx, 
limestone, lime. 

Oh*ll«ligfc Fr. chalanger, to claim, 
challenge, make title unto ; also to accuse 
of, (Jiai^ with, call in question for an 
offence. — Cot, Hence to challenge one 
to fight is to call on him to decide the 
matter by combat From the forensic 
Latin calumniare, to institute an action,, 
to go to law. — Due. So from dominio, 
domnio, dongio, E. dungeon; from som- 
nitim, Fr. sortge. Prov. calonja, dispute; 
calumpnjameH, contestation, difficulty ; 
caioHjar, to dispute, refuse. 

The secramentum decalumniA was an 
oath on the part of the person bringing 
an action of the justice of his ground of 
action, and as this was the beginning of 
the suit it is probably from thence that 
calumniari in the seiise of bringing an 
action arose. ' Can hom ven al ptaiz et 
& sagramen de calompnia.' ' Sagrament 
de calompnia o de vertat per la una part 
e per Tautra-'^Rayn. Lat calumnia, 
false accusation, chicane. 

Cluunade. A signal by drum or 
trumpet given by an enemy when they 
have a mind to parley. — B. From Port 
chamar, Lat. clamare, to call. 

Ohamber. Ft. chambre. Lat. camera^ 
Gr. mfiitpa, a vault or arched roof| place 
with an arched roof. Probably from 
cam, crooked. Camtra, gew61b. Ccmu' 



twe, krttmmen ; camsralus, gekrununt, 

gebogen, gewfilbt,— Dief. Sup- 

Ohunberl&in. Fr. chambettatt; It. 
camerlengo, ciamberlane, ciambtlliuto. 

To CluunfW. To hollow out in chan- 
nels, to flute as a column, to beveL Ptg. 
ckanfrar, to hollow out, to slope. Sp. 
chafldn, Fr. chamfrain, chanfrein, the 
slope of a beveUed angle, a hoUow 
groove ; ckan/reiner, -'■ — ' 
bevel off a right angh 
top of a borehole. 

Ohuufron.— Chamfrain.— CHuutron . 
Fr, chanfrein, the front piece of a horse's 
head armour. 

To f fhatwTii , — OliAinp. E. dial, to 
tkam, champ, chambU, to chew. — Hal. 
Properly to chew so as to make the 
snapping of the jaws be heard. M^y. 
Uammcgni, tsamtsopti, to malce a noise 
with the teeth in chewing. GalL A'am- 
djam-goda Ifo make ^'am-djamj, to 
smack the lips in eating as swine, to 
champ, move the jaws. — Tutschek. The 
G. scAtna/teit s. s. difTers only in the 
transposition of the letter m. ON. kampa, 
10 chew ; kiammi, a jaw ; kiamsa, to 
champ, to move the jaws j kiamt, champ- 

^The sound of striking the ground with 
the foot is sometimes represented in the 
same manner, as in It. Bamptttun, to 
paw the ground ; e. dial, champ, to tread 
heavily. — Hal. 

Ohnmpaigu. See Camp. 

Champart^. Partnership. Fr. champ 
parti, Lat. campus pariitus ; a,s Jeopardy, 
from Fr. Jfu parti, Lat. jocus partituz, 
divided game. 

Ohunpion. Commonly derived from 
caM^us, a field of battle, fighting place. 
And no doubt the word might have early 
been introduced from Latin into the Teu- 
tonic and Scandinavian languages, giving 
rise to the as. camp, fight, cempa, ON. 
,t«m;ivi, a warrior, champion; Ha-kamp, 
combat, contest; kampen, kempai, to 
fight in single combat; kamper, kempe, 
an athlete, prize-fighter. 

It must be observed however that the 
Scandinavian iapp appears a more an- 
cient form than the nasalised camp, on, 
kapp, contention ; hap^i, athlete, hero ; 
Sw. dricka i kapp, to drink for a wager ; 
k^P-ridaxde, a horse-race. So in E. 
boys speak of capping vena, i. e. con- 
tending in the citation of verses ; to cap 
one at leaping is to beat one at a contest 
in leaping. Hence (with the nasal) w. 
camp, a feat, game ; campio, to strive at 
games ; ca^us, excellent, surpassing, 


masterly ; Sp campear, campar, to \k 
eminent, to excel The word is preserved 
in E. diaL catt^, a game at football, 
' Campar, at player at football, pedilusor.* 
— Pr. Pm. 

Get £Mi/<K( > boll 

To camf thocwllhal.— Tiuser. 

E. dial, to cample, to talk, contend or 
argue; G. kampeln, to debate, dispute; 
E. dial champ, a scuffic. — HaL The 
origin may pernaps be found in the notion 
of fastening on one in the act of wrest- 

Lith. kabinti, to hang; kabtntis, to 
fasten oneself on to another ; kabe, ko' 
bile, kablys, a hook; kimbu, kibti, to 
fasten on, to stick to, to hold ; tutibti, to 
fasten oneself to another ; Fm. kin^pu 
(Lap. kippo, kappo), a bundle, and thence 
the laying hold ofeach other by wrestlers ; 
kimpuslella, to wrestle. Esthon, lamp, 
bundle, pinch, difficulty ; kimplima, to 

iuarrel (comp. G. kampeln, E, cample)., 
lu. kimpen, to wrestle, luctare, certare. 

To cope or contend with, which seems 
another form of the root, is explained by 
Torriano 'serrarsi, attaccarsi I'un con 
I'altro ; ' ' se harper I'un a I'autre.' — Sher- 

Ohanos. The happening of things 
governed by laws of which we are more 
or less ignoranL Fr. chance; OFr. 
ch/ance, act of falling, from checir, Lat. 
cadere, Prov, caxer, Sp. e<ur, Ptg. cahir, 
to fall. Prov. etcaxenia, accident, chance; 
It will be observed that accident is the 
same word direct from the Lat accidere, 
to happen {ad a.nd cadere, to fall). 

Ohauofl-medley. Fr. chaude mesUe, 
from ckaud, hot, and mtilie, fray, bicker- 
ing, fight; an accidental conflict in hot 
blood. ' Mellde qui etait meue chaleu- 
reusement et sans agueU' M.Lat. calida 
mclleia, calidameya, AfeUare, mesUiart, 
to quarrel, broil. — Caipentier, When the 
element chaud lost its meaning to ordi- 
nary English ears, it was replaced by 
chance in accordance with the meanin^r 
of the compound 

Ohauool — Ohanoellor. — Ohamcary. 
The part of the church in which the altar. 
is placed is called chancel, from being 
railed off or separated from the rest of 
the church by lattice-work, Lat. can^elli. 
The cancellarii seem to have been the 
officers of a court of justice, who stood ad 
cancellos, at the railings, received the 
petitions of the suitors, and acted as in- 
termediaries between them and the judge. 
To them naturally fell the office of keep- 


From ciancelior.axe Fr. ekancellerit, E, 

Ohandler. Fr, chandelier, a dealer in 
candles ; then, as if the essential mean- 
ing of the word had been simply dealer, 
extended to other trades, as com-chand- 
Ur. Chandry, the place where candles 
a« kept, from chandler, as chancery 
from chancellor. 

To Ohuig«. Ptdv. cambiar, camjar. 
It, camAiare, eangiare, Fr, changer. Bret 
kemma, to truck, exchange, Cambiare 
seems the nasalised form of E. chop,chap, 
to swap, exchange, ON, kauia, to deal, as 
Chaucer's champfaen for chapmen. 
Id Sum; whilome dweil a cnnipaiiy 
Of dam^mat rich and therto lad and tnie, 
That wide were sentin their splceiy, 
Tbeii chafbre was so thrifty and so new. 
Man of Law's Tale, 140. 
. In hke manner Walach. schimbd, to 
change, to put on fresh clothes, may be 
compared with oti. skipta, E. shift. 
Walach. schimlm, cambium, exchange ; 
tchimhaleriu, a money-changer. See 

OhaimeL Lat canalis, a pipe, water- 
conduit, from canna, a reed. The word 

and the modem canal. 

Oliant. — Chantry, Lat caaiare, Fr. 
chanter, to sing. Hence chantry, a chapel 
endowed for a priest to sing mass for the 
soul of the founders. 

Ghap. 1. Chaps or chops, the loose 
flesh of the cheelcs, lips of an animal. 
AS, ceapias, ceaflas, the chaps ; Da. 
'ob, the mouth, throat of an animal See 


Ghap. 2. A fellow. Probably from 
ckap, cheek, jaw. Da. kixft, jaw, mi 
lie, chaps, is vulgarly used m the sense 
individual. — Molbech. And N. kiaft 
well as kjahje, a jaw, is used in the sai 
sense ; hvar kjaften, every man Jack ; 
inije tin kjcejt, — kjaakaa, not a souL- 
Aasen. In Lincoln cheek is used in ll 
same way for person or fellow. 

Obap. — Olup. — Chop. These are fonna 
having a common origin in the attempt to 
represent the sound made by the knock- 
ing of two hard bodies, or uie cracking 
of one, the thinner vowel i being used to 
represent the high note of a crack, while 
the broader vowels a and o are used for 
the flatter sound made by the coUisioa of 


hard bodies. Sc. chap, to strike, as to 
chaf hands, to chap at a door. — Jam. 
It IS also used in the sense of the E. chop, 
to strike with a sharp edge, to cut upinto 
small pieces, to cut off; Du. happen, to 
cut, prune, hack j Lith, kapoti, to peck, 
to hack, to cut, to paw like a horse ; w. 
cobio, to strike, to peck. 

Again as a hard body in breaking gives 
a sharp sound like the knocking of hard 
things together, a chap is a crack or As- 
sure, properly in a hard body, but ex- 
tended to bodies which give no sound in 
breaking,asskin; chapped hands. Com- 
pare chark, to creak, and also to chap or 
crack. — HaL The use of crack in the 
sense of fissure is to be explained in the 
same manner. Lang, esclapa, to split 
wood, to break ; escl<^o, a chip. 

The thinner vowel in chip expresses 
the sharpersound made by the separation 
of a very small fragment of a hard body, 
and the term is also applied to the small 
piece separated from the block. 

Chap*. A plate of metal at the point 
of a scabbard. Hence the white tip of a 
fox's tail— HaL The fundamental mean- 
ing is something clapt on, from clap, the 
representation of the sound made by two 
flat surfaces striking together, Hence It 
chiappa, a patch of lead clapt unto a 
ship that is shot \ a piece of lead to cover 
the touch-hole of a gun, also a clap, and 
anything that may be taken hold of.— Fl. 
Sp. cht^a, a small plate of flat metal, 
leather, or the like ; chapar, to plate, to 
coat; chapeta, chapilla, a small metal 
plate ; Port, chapear, to plate, to apply 
one flat thing to another. Sp. chapeJete 
de una bom^ Fr. clapet, the clapper or 
sucker of a ship's pump ; Sp- chapeletas 
de inibomales, the clapjwrs of the scupper 
holes. Russ. klepan, a strip of metal 
plate, as those on a trunk, 

CQupeL Commonly derived from ea- 
pella, the cape or litde cbke of St Mar- 
tin, which was preserved in the Palace of 
the kings of the Franks, and used as Uie 
most binding relic on which an oath 
could be taken. 

Tunc Id Patetio noslro super Capellam domin] 
Martini, ub[ reliqua socramenta percuirunt, da- 
beanE conjuraie. — Marculfus in Diic 

Hence it is supposed the name of ca- 
^lla was given to the apartment of the 
Palace in which the relics of the saints 
were kept, and thence extended to similar 
repositories where priests were commonly 
appointed to celebrate divine services- 
Rex sanctas stbi de cafilla u 
pnecqill. — Ordericui Vitalls. 



Bui we luve no occasion to resort to 
so hypothetical a dertration. The canopy 
or covering of an altar where mass was 
celebrated was called eapella, a hood. 
Mid-LaL captilart, tegere, decken, be- 
decken ; capiUa, eiu himeltz, gehymeU 
(eucharistie, &c), the canopy over the 
sacred elements ; eine kleine Kirche. — 
Dief. Sup. And it can hardly be doubted 
tW the name of the canopy was extended 
to the recess in a clnirch in which an 
altar was placed, forming the capella or 
chapel oi the saint to whom the sutar was 

Chaplat. A wreath for the head. Fr. 
chi^eUl, dim. of chapel, from capo, a 
cape or cope. The OFr. chapel, from 
signifying a hat or covering for the head, 
came to be used in the sense of a wreath 
or garland, ' Cappello, ghirlanda se- 
condo 11 volgar francese.' — Boccaccio in 
Diet. Hence applied to a circular string 
of praying beads, called in Sp. for the 
same reason rosario, a garland of roses, 
and in It, corojui. 

Chapman, as. cet^man, a merchant 
See Cheap. 

Chapter. Fr. chapitre, from ce^tu- 
htm, a head or division of a book. The 
Chapter of a cathedral is the assembly 
of the governing body. It capitolo, Sp. 
eapitulo, cabildo, Prov. capitol, Fr. cha- 

Ch^raotor. Gr. x<ip™^ ivv^'^i to 
^rave or make incised marks on an ob- 
ject), a mark made on a thing, a mark of 

ChavadA. See Oiarlatan. 

■ CharooaL— To Cher. Charcoal was 
rightly explained by Tooke from AS. 
cerran, OE. char, to turn, as being wood 
turned to coal. 

n the ceUrlum'd 

To char is now only nsed in the special 
application of turning to coal, burning 
without consuming the substance. 

His prol^ion — did put him TuptM finding 
<nay of dutt-ritg sra coal, wherdn i( is in nbout 
three houn or feuwilhout pots or vessels brought 
lo ehanoal. — Boyle in R. 

It is extraordinary that so plausible 

explanation should have failed to produce 
conviction, but the following quotation 
from William and the Werewolf will pro- 
bably be found conclusive. In that work 
the verb is written caire, and occur; 
quently in the sense of turn one's steps, 
return, go, and at line 3520 it runs — 

i. e. colliers that charred coal, that turned 
wood to coal, charcoal burners. 

The C. equivaknt kehren is used in & 
similar manner in the sense of changing 
the nature of a thing. ' Als sich Lucifer 
in eine schlange ktkrt ;' as Lucifer turns, 
himself into a snake. 

Char*. A chare is a turn of work; 
ckare-ivomoH, one who is engaged for an 
occasional turn. Swiss, es ist mi ekter, 
my turn; cher itm cher, in tums^ 
turn about — Deutsch. Mundart 2. 37a 
AS. eyre, a turn ; cerrtm, Du. hetrem, la 
turn ; Gael, car, turn, twist. 

Charge. It caricare, Ptg. carregar^ 
Fr. charger, to load ; properly to place 
in a car. Lat carricare, fr(«a camu. 
To charge an enemy is to lay oil 

Lay on. Macduff, 
id damned be be wlio first cries Hold, enough. 

Charity. Lat caritas, charilas, dear- 
ness fm both senses), afiection. LaL' 
carus, dear, beloved w. caru, Bret 
karout, to love. 

Caiark. — Chirk, as. cettrciax, to crea]^ 
crash, gnash. Lith. kirkti, to cry as a 
child, creak, cluck ; kirkfys, a cricket j 
karkli (schnairen, schreien, krachzen), to 
whirr as a beetle, cluck, ga^le ; kmrkti, 
to croak as a frog ; kurkelu, the turtle 
dove ; CMurkstf, to chirp as sparrows, 
CMtrksti, to chirp, twitter. 

Charlatan. — Charade. Tt. charlatan, 
a mountebank, prattling quacksalver, bab- 
bler, tattler. — Cot. It ciarlatore, from 
ciarlare, to tattle, chatter. Sp. ckarlar, 
chirlar, to prattle, jabber, mck, chat. 
An imitative word representing the in- 
articulate chattering or chirping of birds. 
Sp. chirriar, to chirp, chirk, creak, hiss ■ 
Lith. czurliwoti, to sing or chirp as birds, 
csirbti, to prattle, chatter. 

From Norm, charer, Lai^. chara, to 
converse, seems to be derived charade, a 
kind of riddle by way of social amuse- 
ment, as Pol. gadka, a riddle, from geuia^, 
to talk ; Boh. hadka, a dispute ; pohadka, 
a riddle, charade, w. siarad (pronouocM 
sharad), babbling, talking. 

Charlock. A weed among com ; also 
called kedlock. as. cedeUac. 

Cham. An enchantment fr-chamui 
It carme, carmo, a charm, a spdl, a 
verse, a rhyme.— Fl. From Lat. carmen, 
which was used in the sense of magic 
incantation. ' Venetici qui magicis su- 
surris seu carminibus homines occidunt. 
— Justin. Inst Hence 1 


enchant ; incarminatrix, an enchantress. 
From carmm was formed It. canne and 
Fr. ckArwur, as from nomen It. H^ffl^ and 
Fr. nommer, lo name. — Diez. 

The root of the Lat. carmen is pre- 
served in AS. ^rm, noise, shout ; OE. 
ckartH, a hum or taw muimurine noise, 
the ncHse of birds, whence a charm of 
goidfiMcka, a flock of those birds. 

- I dierme u brrdea do when (bejr nuike b joAsb 
• great munboT togcthu'. — Pabgrave. 

OhaiiMl-hoiiM. Fr. ciiamier, a 
chimhyard or charnel-house, a place 
where dead bodies are laid or their 
bones kept.— Cot Lat. care, camis^ 
Fr. chair, flesh. 

Cbwt.— Ohcuisr. See Card. 
' 0baJ!7. AS. ctarig (from cearian, to 
care), careful, chary. Du. karigh, sor- 
didus, pOKCus, tenai.— Kil. G. targ, 

To CbUMt I. To work or emboss 
plate as silversmiths do.— B. Fr. ckasse 
(anotber form of taiist; see Case), a 
shrine for a relic, also that thing or part 
trf a thing wherein another is enchased ; 
ki cMass* d'un rasoir, the handle of a 
faior ; la tkasit d'une rose, the calix of a 
rose. — Cot. IL cassa s. s. Fr, enchasser. 
It ituaisare, to set a jewel, to enchase 
it; axA as the setting was commonly of 
ornamental work the E, chasing has come 
to si^i^ embossed jeweller's worit- 

Ta OhMM. 3. See Catch. 

Ch > in , Gr. x^ofia, a yawning, a gap, 
from xim, x>^vtt, to gape, be wide open. 

C1uut«. castus, pure. Pol. csysty, 
slean, pore, chaste. Russ. ckisf, clean, 
pure, dear, limpid. The origin seems 

Eeserved in the Fin. kastaa, to wet, to 
ptiie, finance the notion of cleanliness 
as the consequence of washing. See 

To Oh&aten. — Ohoatlflo. Fr. chdlUr, 
lax cailigare, from castus, clean, chaste, 



make a noise as birds do, prattle. An 
imitatiTe word. It gaxaetart, gaito- 
giiare, gaxterare, gaxzettare, to chat or 
chatter as a ptot or a jay, to chirp, warble, 
prate. — FI. Fr. gateuUier, to chirp, 
warble, whistle. Magy. csatora (Magy. 
cf = £. ch), noise, racket ; csatortigni, to 
make a noise, chatter, talk much ; csa- 
aogni, to chatter or prattle ; csacsogany, 
a chatter-box, magpie, jackdaw ; Pol. 
gadd£, to tML,gadu-gadu,, tit- 
ue-tattle. M^y, kata, a word, speak ; 
iala-kata, discourse, talk. 
Ohata.— Obit. Ct(t^-«v«/, little sticks 

fit for fiiel. — Bailey. Yorkshire chal, a 
twig ; Suffolk chaits, fragments or leav- 
ings of food, as iumip-chaits, scraps of 
offal ;. blackthortt-ckais, the young shoots 
or suckers on rough borders, occasionally 
cut and faggotetT— Forby. To chit, to 
germinate ; chits, the first sprouts of any- 
thing,— Hal. 

The primary import of the syllable 
cAo/, chtt, chick, chip, is to represent the 
sharp sound of a crack, then the crack- 
ing of the hard case or shell in which 
something is contained, and the peeping 
or shooting forth of the imprisoned life 
within ; or on the other hand it may be 
applied simply to designate the frag- 
ments of the broken object. In the 
latter sense chat may be compared with 
the Fr. eclats, shivers, splinters, frag- 
ments, from the sound of a body bursting 
or cracking, to which it bears the same 
relation as chape, a plate of metal, to 

It must be observed that the letters p, 
k, t, are used with great indifference at 
the end of syllables imitative of natural 
sounds, as in the E. clap, clack, clatter j 
G. knappen, knacken, knaitem, to cracl^ 
crackle. We accordingly find the sylla- 
bles chiU or chit, chick, chip, or equivalent 

stance, or the cry of a bird or the like. 
To ckitter or chipper, to chirp as a bird } 
to cheep, to cry as a chicken ; ch^, the 
cry of the bat — Hal. 

To chip is then to crack, to separate in 
morsels, to break open and burst forth as 
a blossom out of the bud, or a bird out of 
the egg. 

Tbe rois knoppis leland forth thaie hede 

The efg fs ckifpt4. the bird is flown.— Jam. 

Du. k^en, cudere, ferire, also to 
hatch.— Kil. It schioppare, to crack, 
snap, or pop, to burst open. — FL In like 
manner Russ, chikaf, OE. chykkyn (Pr. 
Pm.), to cheep or peep as a young bird ; 
then chick (HaL), a crack or a flaw; also 
to germinate or spring forth. And thus 
probably has arisen the sense of germin- 
ation belonging to chat or chit. Chit in 
the sense of a child is metaphorically 
taken from the figure of a shoot, as we 
speak of olive branches^ or a sprig of 
nobility for a young aristocrat. So in 
Gael, gallan or ogan, a branch, also a 
youth, a young man ; geug, a branch 
and a young female. 

Faiallel with B. chit in the latter sense 


the It. has ato, eita^ eittlle, siUUa, 

ckapul, a piece of moveable property, 
from Lat. capUate, whence captaU, catal' 
lum, the principal sum in a loan, as dis- 
tinguished from the interest due upon it. 
' Semper renovabantur cartic et usura 

?ii3e excrevit vertebatur in catallum.' — 
ronica Jocelini. Cam. Soc. Then, in 
the same way as we speak at the present 
day of a man of lai^e capital for a man 
of large possessions, catallum came to 
be used in the sense of goods in general, 
with the exception of land, and was 
specially applied to cattle as the principal 
wealth of tne country in an early stage of 

colloquial E. chopj to chop and ciumgt, 
to swap goods ; to eoff-~^iL, Sc to coup 
3. s. ; koru-couper, a dealer in horses. 
See Chop. 
Ohear. Prov. Sp. atra, OFt. chieri, 
. cerOj the countenance ; Fr. chire, the 
face, visage, countenance, favour, look, 
aspect of a man. Faire bonne ckire, to 
entertain kindly, welcome heartily, make, 
good chear unto ; /aire mauvaue Mn, 
to frown, lower, hold down the head ; 
Mle chirt et eeeur arrOre, a willing took 
and unwilling heart. — Cot. Then as a 
kind reception is naturally joined with 
liberal entertainment,/i»>«#0ff»« or MOM- 
: ckire acquired the signification of 
good living or the reverse, and hence the 
E. chear in the sense of victuals, enter- 

nws of Edw&rd the ConfesHir. Cum dedoi 
ntiiuni terranim ac bonomm aliomm sive c. 
'//druM.— InEulphun. Rustict curtiUum deb 

tuum apertum. — Brompton in Due. 

It should be observed that there is the 
same double meaning in as. ceap, goods, 
cattle, which is the word in the laws of 
Ina translated eaptalt in the foregoing 
passage \ and this may perhaps be the 
reason why the LaL equivalent captaU 
was applied to beasts of the farm with 
us, while it never acquired that meaning 
in Fr. Bret, chatal, cattle. 

Ohawl.— Cihowl.— Ohole. as. ceajl, 
snout, ceafias, jaws, cheeks, lead to OE. 
chamlbone or chawlbone, mandibula. — 
Pr. Pm. NE. choule, jaw. The strap of 
the bridle under the jaw is called the 
thoulhand. — Hal. See Cheek, Chew. 

Ohvap. The modem sense of low in 

Erice is an ellipse iix good cheap, equiva- 
;nt to Fr. ban marchi^ from AS. ceap, 
price, sale, goods, cattle. Goth, kaupon, 
'to deal ; ON. kaupa, to negotiate, buy ; 
Du. koopen, G, kaufen, to buy ; kauf- 
mann, E. chapman, a dealer. Slav, ku- 
pili, 'BaiiCta.iaupitifX.o buy. Gr. e<iinjXi>c, 
Lat. caupo, a tavern-keeper, tradesmaii. 
— Uief. 

Ihre shows satisfactorily that the mo- 
dem sense of buying is not the original 
force of the word, which is used in 
sense of bargaining, agreeing upon, 
changing, giving or talong in exchange, 
and hence cither buying or selling. ' £k 
villdi kaupa skipinu vifl yckur bradur,' 
I will exchange ships with you two bro 
thera. ' Xopa jord i jord,' to exchange 
farm for farm. Thus we are brought to 
the notion of changing expressed by the 

Cheat. Cheal in the old canting lan- 
guage of beggars and rogues was a thing 
of any kind. Thus grunting-chete was a 
pig ; crasking-ckeUs, teeth ; prattling'- 
chele, the tongue, &c., and, from the fre- 
quency probably with which the word 
occurred, a cheater was equivalent to eanl- 
er, a rogue or person who used the cant- 
ing language. Hence to cheat, to act as 
a rogue. — Modem Slang. It. truffa, vaf 
cheating, canting or crossbiting trick; 
truffalore, a cheater, coiener, a canting 
knave— FL 

Olieck. Fr. 4chec, a repulse, a roetar 

to a sudden stop by receiving tfuck to 
his king. 
To check an account, in the sense tA 

ascertaining i 
pression derived from the practice of the 
king's Court of Exchequer, where ac- 
counts were taken by means of counters 
upon a checked clpth. See Chess. 

01i,Mk.~Ohoka.— Ohapa The gtit- 
tural sounds made by impeded exertions 
of the throat in coughing, retching, hawk- 
ing, stuttering, laughing, are represented 
in widely separated languages by the 
syllables gag, gig, kak, kek, ilk, kok, with 
a frequent change of the initial k into ck. 
We may cite Fin. kakaiila, to vomit, 
Liip.ka6o/, tonauseate (to retch), kakkaset, 
lo stutter. Fin. kikottaa, Lat. ca^hinuari, 
AS. ceahhetan, to laugh, Bav, gagkern, 
gagkexen, to cluck like a hen, to cou^h 
dry and hard, to stutter ; gigien, gi^ 
keien, to make inarticulate sounds m 
retching, stuttering, gigghne, Du. kiehtn, 
to gasp, cough, SOD ; E.keci, to fetch the 
breath with difficulty, to clear the throat i 
I chuckle, to make inarticulate sounds ia 



the throat from suppressed laughte 
the like; Sw. kikna, to gasp, kikna of 
skratt, to choke with laughter. The Sw, 
kikna is idcDtical with OE. cheken, to 
choke. ' Chekenyd or querkenyd, suffo- 
catus.' — Pr. Pm. Thus we are brought 
to W. cegio, AS. ceocian, E. to chokes O'^- 
ioka, ^ka, to swallow. 

Again the root representing the sounds 
made by impeded guttural action passes 
on to signify the parts of the bodily 
frame by which the eitertion is made, the 
throat, gullet, chops, jaws, cheeks. Sc. 
choufcs, the throat, jaws ; ON. kok, quok, 
the throat ; W. ceg, throat, mouth ; Sw. 
ktk, take, N, kj'aije, jaw ; Du. kaecke, 
cheek, jaw, gill of fish ; AS. eeac, E. cheek. 
The frequentative keckle, to make a noise 
in the throat by reason of difficulty of 
breathing (Bailey) leads on to Pl.D. 
kakel, the mouth, Fris. gaghel, the palate 
(KiL), Lith. kaklas, the neck, as. geagl, 
gtaht, geafl, Fr, gtffle, jouffle, jaw, jowl, 

In these latter forms we sec the trans- 
ition from a guttural to a labial termin- 
ation, which in the case of cough has 
taken place in pronunciation although 
the final guttural is retained in writing. 
The imitative origin is witnessed by GaUa 
cafd, to belch, cough, clear the throat, 
rattle in the throat.— Tutschek. Analo- 
gous forms are G. kopen, koppen, to belch, 
to gasp — Schmdler ; E. to kep, to boken, 
i. e. when the breath is stopped being 
ready to vomit— B. ; Pl.D. gapm, kapen, 
Da. gabe, to gape ; gab, Uie mouth or 
throat of an animal ; Sw. gap, the throat ; 
as. eeaplai, ceaflas, E. chaps, the loose 
flesh about the jaws ; Da. kjmbe, kjave, 
thejaw ; WalL chiffe, cheek. 

To Cheep. To make a shrill noise 
Iflce a young chicken, squeak as a mouse, 
creak as shoes. — Jam. An imitative word, 
like /<i^ in the same sense. Lith. tjry^//, 
to cheep like a chicken or squeak tike a 
mouse, whence cnypulas, a chicken. Sc. 
cheiper, a cricket 

ObeeH. AS. cete, cyse, ohg. chasi, G. 
kdse, W. ca-uis, Lat caseus. The word 
may perhaps be explained from a Fin- 
nish source. Fin. kasa, a heap, whence 
kasa-leipa, old bread, bread kept for a 
year. The Lapps prepare much of their 
food, as meat and butter, by laying it in 
a heap till it becomes rancid or half de- 
cayed, acquiring a flavour of old cheese. 
Tliis they call kdrsk. From them the 
practice seems to have been communi- 
cated to their Scandinavian neighbour, 
vho treat their &sh and coarser flesh in 



this manner, ok. kces^ kos sublit^ui- 
dorum coacervatio, molhum coiwenes, 
veiuti piscium, camium, &c. Hence 
kasa, to heap up such things for the pur- 
pose of acidifying them ; kasadr, kasuU- 
din, subacidus, veteris casei sapore — An- 
dersen ; kastr, incaseatus, made rancid 
by laying up in a covered heapj used 
especially of seals' flesh, which is not 
otherwise considered eatable- — Haldor- 

The use of the word kasir, rennet, 
shows that the Icelanders reco^ise the 
identity of the process going on in viands 
subjected to this process with that which 
takes place in the formation of cheese, 
though it is remarkable that they use a 
different word, ost, for cheese itsel/, which 
seems also derived from a Finnish source. 

Chemistry. See Alchemy. 

Chequer. See Chess. 

Oheriah. Fr. cherir, to hold dear, to 
treat with affection. Cher, Lat eanu, 
dear. w. irarB, to love. 

Cheny. LaL cerasus. It cireggiOf 
drieggia, Fr. cerise / G. Mrsehe. 

Ohemut. LaL castaneus; Fr. chas- 
tagne, ckdtaigne. Du. kastanie, a. kesten, 
E. chesten. — KiL Hence chesteK-nut, 

Ohesa. U. scacco,Sp. xa^e,Fi./chec, 
G. sehaek, from the cry of check/ (Pcrs. 
schachf king), when the king is put m the 
condition of being taken. As the board 
in this game is divided into a number of 
equal squares of opposite colours, things 
so marked are cafied chequered. Pro- 
bably at one time the game was called 
the game of checks, subse<^uentiy cor- 
rupted into chess. It is sometimes written 
chests in OE. 

Cheat. AS. cistj 0. kastm, kistej Lat. 
cista. See Case. 

Chevaux de frisA. The name trf' 
Vrieise ruyters (Frisian horsemen) was 
given in Dutch to long beams stuck 
round with spikes and placed in the road 
to prevent the attack of cavalry. It would 
seem to have been a device of^ the Frisian 
peasants to supply the want of cavalry in 
their struggle for independence. 

Chevieance. Achievement, acquisition, 
gain or profit in trade. Fr. chevir, to 
compass, prevail with, make an end, 
come lo an agreement with. Chef, pro- 
perly head, then end, accomplishment ; 
ackever, to bring to an end, to accom- 

ChevToa. The representation of two 

rafters in heraldry. Fr. chevron, Prov. 

cabrion, eaiiron, Sp. caMo, a rafter : cO" 





Mai, a beam, cabrionei, wedges of wood 
to aui^rt the breech of a cannon. Wal- 
ach. caferu, caprioru, beam, rafter, w, 
cebr, Bret, fc^ir, laftcr ; Gael, cabar, deer's 
horn, antler, stake, pole, rafter ; cabar 
beinae, mountain top ; cabarach, branchy. 
It is remarkable that the rafters are also 
called corni la casa, horns of the house, 
in Walach,, while the Magy. term is sxaru 
fu, horn wood.' 

To Ohew. — Chaw. It is shown under 
Check that the names of the gullet, mouth, 
jaw, chaps, are taken from the representa- 
tion of the sounds made by guttural exer- 
tions. Among these the G. kauehen, 
keichen, lead Imough the synonymous e. 
kaw, to gasp for breath (Hal.), to Du. 
kawwc, kouwe, kmve, the throat, cheek, 
jaw, chin, gills of a fish. — KiL E. ckavh 
bone, machouere. — Paisgr. And hence, 
and not vice versft, are formed Du. kaau- 
wen, a. Aauen, E. cifw or ciaw, to use 
the jaws. E. ckavel, chouU, a jaw, chol, 
the jole, head, jaws j chavel, to chew. — 

■ ChicaiM. Fr. chicaner, to pettifog, 
to contest, captiously taking every possi- 
ble advani^e without r^^ard to substan- 
tia] justice ; ckicoter, to contest about 
trifles.— GatteL Probably btisa Fr. cku:, 
chiqtut, a little bit. Dt ckic en chic, 
from littk to little.— Cot Payer ckiguet 
A chiquit, by driblets. — Gattel. Ckique, 
a lump, a quid oi tobacco. It cicti cica, 
the least im^inable jot. — Fl. For the 
ultimate origin of the word see Doit, 

Chick. Du. kieken, a chicken. The 
shrill cry of the young bird is represented 
by the syllable ckeip, ^ep, or clUck, from 
the first of which is Lith. ciypulas, a 
chicken, from the second Lat. pipio, a 
youne bird, and from the third E. chickeit. 
Ckikl^n as hetmys byrdys, pipio, pululo. 
— Pr. Pm. Russ. ciikaf, to cheep or 
peep as a young bird ; ckfj (Fr. j), a 
tinch, Magy. pip, the cry of young 
birds; pipe, a chicken, gosling. Fio. 
tiukkaia, tiukkua, to chirp or peep like a 
chicken, Uukka, the chirping of a spar- 

of animals in general. 

To Ohida. as. cidan, to scold, &om 
the notion of speaking loud and shrilL 
Swiss kiden, to resound as a bell. Fin. 
kidata, kiHita, strideo, crepo, queror, 
knarren, knirschen, klagend tOnen. 

Chief. Fr. chef, Prov. cap. It. capo, 
Walach. capu, pL capeti, Lat. caput, the 
head. The loss of the syllaUle it in 


the radical fom ia unusuaL It reappeara 
however in the derivatives capHatte, chief- 
tain, captain. The curtailed form agrees 
in a singular way with G. top/, Du. top, 

Omld. AS. did, a. kind. A mmilar 
interchange of n and / is seen in E. 
kilderkin, Du. kindekm, a small cask { 
OFr. oner, Fr. aller, to go. It is ronatk- 
able that the anomalous plural ckildr^* 
agrees with the Du, kindtren. 

ChilL The meaning is pn^ieriy to 
shiver or cause to shiver. 
Tbe ape that etrst did xaa^ bat tHU —d 

Breiia, chtllneu or shivering. — FL 
Chilly weather is what causes one U 
shiver ; to feel chilly is to feel shivery. 

Now the notion of shivering or trembling 
is most naturally eitpressed oy a vibrating, 
quivering sound which passes, when the 
vibrations become very rapid, into a con- 
tinuous shrill sound. The usual sense of 
turiitcT is to warble like a bird, but it ia 

rapid shaking of the teeth with cold, 1 
the broken noise of birds, or of peo[Jc 
talking rapidly. To ckitter, to chirp or 
twitter as birit— Hal., then as G- xiHem, 
Du. cititren, to tremble with cold. To 
titter IS a modification of the same word 
applied to the broken sounds of repressed 
laughter, while didder is to shivei or 

From the tingling sound of a little 
bell {¥t. grelot), greloter is to shiver for 
cold. On the same principle I resaid 
the Ptg. ckillrar, to twitter, Sp. chtllar, 
WalL cAUer, to crackle, creak, twitter, 
hiss as meat on the gridiron, as pointing 
out the ori^n of the E. chill, signifying 
properly shivering, then cold. Sec Chim- 
mer, Chitter. The Pl.D.^iti'/tiK, to smart, 
has probably the same origin. De finger 
kilkt mi for kalte,' my finger tingles with 
cold. Du. killea, tintden van Koude. — 

dumb. Du. kimme, the rim or edge 
of a vase, or as E. ckimb, the projecting 
ends of the staves above the nead of a 
cask. Pl.D. kimm s. s., also the horizon. 
W. cib, a cup ; cibaw, to raise the rim, 
knit the brow ; cib-led, of expanded rim; 
hyd-y-gib, to the brim. Fin. iippa, a cup. 

Chiine. Imitative of a loud clear 
sound. Chymyn or chenkyn with bellys. 
Tintillo.— Ft. Pm. Da. time, to chime. 
Fin. kimia, acute, sonorouB, Umitid, 


acut^ tinnlo ; kimina, sonus acutus, 
clan^r tinniens ; kummata, kumiila, to 
sound, as a large bell ; kumina, reson- 
ance 1 hernia, sounding deep, as a bell ; 
iommata, komisla, to sound deep or 

Chimera. Gr. j^/uapa, a goat, then 
the name of a fabulous monster part 
goat, part Lon, killed by Bellerophon. 

To Chimmer. CAymenmge, or chy- 
veiynge or dyderinge. Frigutus. — Pr. 
Pm. This word affords a good illustra- 
tion of the mode in which the ideas of 
tremulous motion, sound, and light, are 
connected together. We have the radical 
application to a tremulous sound' in Pol. 
sietnra/, to murmur, rustle; k. simmer; 
to boil gently, to make a tremulous 
sound on beginning to boil The desig- 
nation passes on to phenomena of sight 
and bodiljr movement in shimmer, a 
twinkling light, and chimmer, to tremble, 
which <£frer from each other only as 
skiver and the ckyver of Pr. Pm. Com- 
pare also Walacb. caperi, to simmer, 
vibrate, sparkle. See Bright, Chitter. 

Chimney. Fr. ckeminde. It. cam- 
minata, a hall ; Mid.Lat. caminata, an 
apartment with a fire-place, from Lat 
caminus, a fire-place. Cammatum, iyt- 
bos. — iSlf. Gloss. 

Chin. AS. ctHiUy Du. ktHHt. Kinne- 
baeke, the jaw, cheek. Gr. yii^, the jaw, 
chin ; f\vwm/, the chin ; LaL ^na, the 
cheek. Bretf^thecheek(jaw) -.genou 
(pL), the mouth (jaws) ; genawi, to open 
the mouth. 

Ohin-ooogh. — Chlnk-oongh. Sw. 
kik hosia, O. keich kusten, Du. kieck hoest, 
kink koesi, the whooping cough, from the 
sharp ckinking^xina by which it is ac- 
companied. To chinb with laughter, to 
lose one's breath with laughter and make 
a crowing souimI in recovering breath. 

Chine. Fr. ackine, the ekine, back- 
bone ; uckiiUe (de pore), a chine (of 
podc) ; eickiner, to ckifte, to divide or 
break the back of. — Cot. It sckiena, 
sekena, sckina, Sp. esguena, Prov. esquina, 
the backbone ; LaL spina, a thom, also 
the spine or backbone from its pointed 
processes. The change from the sound 
of .^ to J-t is singular, as the > is preserved 
in It spina, Fr. ipitu, a thom. Diei de- 
rives from OHG. skina, a needle ; but 
siiaa applied to a bone signified the shin, 
and it is most unlikely that it would also 
have been used to designate the spine. 

Chink. Primarily a shrill sound, as 
tbe chini of money, to ekinJc with laugh- 



ter. Magy. tsengem, tsSngem, tinnjre. 
Then, in the same way t&t the word 
craek, or^^nally representing the souitd 
made by the fracture of a hard body, is 
applied to the separation of the broken 
parts, so also we find ckink applied to 
the fissuie arising from the fracture of a 
hard body, then to any narrow crack or 
fissure- AS. cinan, to gape, to chink. 
The same sound is represented ii 

sharp, gives rise in like manner to the 
substantive kUncke, a chink or fissure. 

In like manner e. chick, representing 
in the first instance a sharp sound, is pro- 
vincially used in the sense of a cradi, a 
daw— HaL ; and from a similar sound 
repiesented by the syllable sckrick, Bav. 
schricien, to crack as glass or earthen- 
ware ! schrick, a chap, clefl, chink.^ 

OhintB. Hiodost chits, ckkint 

Chip. See Chap, ChaL 

Chirk. See Chark. 

To Chirp. A parallel form with ckiri, 
representing the shrill noise of birds or 
insects, all these imitative terms being 
liable to great variation in the final con 
sonants. Lith. csirsehii,to chirp, twitter 
csiriti, to prattle ; czirpli, to CTMk, hiss . 
G. titptn, eirken, tscUrpen, to chirp ; Sp. 
chimar, to creak, chirp, hiss ; cMrlar, It. 
ciarlare, to prattle ; Valentian ckarrar; 
Norman charer, to tattle, chatter ; E. diaL 
to ckirre, to chirp. In the same sense, 
la chirm; ' f^rmin^ tongues of birds.' — 
Phaer's Virg. Chyrme or chfr, as birds 
do,— Huloet. in Hal 

Chisel. Fr. cKcim (for cistT), a sur- 
geon's lancet, also a chisel or graving 
iron.— Cot It. cisello, Sp. cmcel, Ptg. 
sixel. Fr. cisailU, clipping of coin. Sp. 
chisckas, clashing of weapons. 

Chit. See Chats. 

To Ohitter. To chirp or twitter. 

But she vitbal no worde may soooe, 

But chitrt as ■ bird Jargowne.— Cower in HaL 

Du. sckttteren, stridere, crepare, dis- 
plodere, et garrire ; scketterin^e, sonus 
vibrans, quavering of the voice. — Kil. 
From signifying a twittering sound ekit- 
ter is apphed to tremulous motion. Ckyt- 
iering, quivering or shakyng for colde. — 
Huloet m HaL It. squittire, to squeak 
or cry as a parrot, to hop or skip mmbly 
up and down. 

Chitterling'. i. A friU to a shirt 

i. The small entrails fA a itog, frcan 
10 • 




(heir wrinkled appearance. G. trds, 
gekrose, a rufT or Inu, also the mesentery 
or membrane which covers the bowels, 
from kraus, curly; kaibs gekrose, a calfs 
■ pluck or chaldron ; ganse gekrose, a 
goose's giblets, called ehitters in the N. 
of E, 'Fi.jrexe, a ruff, a calfs chaldem ; 
Jfresure, the inwards of an animal, pluck, 
haslets, &c. 

The origin of the word in the sense of 
a frill or wrinkled structure is chitter, to 
chirp or twitter, then to shiver, the ridges 
of a wrinkled surface being represented 
by the vibrations of sound or motion. 
In the same wa^ the synonym frill is re- 
lated to Fr. fnlUr, to shiver, chatter, or 
didder for cold, andw._^V/, a twittering, 
chattering. Compare also Pol. krustyd, 
to shiver ; krusxkt, ruffs, also calfs, 
lamb's pluck or gather, chawdron, &c. 
Walach. caperi, to palpitate ; Lat. c^- 

duTOlry. The manners and senti- 
ments of the knightly class. Fr. ckc- 
valerie, from chfvaliJer, a kn^bL See 

GhiTBi. The fine threads of flowers, 
or the little knobs which grow on the tops 
of those threads ; chivets, the small parts 
of the roots of plants, bv which they are 
propagated.— B. Fr. efuppe, chiffe, a tag, 
]^ ; E. chife, a fragment, chimp, a young 
shoot ; chibbk, to break off in small 
pieces ; thive, a small slice or slip of 
anything ; shiver, a scale or fragment ; 
Pl.D. scheve, the skives or broken frag- 
ments of stalk that fall off in dressing 
flax or hemp ; sckevel-steen, G. tchie/er, 
stone which splits off in shives or shivers, 
slate ; ON, ski/a, to cleave ; — all seem 
develmments of the same ladical image. 
See Chats. 

* CAn'ifjarealsoakindofsmallonion, 
the eatable part of which consists of the 
young fine leaves, and in this sense the 
word is more likely to be from Lat. cepa, 
an onion. Fr. dve, civetU, a chive, scal- 
lion or unset leek.-^CoL Verte comme 
chives, as p^een as leeks. — Body and Soul. 

Chook-folL -- Chock-ftiU. Swab. 
schoch, a heap, g'schochtt voll, full to 
overflowing, heaped measure, chock full. 
— Schmid. In the same dialect schop- 
pen is to stuff, to stop ; geschoppt voll, 
crammed flill. 

■ Choir. — Ohonu. Gr. xV'Ci ^ ' 
pany of sin^rs or dancers, specially with 
an application to theatrical performances, 
whence Lat chorus, and It. com, Fr. 
chceur, the quire or part of the church 
^propriated to the smgers. 

To Choke.— See Cheek. 

Choleric. — Oholers. Gr. ypKipa. • 

nalady the svmptoms of which ar? con- 
nected with tAe bile, from xoMi <■ hile, z. 
anger, wrath, whence choleric, of an angry 

* ToChooM. — Choice. t&.ceosan,Ti^. 
kieeen, keuren, koren, Goth, kiusan, kaus- 
jan, G. kiesen, kohren, Prov. causir, Fr. 
choisir, to choose. The primary mean- 
is doubtless to taste, then to try, 
prove, ^prove, select. ' Thaiize ni kalis' 
/ani^dauutaus,'wbo shall not taste death. 
'Mark ix. i. ' Gagga kau^'ait thans' 
■I ^ to prove them. — Luc. xiv. 19. The 
original meaning is preserved in C- v>ein 
kieser, a wine taster, and in kosUH, to 
taste, to experience, to dy. OHG. kiusan, 
to prove, to try ; arkiusan, to choose ; 
korSn, to taste, try, prove. Swiss kust, 
gust, taste, guiten, kustigttt, to taste, to 
try, lead us on to Lat gustare, Gr. yiw, 
yinru, to taste. Equivalents in the Sla- 
vonic languages are PoL kusU, to tempt, 
try, Boh. okusyli, to taste, try, experience ; 
Russ. tukusit'jprikuskaf, to taste ; Serv. 
kushati, to taste, to try. As kushnuti, 
kushevaii, in the same language, signify 
to kiss, in analogy with the use of smadk 
in the sense of kiss as well as taste, it is 
probable that the root kus of the fore- 
going terms represents the smack of die 
Dps in kissing or tasting. 
Choice is probably direct from Fr. eMouc, 
To Chop. The syllable chap or cM^ 
represents the sound of a sudden blow ; 
Sc. chap hands, to strike hands ; to chop 
at a door ; to £h^, to hack, cut up toto 
small pieces. Chap, chatip, ehApt, a 
blow. — Jam. Hence to chop is to oo any- 
thing suddenly, as with a blow, to tum. 
A greyhound chops up a bare when it 
catches it unawares; tocAM^upin prison, 
to clap up — Hal. ; the wind uu^ roand 
when it makes a sudden turn to a differ- 
ent quarter. 

From the notion of turning round the 
word ch^ passes to the sense of exchang- 
ing, an exchange being the transfer of 
something with the return of an equiva- 
lent on the other side. Thus we speak 
of chopping and changing ; to Aop horses 
with one, to exchange horses. The Sc 
and N. of E. coup, Warwickshire coff, ON. 
kaup, keypa, are used in the same sense. 
' Sidast bid hann at Holmi thviat hann 
keipti vid Holmstarra bxdi Ifiodom oc 
konom oc lausa fe 6II0.' At last he dw^ 
at Holm because he and Hohnstaira had 
chopped both lands and wives and all 
their moveables. 'Enn Sigridur sem 


hann Stti iflur hcngdi sig i hoiino thviat 
hun villdi'eigi maHna-kaufiin.' But Sig- 
rid whom he before had to wife hanged 
herself in the temple, because she would 
not endure this husband choppii^. — 
Landoamabok, p. 49. 

Thus chop is connected with G. kaufm, 
E. cheat, chapman, &c In Sc. coup the 
original sense of turning is combined with 
that of traf&cktng, dealing. To coup, to 




'Tbe vrhirihig slieun vill nuke oar boat to 
aap, \. e. to turn over.' ' They ore fbrebuyen 
ofquheic, beaiaod atts, ceftrianitunuri^iitxt- 
o[ la merchandise.'— Jam. 

Horse-Pauper, coio-couper, one who 
buys and seus horses or cows ; soul-coup- 
er, a tiafficker in souls. To turn a penny 
is a common expression for making a 
penny by traffic 

The nasalisation of ch^ or ehe^ in the 
sense of exchanging would give rise to 
the IL cambiare, cangiare, and we act- 
ually find champmait for chapman, a 
merchant, in Chaucer. See Change, 

To Chop logick. Du. ka^eit (to 
chop) in thieves' language signified to 
speak. Bergoens happen, to cant, to 
speak thieve? slang,— P, Marin. 

Chopiuo. Sp. chapin, high clog, slip- 
per ; chapineria, shop where clogs and 
pattens are sold. From the sound of a 
blow represented by the syllable chap, 
chop, as Du. klomPe, klopper, clogs, from 
kl^pen, to knock, because in dogs or 
wooden shoes one goes clumping ^ong, 
where it will be observed that t& initial 
ilai kli>ppen corresponds to ch of chopino, 
as in tne examples mentioned under 

Onord. Gr.x«pJ4ithestringof amusic- 
al instrument ; originally, the intestine of 
an animal, of which such strings are made. 

Chough. A jackdaw; as. ceoj OE. 
kowe, monedula.— Nominale in Nat. Ant. 
Du. iauwe, kaej Lith. kowe; Sax. 
it^eke ; Ficard. cauc, cauvette ; Fr. 
tMOMCas, ehouquelU, chouetle, whence E. 

Peace, ehKtt, peace. — Shakespeare. 

This latter is the same word with the 
It. civetia, applied to an owl in that 
language. The origin of all these words 
is an imitation of the cry of the bird, equi- 
valent to the E. kaw. See Chaff. 

To ChouM. From the Turkish Chiaus, 
a. messenger or envoy. In 1609 Sir 
Robert Shirley, who was about to come 
to England with a mission from the Grand 
Seignor and the King of Persia, sent be- 
fore him a Chiaus, who took in the Turic* 

ey and Persia merchants in a way that 
obtained much notoriety at the time. 
Hence to chiaus became a slang word 
for to defraud. — Gifford's Ben Jonson, 4. 
37. In the Alchemist, which was written 
in 1610, we find the followii^ passage : 
Daf. And will I Cell then? bythii hand offlMh 
Wonld it migbl nerer write good court-hand dmm 
If I discover. What do you think of me, 
Thai 1 am a chiaus t 
Face. What 's that ? 
Daf. The Turk was here 
As one should say, Doe yoa think lam aToric? — 
Fact. Come, noble Doctor, pray tbee let's pie- 

You deal now with a noble gentleman, 
One thai will tbank you nchly, and be is no 

Slight, I bring you 
No cheUiag dim o' tbe Cloogbs.— Alchemist 

We are in a lair way to be ridiculovs. What 
think you, Madam.'etias/ifbyaicbolai? — Kili^ 
ley in Giflbrd. 

Chrism.— Ohtisom. Fr. chrisme. Or. 
xpi'ita, consecrated oil to be used in bap- 
tism ; Fr. cresmeau, the crisome where- 
with a child is anointed, or more properly 
the cloth or christening cap that was put 
on the head of the child as soon as it had 
been anointed. — Cot 

-ehron-. — Ohroniole. u Gr. xP^voc, 
time ; tA vpovud, Fr. chroni^ues, E> 
chronicles, journals of events m refei> 
ence to the times in which they hap- 

Anachronism, an offence gainst the 
fitness of times. 

Ghrysalis. Lat. chrysalis (Plin.), Gr. 
XpiKraXic, doubtless from x 

snout and head. Fr. ehtvane, eheviniau. 
Confounded with the bullhead, a small fish 
with a large head. Mid.Lat. capita, ca^ 
pitanus, caphateims, cavena, whence the 
Fr. ckevane, E, chevin. G. forms arc 
kaulhaupt (club-head, whence E. ^11 j 
capilone, a bullhead, gull, or miller's 
thumb— FL), kolbe (club), tobe, k<^, 
whence apparendy the £. ehi^. — Dief. 
Sup. Quaoie, q^tappe, gobio capitatus, 
capito.— Kil. 

* Chubby. E. dial, cob, a lump or 
piece ; ckump, a thick piece, on, kubbr, 
Sw. dial, kubb, a stump, short piece ; 
kubbug, fat, plump, thick-set. 

Cback.~OhttCKstone. A sharp sound 
like the knocking of two hard substances 
together is imitated by the syllables 
clack, chack, cah, elat, chat, as in Fr. 
elaquer, to clack, chatter ; Wall, eaker, 
to strike in the hand, the teeth to chat- 
ter ; Fi. caquelfr, to chatter, prattle ; E. 




clatter, &c. N. takka, klakka, to strike 
a resounding object, as a board. — Aasen. 
In Sc. we have to chock, to make a noise 
nice two stones knocking together. 

Some 's teeth for cold did chad OLd cbatter. 


Hence the name of the wheatear or 

stone-chat (a bird making a noise of that 

description), in Sc. chock or staiu-ckacker. 

This imitation of the noise of pebbles 
knocking together has very generally 
given rise to the designation of a pebble 
or small stone, as in E. chack-stone, Sc. 
ehuckie-slane. The Turkish has chagk- 
lamak, to make a rippling noise, as water 
running over rocks or stones, ckakil, a 
pebble ; Gr. tiaj^alvm, to move with a 
rattling noise like pebbles rolled on the 
beach i •AykiiX, xi^C, Lat. calx, calculus, 
a pebble. 

To chuck one under the chin is to give 
him a sudden blow, so as to make the 
jaw ckack or snap. To chuck in the 
sense of throwing may be from the notion 
of a sudden jerk. 

To Chnokle. See Cheek. 

Chuff— Obnlfy. Ciiu^ churlish, surly, 
an old chuf, a miser. Probably from IL 
ciuffi), cefi, the snout of an animal, and 
thence an ugly face ;Jar ctffo, to make a 
wry face ; ceffata, c^ffiire, a douse on the 
chops. Wairi:AW!,i:Aq/^i((Grandgagna£e), 
OFr. ^ffe, gifie, cheek, blow on the 
cheeks ; WdL che/u, Fr. joJU, joufflu, 

Ihump.— -Ohonk. A log of wood, 
the thick end of anythii^, a lump. Sec 

Clmrcfa. The derivation from txfunAy, 
the Lord's house, has been impugned 
because it is not understood how a Greek 
term should have made its way among 
Gothic nations. It iscertain,however,that 
jtMuudv was used in the sense of church. 
The canon of the sixth Council prescribes, 
— ' jri »h lit tv rait Kiiftaailf, i) tv rale InXii- 
fffaic rit Xiyeiiirat iyaris irouiv.' And 
Zonaras in commentme on the passage 
says that the name <rt lufuo^v is fre- 
quently found in the sense of a church, 
^though only this canon directlv dis- 
tinguishes (riAijirfa and Kvpuaiy, 'but I 
think,' he adds, 'that the i) is not there 
used disjunctively, but by way of ^cplan- 
ation.'— Quoted by Max Miiller in Times 
Newsp. As AS, ryrr« is confessedly the 
very form to which the Greek would 
have given rise, it is carrying scruples to 
an extravagant length to doubt the iden- 

tity of itx two words, because we do not 
know how the Greek name came to te 
employed instead of the Latin equivalAt 
dttminicum, whence Ir. tbmMxacf^ a 

Cbiirl. AS. ceorl, a man, countryman, 
husbandman, on. karl, a man, male 
person, an old man. Du. kaerle, a man, 
a husband, a rustic ; G. kerl, a fellow. 

Chxcta. ON. ^orwt, G. .(frW, the kernel, 
pith, marrow, flower, or choice part of a 
thing ; whence ON, kirna, Fris. kemjftt, 
to chum, i. e. to separate the kernel of 
the milk, or, as Epkema explains it, to 
cause the milk to grain, to form grains of 
butter. Da. dial kiSme, to separate the 
grains of bariey from the chaff. Somer- 
set irm, to turn fttjm blossom to fruit — 

-did-. -cl«-. Lat. foafc, canon ^ comp. 
•cid-), to fall; accide, to fell at or on, to 
happen ; incido, to tall upon ; decide, to 
fall from, whence detiduoui (of trees), 
whose leaves fall from them. 

-oide-. -oin. Lat cado, ccuum ^ 
comp. -cfdo, -cisufti), to cut ; dccido, to 
cut off, to determine ; incision, a cutting 

vimpa, as Fr. ladre from La tare. Sieera- 
'ores, I e. qui ccrvisiam vel pomarium 
ive piratiam facere sciant. — Cnarta A.I>. 
Io6 in Mur, Diss. 24. 

Oieling. See Ceilii^. 

Oincture. Lat. cinctura \ciH^o, {>p. 
cinctus, to gird, tie about), a girdmg on, 
thence a belt 

Oindeor. The spelling of cittder has 
arisen from the erroneous supposition 
that the word is an adoption of Fr. cendtv, 
from Lat dHis, -eris, dust, ashes, with 
which it has really no connection. It 
should be written sinder, corresponding 
to C. sinter, Du. sindel, sintel, on. sindr, 
sigotfyinK in the first place the briSiant 
sparks which are driven off when white- 
hot iron is beaten on the anvil, then the 
black scales to which they turn when 
cold, and the slag or dross of iron of 
which they are composed, and from 
analogy is applied to the unconsumed 
residue of burnt coats. Du. sindel is 
rendered by Kil. scoria, spuma mctalli, 
but according to Weiland siutel (as it is 
V pronounced) is used as E. cinders 
the residue of stone coaL The origin 
of the word is seen in ok. siadra, co 
sparkle, to throw out sparks, a parallel 
form with iyndra, Sw. tindra, to sparkle. 
In Germany <Mnii&r is used as a synonym 
with rinttr for BDliths' scales or cinder. 


ON. tUuM, 



flint fot' 

See Tinder, 
striking fire. 

Oion. — Solon. Fr. scion, cion, a young 
M)d tender plant, a shoot, sprig, twig. — 
Cot. The proper sense is a sucker, as 
in 5p. chupon, a sucker or young twig 
shooting fi«m the stock, from cht^ar,to 
suck. The radical identity of the Fr. 
and Sp. forms is traced by Gr. oifttv, a 
tube or hoUovr reed (from the root sup, 
sip, suck), also a waterspout (suckir^ up 
the water of the sea), compared with It, 
sioiu, a kind of pipe, gutter, or (]uill to 
draw water thinugn — FL ; a whirlwind. 
— Alt In Fr. cioit, Sp. chupon, and s. 
seien or sucker, the young shoot is con- 
ceived as sucking up the juices of the 
parent plant. 

• OipW. Fr. ckiffre. It. dfm, Arab. 
sifr. Originally the name of'^the figure 
marking a blank in decimal arithmetic. 
Then transferred to the other numeral 
figures. From Arab, sifr, empty (Doiy) ; 

rii^, circle, clasp. Lat. circa, around, 
arculus, a circle. The Gr, icpfuf differs 
only in the absence of the naaal from ON. 
kringr, kringr, a circle, a ring. In the 
latter language kring is used in composi- 
tion as Lat circum. OS. kringla, a circle. 
See Crankle. 

Okoom-. Lat. area, circum, about, 
around. See Circle. 

-«ls-. See -cid-. 

• Oistem. Lat. cisUma, a reservoir 
for water. Probably from Lat. cista, a 
diest, as cavema from cavus. Comp. 
O. vaistrkasten (water chest), a cistem- 
On the other hand a more characteristic 
explanation might be found in Bohem. 
Usie, clean (the equivalent of the Lat. 
castus), whence cistiii, to cleanse, and 
fisfema, a cleansing place, a cistern. So 
Lat. lucema, the place of a li^ht as. 
arn, em, a place ; domem, a. judgment 
plat^ ; htddtrn, a hidii^-place, &c. See 

OitadsL It dttadella, dim. of cUth, 
cittade, a city. A fort built close to a 
city, either for the purpose of defence or 
of controL 

Oit*. -ctte. LaL cieo, ciium, and, in 
the frequentative form, cito, to make to 
go, ttimulate, excite, to set in motion by 
means of the voice, to call by name, to 
Munmon or call on, to appeal, to meat' 
to cry out Gr. tim, to go. 

Hence Incite, Excite, Recite. 

OUniB. LaC cUnu^ a lemon tree. 

Catjr.— OiTil. Lat civis, a citizen ; 
civiiif, belonging to cities or social life j 
civitas. It. citti, Fr. ciU, a city. 

To OlAok. Tbe syllables clap, clack, 
clat, are imitative of the noise made 
by two hard things knocking together. 
Hence they give rise to verbs expressing 
action accompanied by such kinds of 
noise, Fr. claqutr, to clack, clap, clat- 
ter, crash, crack, creak — CoL ; claqutr 
les dents, to gnash the teeth, to chatter ; 
claqutt de moulin, the clapper or clack of 
a tnill hopper, e. clack-dish, or clap-disk, 
a kind of rattle, formerly used by beggars 
to extort attention from the by-passers ; 
clack, clack-box, clap, clapper, die tongue. 
— HaL ON. klak, clangor avium ; Du. 
klacken, to strike, or split with noise, 
smack, lash ; klack, a splil, crack, sound- 
ing blow, sound of blow, clapping of 
hands ; klacke, a whip, a rattle ; Fr. cla- 
quer, to clap at a theatre. Du. Map, 
craclc, sound, chatter ; klappe, a rattle ; 
tlappm, to chatter, prattle; Bohem. 
ii&]«a6iA',to cluck, rattle, babble ; klepati, 
klopaii, to knock, to chatter, prattle. Du. 
klaUren, to clatter, rattle ; klater-htsse, 
klackt-biisst, a pop-guD. 

To Olftiin. Fr. clamer, to call, cry, 
claim. Lat. clamare, to calL From the 
imitation of a loud outcry by the syllable 
clam. To clam a peal of beUs is to strike 
them all at once. QV-glamm, tinnitus ; 
Dan. kUmte, to toll ; Gael, glam, to bawl, 
cry out ; glambar, clambar, Dan. klam- 
nur, GaS. clamras, uproar, outcry, 
vociferatian. A parallel root is slam, 
with an initial s instead of i:, as in slash 
compared with clash. Lap. slam, a loud 
noise ; uksa slamkeli, the door was 
slammed; slamem, ruin, fall, 

Olam.— Olamp. — Olnmp. The idea 
of a lump or thick mass of anything is 
often expiessef] by a syllable representing 
the noise made b^ ihe fall of a heavy 
body. We may cite w. clob, a knob, a 
boss ; cla6yn,a. lump ; LaL globus, a ball, 
sphere ; gleba, a clod ; Russ. klub', a 
ball ! PoE kl^, a ball, lump, mass ; g. 
kloben, a lump, bunch ; Sw. klabb, klubb, 
a block, log, tmnk, lump of wood ; or 
with the nasal, Sw, klamp, klump, kUmp, 
a block, lump, clot ; ON. klambr, klumbr, 
a lump ; Du. klompe, a clod, clog, lump ; 
£. clump, w. c/af«^, a mass, bunch, lump. 

The notion of a lump, mass, cluster, 
naturally leads to that of a number of 
things sticking together, and hence to the 
principle of connection between the ele- 
ments of which the mass is composed. 
We accordit^ly find the roou eki, ela^. 




clam and their immediate modifications 
applied to express the ideas of cohesion, 

compression, contraction. Thus we have 
G. kioben, a vice or instrument for holding 
fast, the staple of a door ; kleiea, to 
cleave, stick, cling, take hold of ; Du. 
klobber~saen, coagulated cream, cream 
run to lumps ; klebber, klibber, klubber, 
birdlime, gum, substances of a sticky 
nature ; E. dial clttiy, sticky— Hal. ; Sw. 
klibb, viscosity \ kliiba, to glue, to stick 

The E. clamp designates anything used 
for the purpose of holdingthings together ; 
Du. klampen, to hook things together, 
hold with a hook or buckle, hold, seize, 
apprehend ; klampe, klamme, hook, claw, 
cramp, buckle ; klamp, klam, tenacious, 
sticky, and hence moist, clammy. To 
clame, to stick or glue. — B. E. dial, to 
clam, clem, to pinch, and hence to pinch 
with hunger, to starve, also to clog up, to 
glue, to daub — Hal; Du. klemm^ti, ,tO 
pinch, compress, strain ; klem-vogel, or 
Jilamp-vogel, a bird of prey, a hawk. AS. 
clam, band:^, bond, clasp, prison. G. 
klamm, pinching, strait, narrow, pressed 
close or hard together, solid, massy, 
viscous, clammy j klammtr, a cramp, 
brace, cramp-iron, hold^t. 

To Olamber.— Climb. - These words 
are closely connected with damp. To 
clamber \% properly to clutch oneself up, 
to mount up by catching hold with the 
hands or claws, g. klammem, to fiisten 
with cramp-irons, to hold fast with the 
hands or daws ; Dan. klamrcfto damp. 

In Utce manner Du. klimmtn, to hold 
tight, to pinch, kUmmen, klimmen, to 
chmb. OE^ diver, E. diaLr/ov^r, aclaw ; 
Dan. klavre, to claw oneself up, to climb. 
G. kUben, to cleave or stick, Swiss kldbirn, 
klebem, to climb ; Bav. klaiten, a claw, 
C. kUUe, a burr, Swiss kletten, G. kUtterti, 
to climb, clamber. Dan. klyitge, to cling, 
cluster, crowd ; klynge sig op, to clutch 
or cling oneself up, to cumb. The Fr. 
grimper, to climb, is a nasalised form of 
grmer, to seiie, gripe, grasp. 

Olamonr. The equivalent of Lat 
clamor, but perhaps not directly from it, 
as the word is common to the Celtic and 
Gothic races- Sw. klammtr, Gael, elam- 
ras, clambar, glambar, uproar, brawL 
See Claim. 

Olomp. See Clam. 

Clan. A small tribe subject to a single 
chief. From Gael, clann, children, de- 
scendants, I e. descendants of a common 
w.j|>toi/(thew..^ correspond- 


ing r^[ulaily to Gael, c), offspring, chil- 
dren. The same word is probably 
exhibited in the Lat disntu, who occu- 
pied a position with respect to their 
patrotms, closely analogous to that of the 
Scottish clansmen towards their chieC 
Manx{:/0i»j,children,descendantsi clictt- 
ney, of the children. 

Glandutine. Lat. clandestinui, from 
clam, privately, and that from celo, to 
conceal The root which gives rise to 
Lat. ceh produces Fin. salata, to hiite, 
conceal, whence- sola, anything hidden, . 
of which the locative case, salaatt, is used 
in the sense of secretly, in a hidden place, 
as the Lat. dam. Salainen, clandestine:. 

CIaiig.-~Clank. — OliiLk. These are 
imitations of a loud, clear sound, adopted 
in many languages. Lat. dangi^r, the 
sound of the trumpet ; G. klang, a sound, 
tone, resonance ; klingen, to gingle, clink, 
tingle, tinkle, sound. E. dang, a loud 
sound ; cloak, a sound made by a l%hter 
object ; dink, a sound made by a still 
smaller thing ; the clank of irons, diitk 
of money ; Du. klank, sound, accent, 
rumour. — Halma, Gad. gliong, tingle^ 
ring as metal, clang. 

Clap. An imitation of the sound 
made by the collision of hard or flat 
things, as the clapping of hands. Dan. 
klapprc, to chatter (as the teeth with 
cold) ; G. klappm, to do anything with a 
dap; klopfcH, to knock, to beat. Du. 
klapptK, kUppen, to dap, rattle, chatter, 
beat, sound ; kleppt, kUppe, a rattle ; 
kleppe, a whip, a trap, a noose ; ki^l, 
kluipel, a stick, dub ; Bohem. klepati, 
to knock, tattle, chatter, tremble ; Russ. 
klfbanie, beating, knocMng. 

To dap in E. is used in the sense of 
doing anything suddenly, to clap on, 
clap up. 

Clapper. A clapper of conies, a place 
underground where rabbits breed. — B. 
Fr. dopier, a heap of stones, &c, where- 
unto tney retire themselves, or fas our 
dapper) a court walled about ana full of 
nests of boards and stones, for tante 

inies.— Col 

Lang, clap, a stone ; clapas, elapi^, t. 
heap of stones or other things [nled up 
without order. ' Pourta las pCiros as 
clapas,' to take coals to Newcastle. 
Hence the Fr. cl^ier, ori^nally a hew 
of large stones, the cavities of which 
afforded rabbits a secure breeding plac«, 
then applied to any artificial breeding 
place for rabbits. 

The proper meaning of the foregoing 
dap is simply a lump, &om the W. clap. 


cla^, a lump, mass, the prhnary ori^ 
of which is preserved in Lang, el^, 
chpa, fo knock. Pior. clafi, a heap, 
mass.— Rayn. 

Olarat Fr. vin elairet, vin claret, 
claret wine. — CoL Commonly made, he 
tells us, of white and red grapes mingled 
together. From elairet, somewhat dear, 
i. e. with a reddish tin^ but not the full 
red of ordinary red wine. Eau cMrelte, 
a water made of aquavitae, cinnamon, 
and old red rose-water. Du. klaeret, 
vinum helvolum, subrubidum, rubellum. 
It. dUafello.—KH. 

Clarion.— Olarinftt. So. £lariH,tiuat- 
pet, stop of an oi^an. It chiarino, a 
claiion of a trumpet — Fr. clairon, a. cla- 
rion, a kind of small, straight-mouthed, 
and shrill-sounding trumpet Fr. clair, 
It chiaro clear. Sp. clarinad^, applied 
to animals having bells in their harness. 

Claah. Imitative of the sound of wea- 
pons striking together. Du. klelse, ictus 
resonans, fragor ; Lang, clas, the sound 
of bells rung in a volley to give notice of 
the passage of a corpse ; souna de cltusei, 
to nng in such a manner for the dead. 
In E. it is called clamming. Fr. glas, 
noise, crying, bawling, also a knell for the 
dead. G. klalschett, an imitation of the 
sound made by atrilcing with the hand 
against a partition, wall, &c. If such a 
blow sound liner or clearer it is called 
iUtsch; kliUch-klatsckl pittekfaUch/ 
— thwick-thwack. — KBttner. Klalsch- 
buchse, a pop-gun ; klatsche, a lash, Aap, 
clap ; klalschett, to do anything with a 
sound of the foregoing description, to 
patter, chatter, clatter. Uab. PoL klask I 
plaik ! thwicl^ thwack ; klaska/, to clap i 
A^it^fj'a, the cracking of a whip. It<:At- 
a(j0, fracas, uproar; Sp.Mar^NAir, to crack 
a whip, &c. Gr. cXdjIw, to clash as arms. 

ClMp. Related to clip as grtup to 
^rg* or gripe. But cUup or cl^e, as it 
ts written oy Chaucer, is probably by 
direct imitation from the sound of a 
metal fastening, as we speak of the snap 
of a bracelet for a fastening that shuts 
with a snappbg sound, or as g. schxaiU, 
a clasp, tnickle, locket of a door, from 
sc/utalieti, to sn^ Du. gatpe, ghespe, 

Olau. Lat classis, a distribution of 
things into groups. Originally clasis. 
Identical with on. klasi, Sw. Dan. klase. 
a bunch, assembly, cluster. Eya-klait, 
insularum nexus ; sfceriO'klasi, syrtiuin 
junaura. Ou. Hot, klot, globus, sphsia. 

<n«tt«r, FrtHQ the imitation of the 



sound of a knock by the syllable ^at, 
equivalent to clack or clap. Du. kla- 
i^tn, to rattle ; ilaterbusse,asa.fclatsch- 
iiichse, a pop-gun. 

OlauM. l^t. clitusula^ an ending, 
thence a definite head of an edict or law, 
a complete sentence. From claitdo, clau- 
tum, to shut, to end. 

OlaTiole. The collar-bone, from the 
resemblance to a key, Lat clavit, as 
Mod.Gr. kkult, a key ; xXuJid roS viftanti 
the collar-bon& 

Clav.— dew. The origin of both 
diese words seems to be a form of the 
same class with w. ele6, a lump ; Russ. 
c/ui", a ban, pellet ; Lat glehis, a sphere ; 
gleba, a clod. The b readily passes into 
an fK on the one hand, and through v 
into a If or u on the other. Thus iram 
Lat globus we have glomus in the re- 
stricted sense of a ball of thread, and the 
same modification of meaning is expressed 
by the Du. klmew, klouive (KiL), e. clew. 

We have explained under Clamp the 
way in which the notion of a mass or 
solid lump is connected with those of co- 
hesion, compression, contraction. Thus 
from clamp, climp, clump, in the sense of 
a mass or lump, we pass to the £. clamp, 
to fasten together ; Du. klampe, klamme, 
a buckle, hook, nail, claw (what fastens 
together, pulls, seizes) ; klampvoghel, a 
hawk, a bird with powerful talons. 

In the same way must be explained the 
use of the Du. ilauwe, klouwe, in the 
sense both of a ball and also of a claw. 
The form clew, which stifles a ball in 
E., is used in Sc. in the sense of a claw. 
To dew up a sail is to fasten it up, to 
draw it up into a bunch. To clew, to 
cleave, to fasten. — Jam. Analogous 
whence kleuer, ivy, from clinging to the 
tree which supports it In the same way 
is formed the Oe. diver, a claw. 

Icb hibbe bile slif and strooge 
And gode cltvrrs sharp and longe. 

Owl aod NigfatlDgBle, 369. 
A diver or claw is that by which we 
cleave to, clew or fasten upon a thing. 

With mys be wes iwa wmbcsele — 

He m^ht na way get savft^, 

Na mlh su.vis, na with stania, 

Tbaa thai wald eltai upon bis baais. 

WjrDloun iu Jani. 
The root appears in Lat under three 
modifications ; dava, a club or massy 
stick, clavus, a nail, from its use in fast* 
ening things together, and clavis, a key, 
originally a crooked naa So PoL iluex, 
a key, kluaka, a little hotA; Serv 




klutsiA, a Ittf, hwAc, bend in a strum, 
identical in sound and nearly so in mean- 
ingwltfa the E. duUk, a. daw or talon. 

Olny, — Cl&g. — OlafTiT- as. clag, 
sticky earth, clay ; e. dial, to clag or clog, 
to stick or adhere ; cl*^gy, cloggy, ckd^, 
slick>- ; clcigs, bogs ; Da- kUeg, kUg, vis- 
cous, sticky ; klag, klag, kieg, mud, loam. 
See dog. 

Clean. The proper meaning of the 
word is shining, polished, as Lat. nitidus, 
clean, from mitre, to shine, on. glan, 
shine, polish ; Gael, glan, radiant, bright, 
clear, clean, pure { W. gldn, clean, pure. 
The word is fimdamentaUy connected 
with forms like the ON. giUta, Sc. gUit, 
to shine; ON. p/iAmV, spdendid; G.glatt, 
poUshe*!, sleek, smooth, preCtjr, neat 
liie introduction of the nasal gives rise 
to forms like Sc. glint, gUnt, a flash, 
(^ce; Da. glituUt, glandse, to glitter, 
shine ; whence it is an easy step to fonns 
ending in a sinq^ nasal, as on, and 
Celtic gloK. 

Olsar. Lat. elants, ON. klar, clear, 
clean, pure. This is {uvbably one of the 
words applicable to the phenomena of 
si^t, tl^ are primarily derived from 
those of hearing, as explained under 
Brilliant. G. kiirren, Dan. khrrt, to 
clink, gingle, dash, give a shrill sound i 
Ir, glir, a noise, voice, speech ; glhram, 
to sound or make a noise ; glor-mfuv, 

neat, clean. 

<Simt. A piece of wood ^tened 
the yard-arm of a ship, to keep the ropes 
from slipping off the yard ; also pieces of 
wood to fesMn anything to. — B. A piece 
of iron worn oo shoes by country people. 
ProbiU^ a modification of die word 
elout. Du. kiuit, kluyU, a lump, pellet. 
AS. deot, chtt, a plate, clout. A date is 
the thin ^ate of iron worn as a shoe by 
racers. The cUaii of the yard-amis are 
probably so named from a similar piece 
of iron at the extremity of an axletree, 
provincialiy tramed ciaut. The clout of 
iron nailed on the end of an axletree. 
Torriano. Axletree clouts. — Wilbraham. 

To CteaTe. This word is used in two 
opposite senses, viz. i. to adhere or cling 
to, and, 2. to separate into parts. In the 
former sense we have O. kltbtit, Du. 
kleevcH, klifoea, to stick to, to fasten ; E. 
dial elibby, Du. kleevig, kUverig, sticky. 
From clob, a lump^ a mass. See dam. 

1. The double signification of the word 
seems to arise frcnn the two opposite 
ways in which we may conceive a cluster 
to be composed, either by the coherence 


of a number of s ep arata objects in one, 
or by the division of a single lump or 
block into a number of separate parts. 
Thus from G. kloben, a mass, lump, or 
bundle (fix kloben flaths, a Imncli of 
flax), kloben, klieben, to deave. When 
an object is simply cl^, the two parts of 
it cleave together. Du. kloue, a defi:, 
khuen, chaps in the skin, kloue*, kluutK, 
to chink, deave, split.— KiL The Dan. 
uses klt^ in the sense of adhering, klUv* 
in that of splitting. The Dan. ilov, a 
tcftigs, bears neady the same relarion to 
both senses. Sw. klq^oa, G. kloben, a 
vice, a Mlet of wood cle^ at one end. 
The desi^ation may either be derived 
from the instrument being used in [nnch* 
ii^, hdding together, or from bdng di- 
vided into two parts. Sc. n^ a fissure, 
the fink of the ixjdy, or of a tree. 

The same opposition of meanings b 
found in other cases, as the Du. klincke, 

[deft or fissure, and Dan. klinie, to 

/et or bsten together the parts of a 
cracked dish ; Du. kUnken, to fasten 
together ; E. dtnch. Compare also Fr. 
river, to fasten, to clench, B. rivet, and 
K. five, to tear tx deave asander, rift, a 

Claft. Du. klirft, Sw. kfyft, a fissure 
r division ; G. klu^uli, dovea wimd. 
See Oeave. 

calm, gentle, merciful. 

To alenOh.~ailneh. Sw. klhtka, g. 
klinktn, to clinch; OHG.gailankfan, con- 
serere ; antklankjan, to unloose ^the strap 
of one^s shoe) ; Bav. klaitk, klSHkeleiit, 
a noose, loop ; Du. klinkem, to fasten. 
'Andrmneda was aan rots eeklonketi,' 
was nailed to a rock. OmSlinken, to 
cUndi a nail — Halma. Da. kUnke, a 

The wwd may be explained from the 
original klinkem, to clink or sound, in 
two ways, viz. : as signifying something 
done by the stroke M a hammer. Du. 
klink, a Uowt dat was en bewys van 
blink, that was a striking proc^, that was 
a clincher. Die zaak is al nUonken, dM 
business is fini^ed off, is fast and sure. 
Or the notion of fastening may be at- 
tained indirectly through the figure erf a 
door-latch. G.kUnkt,Yx.claMthe,elingu*t 
(Cot.), the latch of a door, seem formed 
from the clinking of the latch, as Fr. 
cliquet, a latch, from clifuer, clifueter, to 
dack or rattle. And the latch of a door 
affords a very natural type of the act of 

To tSa/g^ To calL _ From cl^, die 



mibmI oT a blow. Do. kl^fim, crepare, 
crepiUre, polsare, sonare. 2fe klok klep- 
pat, to sound an aUnn; Uafipen, to 
clap, crack, crackle, to talk as a poTTOt, 
to tattle, chat, chatter, to confess; O. 
klaffin, to prate, chatter, babble, to teH 
talcs. AS- eUopian, clypian, to cry, call, 
sp^ say. Sc, el^, to tattle, chatter, 
prattle, call, name, 
Ne e«ry appdjthat is Wre at i™ 
Ne is Dotgode, vtiat no men elapfe or ote. 

OI«rk. — 01«rie<d. -^ 01«rgT. Lat 
cUrus, the clei^; clerical, Sp. elerigo, 
one of the del^, a clerk ; cUrecia, the 
clergy, which in Mid.Lat. would have 
been elericia, wfcence Fr. cltrgi, as from 
cUrkio, one admitted to the tonsm^, Fr. 
eleri^on, clerjon. The origin is the Gr. 
sXqpac, a lot, fram the way in which Mat- 
tiiias was elected by lot to the apostle- 
ship. In I Peter v. 3, the elders are ex- 
horted to feed the flock rf God, ' not as 
being lords over God's herit^e,' ^1^ u; 
■oroniMnimc **•■ ASpW ' ndther as 
havii^ lordship in the ciergie'—'WidJi 
in R. 

Clem. Commonly derived from de- 
liver, which is used in Scotch and N. £. 
in the sense of active, nimble. The 
sonnd of an initial dl and gi or el aie 
easily confounded. But the Dan. dial. 
'has klover, ilever, in precisely the same 
sense as the E. clever. Det er en kl&ver 
kerl, that is a clever fellow. Kl'&uer i 
munden, ready of speech. The word is 
probably derived from the notion of 
seizing, as Lat. rapidus from rapio, or Sc. 
gUg, quick of perception, clever, quick 
in motion, expolitious, from Gael glac, 
10 adze, to catch. The Sc. has also 
eleik, elek, clevck, duke, clook (identical 
with E. (lutch), a hook, a hold, claw or 
talon ; to clek or cleik, to catch, snatch, 
and hence cUik, cleuek, lively, agile, 
clever, dexterous, light-fingered. One is 
said to be cleuck of his fingers who lifts 
a thing so cleverly that bystanders do 
not observe it.— Jam. Now the OE. had 
a fbim, diver, a daw or clutch, exactly 
corresponding to the Sc. cleik, cltiik, 
whence perhaps the adjective clever in 
the sense erf' snatching, catching, in the 
same way as the Sc cktit, cleuek, above 



His 1^ he migbt not loniiier bnilk, 
Scho held them at aw BiQi. 

OOnr.— OltM A ball of thieadj ori- 

dnally fiwm e&* (extant in w. ehb, a. 
hump, Lat globus, a sphetc, &c.), a lump. 
Hence Lat glomus, a ball of twine, Du. 
kiottwe, a ball of yam, a clew. See 
Claw, dam. 

Click.— Olicket Click represents a 
thiimer sound than clack, as a click with 
the tongue, the dick of a latch or a 
trigger. It is then applied to such a 
short quick movement as produces a 
click or a snap, or an object character- 
ized by a movement of such a natare. 
Du. klikklakkcH, to clack, click ; kliiker, 
a mill-clack ; kliket, klinket, a wicket or 
little door easily moving to and fro ; Fr. 
diquer, to clack, clap, clatter, click it, 
dinette, a clicket or clapper, a child^ 
rattle, or clack ; cliauet, the knocker of a 
door, a lazar's cHcket or cla[^>er. — Cot 
Rouchi cliche, a latch ; dichet, a tumbril, 
cart that tilts over, and (with the nasal} 
clincher, to move, to stir, correspondit^ 
to Fr. digner, to wink. Boh. fcNka, a 
latch, a tnggCT, G. kliitke, klinge, a latch. 

We have the notion of a snort quick 
movement in £. diaL clidi, cUnk, a smait 
Mow (Mrs Baker) ; ddie,click, to snatch, 
catch, MiK (HbL); Norm, clieher, frap- 
per rudement une posoime.— Vorab. de 

Oliaal See CLaa 

OliS AS. dif, dyf, littos, ripe, rupes ; 
scaren. dif, abrupta tupes \ cliof, dif- 
stanas, cautes, precipices, from cUfiait, 
diofioH, to cleave, on. klif, a cleft in a 
rock ; hamraklif, syn. with hamarskarit, 
a deft or rift in a {hamarr) high rock, 
precipice, on. skarS, it must be oV 
served, is NE. scar, a cliff. Bav. jftr'n- 
klupfien, cleft in a rock. Du. kl^pe, 
kli^, rock, cliff, cave ; Da, klippe, rock. 
Sw. dial, klaiv, klev, kliv, as Sc. cleugh, 
a precipice, rugged ascent, narrow hollow 
between precipitous bai^ ; OE. dough, a, 
kind of breaui down the side of a hill 
(Verstegan), rima quaedam vd fissura ad 
montis clivum vel dedivum. — Somner. 
Du. kloof, deft, ravine, cleft of a hill. 

Climate, Lat clima, dimate, region; 
Gr. Alfta, -roc (from xKivm, to bend, sinl^ 
verge), an inclination, dedivity, slope ; a 
region or tract of country considered 
with respect to its inclination towards 
ehepole, and hence dimate, temperature^ 

Oiimaz. Gr. Miml, a ladder, a figure 
in rhetoric^ imfdying an advance or in- 
crease in force or interest in each suc- 
cessive member of a discourse until the 
highest is attained. 

Climb. " ~ 


•oline. Gr. iXivi, to slope or make 
slant, iitcline, bend ; I^t ciiito, 'atiim, to 
incline, bow. as. kliniam, OHG. HlineH, 
to lean. Decline, to bend downwards ; 

mass with, also to form a compact 
and so to contract, to shrink up, to wither. 
AS. clingan, to wither. A Sussex peasant 
speaks of a ' elung bat,' for a d^ stick. 
'TiU famine </»if thee.'— Shaks. Pl.D. 
klingeti, ilungelH, vtrklungelH, to shrink 

We have often observed that in verbs 
like cling, clung, where the present has 
a thin vowel, the participial fonn b the 
nearer to the original root In the pre- 
sent case the origin must be sought in a 
form like UHC. ilunge, klungelin, Swiss 
kbingtU, a ball of thread ; ^ glungelin, 

gobulus' (Gl in Schmeller) ; Sw. dial. 
'unk, a limip ; G. klunjur, a lurop, tuft, 
clot, whence e. elinktr, a lump of half- 
Aised matter which clogs up the bars of 
a furnace. Da. klyngt, a cluster, knot ; 


f/anfj", sticky. — HaL 

Cmik. The noise of a blow that ^ves 
a sound of a high note, o., Du. klmlun, 
Sw. klinka, to sound shani, to ring. See 
Qang. In imitative words the same idea 
is freiijuently expressed by a syllable with 
an initial cl, ana a similar syllable with- 
out the /. Thus dunk is also used for a 
shrill sound. So we have claiter and 
chatter in the same sense ; Gael gliong, 
and %.gin^ei Fr. quiitcailUr, N ormanf/in- 
cailler, a tinman. The E. clink was for- 
merly used, like chink in the sense of a 
crack, because things in cracking utter a 
sharp sound. Du. klincke, rima, parva 
ruptura, fissuta, Ang. cUnke.—YJA. 

To Clip. I. To cut with shears, from 
the clapping or snapping sound made by 
the collision of the blades, as to snip in 
the same sense from snap. G. klippen, 
to clink ; auf- und tuk-lippen, to open and 
shut with a snap ; kUppchen, knippchen, 
a fillij) or rap with the fingers ; knippeu, 
schntppen, to snap or fillip ; schaippen, to 
snip. ON., Sw.M^ii,toclip, Svi.ilippa, 
also to wink ; ON. ilippur, B. dial, clips, 

2. The collision of two sharp edges 
leads to the notion not always of complete 
separation, but sometimes merely of pinch- 
ing or compression. Thus to nip is either 
to separate a small portion or merely to 
pnch. o. in^pen, to map ; knt^en^ to 

pinch.- In a ^milar waySwiss kluien, 
to snap ; kliiben, klupen, to pinch ; klupe, 
tongs, claw, clutch, pinch, difficulty ; G. 
kluppe, a dtp or spLt piece of wood for 
pinching the testicles of a sl^eep or a 
dog's tail, met. pinch, straits, difficulty. 
Sw. dial klipa, to pinch, nip, compress ; 
kldpp, a d<% or fetter for a beast ; Du. 
kl^e, klippe, knippt, a snar^ fetter. 

"'— - "" '■ 'g.*/wA;, a faction, 
ilk hat sich in split- 
und klicktn aufgeltiset.' 
From PLD. klak, klik, kliks, a separate 
portion, especially of something soft or 
clammy. Em kliks batter, a lump of 
butter. Bi klik un klak, by bits. 

-oliv-. I^t. clivui, a rising ground, 
bill ; declivis, sloping downi^rds ; ac- 
clivii, sloping upwards ; proclivit, sloping 
forwards, disposed to a thing. 

Oloak. Flem- klocke, toga, pallium, 
toga muliebris. — KiL Bohem. klak, a wo- 
man's mantle ; kukla, a hood. Walach. 
gluga , a hood, hooded cloak. W. cockl, 
a mantle. See CowL 

Clock. Fr. cloche, c. glocke. Do. 
klocke, a belL Before the use of clocks 
it was the custom to make known the 
hour by striking on a bell, whence the 
hour of the day was designated as three, 
four of the bal, as we now say three or 
four o'clock. It is probable then that 
clocks were introduced into England from 
the Low Countries, where this species of 
mechanism seems to have inherited the 
name of the bell which previously per- 
formed the same ofiice. Sw. kloctii, a 
bell, a clock. 

The word clock is a variation of clock, 
being derived from a representation of 
the sound made by a blow, at first proba- 
bly on a wooden board, wtuch is still used 
for the purpose of calling to service in the 
Greek church. Serv. klepalo, the board 
used for the foregoing purpose in the 
Servian churches, G. brett-glock^, from 
kUpati, to clap or clack, to neat on the 
board. Esthon. kolkma (with transposi- 
tion of the vowel, related to clod, as g. 
kolbe to £. club), to strike, to beat, kol- 
kiina, to make a loud noise, kolki-laud, a 
board on which one beats for the puipose 
of calling the family to meals. Bohem. 
hluk, noise, outcry, kluceti, to resoond. 
ON. klaka, clangere. Gael, clag, Ir. cUt^ 
gaim, to make a noise, ring ; clag, dog, 
a. belL Swiss klekken, kleggen, to loiodc. 

■ Olod.— dot. The notion of a loose 
moveable substance, as thick or curdled 
liquids, or bagging clothes, is often ex- 
pressed by forms representing the soondt 




Dude in tlie agitation or dashing of such 
bodies. Thus from Swab. IdMem, to 
paddle or dabble io the wet, or Upper*, to 
rattle or shake to and fro, we pass to Idp- 

from Du. lobberen, to flounder in the wet, 


lobberig, gelatinous, lobbig, hanging 
and fuU, E. loblolly, thick sp< 
from Du. slabberen, slobberen. 

■up up liquid food, to Hap as loose clothes, 
or E. slobber, slop, to spill liquids, we pass 
to E. dial, slab, slob, loose mud, and Du. 
tlobbe, loose trowsers, stops ; from Du. 
sloddtren, G. schloitem, to wabble, dangle, 
hang loose, Bav. schlattem, to tattle, 
MckUttem, to slop or spill liquids, we pass 
to Schlatter, schlott, mud, Avct, Schlatter, 
thick sour milk, Swiss sehlott, ^icklotter 
(as E. slap^, wide bagging clolnes. 

Then as the parts of a loose substance 
in a state of agitation are thrown in dif- 
ferent directions, and thus seem endowed 
with separate existence, the radical sylla- 
ble of the word signifying agitation of 
such a body is applied to a portion or 
separate part, in the first instance of a 
liquid or loose substance, but subsequently 
of^a body of any kind. 

Thus from Bav. loppem above men- 
tioned may be explained Fr. leH>e, lopin, 
alump ; from Du. lobberen, E. «i,alarge 
lump. The origin of clod&aA clot is to 
be found in fonns like Du. klateren, to 
rattle, to dash like heavy rain, d/c/frjj^iMn, 
a rattle, klateren, tuditare, pulsare crebro 
ictu (Kil.), and thence to clot or curdle as 
milk. Klottermelck, clotted milk ; klotte, 
a clod. * I clodde, figer, congeler. I dod- 
der like whey or blode whaA it is colde. 
I clodde, I go into heapes or peces as 
the yerthe doth, je amoncele.' — Palsgr. 
Again we have Swiss klotten, klattem, to 
rattle, klaten, kloden, to dabble, tramp in 
wet or mire,,6/0/, ^A»^ Du. £j!eu£/<, a blot, 
splash, spot of dirt, lump of mud on the 
clothes ; Dan. klat, a spot, blot, clot, 
lump, dab. 

In the same way Dan. pludre, to paddle 
in the wet, is connected with pludder, 
van, Fr. blautre, and Gael, plod, a clod ; 
Swab. tHotKtn, to dabble, paddle, with 
Fr, Matte, a clod. 

doff. One of several series of parallel 
forms, dab, clad, clog, knob, knod (Du. 
knedde, knot, Iniuckle), knag (knag, a 
projecting stump ; tiaggs, the projecting 
Dandles of a scythe; nugget, a smaU 
lump), signifying projection, lump, separ- 
ate mass, whet^ of a soft material or 
•tberwise. The radical image seemt to 

be the throwing off of a separate portion 
of something soft, and the designation 
may be illustrated by the G. klack! re- 
presenting the sound made by the fall of 
something soft or liquid. — Sanders. Pl.D, 
klak, klaks, a portion of something soft, 
as a trowelful of mortar, a lump of butter, 
a blotj klakken, beklakken, to bedaub, 
bespatter ; klik, kliks, a small mass ; 
Da. klag, klagge, mud of the roads ; E. 
clag-locks, clotted locks, locks hanging in 
lumps. Sc. dag, like Pl.D. klak, a blot 
or aspersion on one's character. 

MHG. m&se noch klac, neither spot nor 
stain. We have then E. dog, a block or 
billet of wood. A Yule-clog,^ Giristmas 
log. Clog, truncus.— Pr. Pm. A clog 
for a dog, a billet of wood to impede his 
movements. Hence io dog, to stick in 
lumps to something, to impede, obstruct, 
as from N. kl<M, a lump or mass ; 
klabba (of snow), to ball or clog. £. 
dial doggy (Hal.), Sc. cloggy, stic^, co- 

Clogs in the sense of wooden shoes or 

fattens is to be explained by G. klotx, a 
lock or log ; klotx-schuh, a clog or 
wooden shoe. So also IL bocco, a block, 
Moceoli, clogs ; Mod. Gr. TCsmv, a \<yg, 
rlUapou, a clog ; Du. klatnpe, a clod, 
lump, klou^en, wooden shoes. In the 
same way the Fr. claques, clogs, is to be 
explained from the N. and FLD. form 
ktakt a lump. 

OloisUr. G. klosier, Fr. eloitre, a 
monastery. Lat. dausirum, frvm claudo, 
dausum, to shut. 

OloM. -cloae. -dua-, Lat. daudo, 
dausum, in comp. -cludo, -dusum, to shut, 
shut up, terminate, end. It. chtudere, 
chiusa, Fr. darre, dot, to shut up, close, 
inclose, finish ; das, a field inclosed ; 
das, closed, shut up. 

Hence inclose, to shut in ; faredou, 
from Fr. /ors, without, to close ^;ajnst 

01oflh«. The game called ninepins, 
forbidden by 17 Ed. IV. Du, klas, a ball, 
bowl ; klos-bane, a skittle-ground ; klos- 
sen, to play at bowls. 

caoto^^OIotlw. AS. dath, cloth, da- 

,,;. Google 



tkoj, dotbes ; a tUid, OS. kUedi, a gar- 
ment Prapedy thai which covers and 
keeps one wann. w. cfyd, warm, shel- 
tered ; \lle clyd, a warm place ; dillad 
cfydioH, warm clothes {dUiad, clothes). 
Bret. Beji sheltered ; Ir.irA(<iiw«, to cover 
up warm, to cherish, nourish ; cludadh, a 
cover or coverture ; Gael, clumkar, cbUh 
mhor, warm, sheltered ; eluihaifh, dutkr- 
eudaick, clothe, make w a r m. 

Olood. Correctly explained by Som- 
ner as clodded vapours, v^xnirs drawn 
into clods or separate masses. 

Vapours which now themselres consort 
In serenl parts, and dosetji do conspire, 

Clumpeied in tails of clouds. — More in R. 

ODu. clot, a clod, elote, a cloud ; ' eene 
vurige eloie^ a fiery cloud. — Ddfortri& 
Jt salla, clod, lump of earth ; tolla dalP 
' , the thick and scattered clouds In 



> also from Ft. malU, motU, a clod 
or clot, eUl mattotU, a curdled sky, a sky 
full of small curdled clouds. — Cot. Clov>- 
dys, clods. — Coventry Mysteries in Hal. 

Clont. AS. clut, a patch. The pri- 
mary sense is a blow, as when we speak 
of a clout on tbe head. Du. kiatuM, to 
strike. Then applied to a lump of mate- 
rial clapped on or hastily appUed to mend 
a breach. In the same way e. botch, to 
mend clumsily, fi-om Du. AdHim, to strike ; 
E. colAU, in the same tense, from w. cobio, 
£. cob, to strike. 

Clov*. 1. A kind of spice resembling 
little nails. Du. naegd, kntyd-nae^H 
(kruyd = spice) ; G. ndgelan, netke (dim. 
of nagei, a nail) ; It chiodo di giro/ano, 
Fr. cwu de girofle, Sp. cia'vo di espedas, 
from Lat, clavus, a naiL 

2. A division of a root of garlick Du. 
kluyve, klHyfken looeks; Pl.D. klbve, 
kla-ven; een kiaven kruflook, C. eine 
tpaite knobiauck, a clove of garlick, from 
Du. klievtn, PLD. kUvett, to cleave or 
split, Du. i&M'^, a fissure. It. chiodo d 

Clovw. A plant with trifid leaves. 
AS. claftr; Du. fclaver; PLD. klever, 
from klinienJbo cleave. 

Olowa. The significations of a clod 
or lump, of thumping clumsy action, and 
of a rustic unpolished person, are often 
comiected. Du. kloeU, a ball, a lump, 
block, stock, also homo obtusus, hebes 
(Kil.), whence the name of Spenser's 
shepherd Colin Gout g. kletx, a log, 
klofiig, blockish, loggish, coarse, unpol- 
ished, rustic— Kiittner, E. dod is used 
in both senses ; of a lump of earth and 

an awkward nistic. Du. kbmia, * clot or 
clod ;<iAw«, a ball of twine; Dan-kJundi, 
E. dial, dunch, N.Fris. kUnnt, at clow^ 

As the initial e is easily lost from many 
of these words beginning with d (com- 
pare dog, log, clump, luM^, cluMck, 
luncH), it can hardly be doubted that 
cloTtm is identical with iovm, and clomt 
with lout 

This leatiih clmoK Ei ndi ibii joa nan mv 
so ill-favored a vjior. — Sidney in iC 

To OI07. From dag, a thick maaa- 
Fr. encloyer (to stop with a clog or plii^ 
to cloy, chdie or stop up. — CoL A i»ece 
of ordnance is said to be doyed, when 
something has got into the touch-hole, 
The same consonantal change is »eera in 
dag, doggy, sticky, and /Jky, a GOct^, 
clammy earUi. 

The sense of stopping up is frequently 
expressed by the word for a lump <v 
bunch, as Fr. boueher, to stop, from OFr. 
bousche, a bunch, tuft 5w. Hump, a 
lump, and tapp, a bunch, wisp, are also 
usea in the sense of a stopper. 

Club. — Olnmp. OK. ilubba, kluwAa, 
a club or knobbed stick. Sw. dial iluii, 
a lump, knob, clump ; Hump, a hinqi, 
clod, clot ; klumpfot, a clubfoot ; klabb, 
a li%. w. dob, d^iytt, a boss, knob, 
lump ; PoL kl^, a bidl, lump, mass^ 
kUbek, a bobbin, ball of thread ; Russ. 
ktuV, a ball, clue. 

The radical sense seems to be an un- 
formed lump or thick mass, and the word 
to be of analogous formation with clod, 
clot, clog, signifying in the first instance a 
separate portion thrown off in the dashing 
of sloppy materials. Fr. clalwsrr, to be- 
dash {Cot.),esclaboter (Roquef.), 4dabout- 
str, to splash, diiottr, to tramp in the 
mud (Pat de Champ.), Rouchi dapot^^ 
to slop. Gael dabaire, a blabber, indi- 
cates the application of the root claA b> 
the splashing of water, the terms express- 
ive of tattling being mostly taken from 
that figure. Clddar, mire, puddle, dirt 
Du. klobbersaen, clotted miUc or cream, 
milk run to lumps. So Ft. cailltboites, 
lumps of curd, probably fiyim claboUr, 
but confounded with caillir, to curdle. 

C. klubbe, kluppe, a bunch, clump, clus- 
ter, group of people ; Sw. dial. tlu66, 3 
knot of people. *Das volk hat sicfa in 
splitten, klubben und klicken auf^^ldset.' 
— Sanders. A social dub was originally 
a group of people meeting at set times for 
society. To dub one's contributions is to 
throw them into a common mass. 

Xo dock. Imitative of the note of 9 


ben callii^ her chickens. Do. khchen, 
Fr. glousser, Lat gloeirt, Sp. chqutar, 
It (ouoiart. 

-elude, -elna-. LU. claudo, dauatm, 
in comp. -chtdo, -clutum, to shut, close, 

Hence (ondujt, conehaictt, extlud*, 
include, inclusiv§, rtclusioH, &c See 

■ Clamp.— Ve OltUDper. Clump, ^ 
luinp or cranpoct mass, a nasalised form 
of etub, &s dumper, to collect in lumps, to 
curdle, of Du. klobier in klobbtrsatn, 
clotted cream. 
Vapoois— f/atst^^rvi/hi tnllsofclonds.— Mon. 

In the %»st» way Du. Uonk, a clod 
or lump, and klonteren, to curdle, are 
the na^sed forms of khtte, a clod or 
clot, and Uotterm, to curdle. The no- 
tion of a detached mass may arise either 
from the daahing off of a portion of the 
wet material, or from the shaking into 
{votuberances of the liquid turiace ; and 
the idea of multifarious agitation may be 
expressed, not so much by direct imita- 
tion of the actual noise, as metaphorically 
by the fi^re of a broken sound. MHCL 
kbimftpi, a. kHmptnt, to eingle, strum 
on an instruraent. When a frequentative 
form is thus used to signify multifarious 
agitation or broken movement the radical 
syllable naturally evpresses a lingle ele- 
ment of the complex action. Hence a 
frequent connection between words sig- 
nilyinK a blow and the dashuig of liquids. 
Compare PLD. pladdtm, to paddle or 
dabble, with £. plod or plod, to tread 
heavily. Fr. etatosier, tsclabaUr, to 
splash ; Champ. cUboter, to tramp. Fr. 
cloptH-ilopm represents the heavy tread of 
one hobbling along ; eloper, clopiner, to 
limp, differing only in the absence of the 
nasal form E. clump, to tramp. Hence 
dumpers, Du. klompen, wooden shoes, 
clogs. Sw. dial, kiamp, a clog for an 
animal, wooden sole, lump of soft mate- 
lial, ball of snow on horse s foot ; klampa, 
to clump or tramp with heavy shoes, to 
ball as snow, ^alogous fMms with a 
6nal nt instead of ai6 are PLD. tlunt, 
Du. klonte, a dod or lump, E. dial, clunt- 
er, a ciod ; clunter, clointer, PLD. klunt- 
ten, kluHsen, to tramp or tread heavily. 

• Clumay. The sense of awkward, 
unhandy, might be reached from clump, 
a. lump, through the senses of lumpish, 
blockish, unlashioned, ill-made ; as from 
Da. tlout. Hods, a block, log, klonUt, 
kiodset, unhandy, awkward, or from Sw. 
Hump, a lump, klumpif, dumsy. m.k. 



iwkward, unvrieldy ; £.E. 
cbinchy, thick and clumsy.— HaL But 
the word is more probably connected 
with OE. elumpse, benumbwl with cold. 
— Cot in V. kavi. Clumsyd, eviratus. — 
Cath. Ang. 'Thou cloutseit for cold.'— 
P.P. ' Comfort ye cbtmsid, ether comelid 
hondis, and make ye strong feeble knees.' 
— Wycliff, Isaiah. Lincolns. f/iim^r, idle, 
laiy, unhandy.— Ray. Sw, diaL 2/»Mn«- 
sen, klummshandt, klummerhdndt, Che< 
shire, f/wj-jOMiAf (Wilhraham), having the 
hands stiff with cold. PLD. klauu», 
klonun, Du- verklemen, vfrkommelen, 
Fris. klomje,/orkleutme (Outien), to bo- 
numb with cold. OE. acomelydfor coul4 
or aclommyde, eviratus, enervatus. — Fr. 
Pm. ' Men bethe combered and elcmm^if 
with cold.'— Vegccius in Way. Btklvm- 
men van kelde, algidus, gcdidua. — Teu- 

The ligniGcatioD would leem to be 
cramped or contracted with cold, from 
OK. ilemma, O. kiemmen, CO pinch, to 
squeeze, oho. kicklemmtt, obstructum. 
— Graffin Klamjan. MHG. 'wen uns diu 
wangen sin gerumpfen, riicke und arm 
und oein geilump/en.' — Benecke. PLD. 
beklummen, C. ^le/cmwfM, pinched, tit^tj 
eene beklummene tied, a pinching time. 

-oluo-. See -dude. 

Cluater. A group, bunch. From the 
notion of sticking tt^ether. Du. klot, a 
ball ; klisst, iUlte, a ball, a clot ; ilissen, 
to stick together ; klister, kluiter, paste, 
viscous material, also a duster, a cbve 
of garlick. Sw, klase, a bunch, duster. 

OlutclL Sc. tUik, elek, E. diaL cliche, 
to snatch, seize, properiy to do anything 
with a quick, smart motion, [Mvducing a 
noise such as that represented by the 
syllable click. Hence cleik, clek, cituk, 
cluik, duke, dook, an instrument for 
snatching, a claw, dutch, band ; to cltuk, 
to grip, lay hold ofi dutch, ' Uorte (for 
to) huden hire vrom his kene elotet.'— 
Ancr, Riwle, 130. Boh. klikaty, crooked 
inwards ; klikone^, hoolcnosed. Hesse, 
kloUe, claw. Compare Swiss klupe, claws, 
tongs, fingers (^miliar), from hlupen, to 
clip or pinch. 

Clutter. Variation of clatltr, a nois& 

Cluster. Fr. cfyitere, Gr. Atariif, 
firom kXuCw, to wash, to rinse, as Fr. lavt- 
menl, from iaver, to wash. 

Ooaoh. The Fr. coucker became in 
Du, koelsen, to lie, whence iotlse, koet- 
seken, a couch, and koetse, kcetsie, koeU- 
wagen, a litter, carriage in trttich you 
may recline, a coach. 

OobL on. kol, a iokltt_ Hindust 

,.,.d.:, Google 



iaeld. Ttie primary tense is doubtless 
glowing embers, from a root signifying 
to glow or tium. Traces of sudi a de- 
rivation are found in Svr. dial, kylla, 
kolia, tSlna, to kindle or cause to bum ; 
OH. koljam, a firesteel ; Lat. eaUo, to be 
hot, to glow ; culina or coliita, a kitcben, 
U)e place where a fire is made. ' Colina,' 
says VatTO, ' dicta ab eo quod ibi coUbant 
ignem.' And colo, to worship, may per- 
haps have originally signified to kindle a 
fire for a burnt-offering, while the sense 
of dwelling may be a figure from lighting 
up the domestic hearth, universally taken 
ssthesymbolofadwelling-place. Sanscr. 
jval, to bum, blaze, glow ; jvalaya, to 
Idndle ; /vJj<i, flame. Lett, qulllt, to 
slow, to be inflamed ; quilt, burning, io- 

OoBLlesae. — Coalition. Lat eoaiesco, 
to grow together, to form an union with 
another; coaUtus,^omR together, united. 

Coitrae. Formerly written course, or- 
dinary ; as in the expression of course, 
according to the ordinary run of events. 
A woman is said to be veiy ordinary, 
meaning that she is plain and coarse. 

OoBst. Lat. casta, a rib, side ; Fr. 
coste, s. s., also a coast. 

□oat, Fr. cotU, a coat or frock, It. 
eotta, any kind of coat, frock, or upper 
garment. See Cot. 3. 

Ooax. The OE. cokes was a simpleton, 
gull, probably from the Fr. cecasse, one 
who says or does laughable or ridiculous 
things, — Trevoux. Coeasse, plaisant, ridi- 
cule ; cocosse, niais, imbecille. — HScart. 
To cokes or coax one then is to make a 
cokes or fool of him, to wheedle or gull 
him into doing something. 

The original meaning of the word is 
preserved in the provincial kakasch 
(dialect of Aix^Grandg. v. cacd), a ncst- 
cock or nescock, unfledged bird, a crea- 
ture commonly taken as the type of im- 
becility and liability to imposition, as in 
E. fu//, Fr. niais, bijaune. 

Nescock itself is used in a similar 
sense; 'a wanton fondling that has never 
left his home.' — Nares. It. cucco (in 
nursery lang,), an egg, a darling, and ng. 
an imbecile ; vecckio cuceo, an old idiot. 

• Oob. — Cobble, w, cob, a knoclc, 
thump, a tuft, top ; cobio, to knock, 
thump, to peck as a hen ; cobyn, a bunch, 
tuft, uuster. e. dial, to cob, to strike, to 
throw ; cob, a blow, and thence a lump ; 
cobnut, a large round nut ; cobstones, 
large stones ; cobcoah, large coals. A 
cob is a dumpy horse. Cob for walls is 
clay mixed with straw, from being laid 

on in lumps. Cobber, a thumper, a great 


Cobbles in the N. of E. are round stones 

round coak of small sae. In the E. of 

e. the stone or kernel of fruit is called coo 

or cobble. Cobyllstene or chery-stone, 

petrilla.— Pr. Pm. To cobble, to pelt with 

stones or dirt, — Cleveland GL 

* To Cobble,— Cobbler. The senses 

, and impenec 
often connected. We 
may cite Fr. bredouiller, to stutter, and 
Du. broddelen, to bungle ; Du. kakkelen^ 
, and E. dial haggle, to bungle ; 
Sc, kabbte, to stutter, to speak or act 
confiisedly, and hobble, to cobble shoes. 
bU giwlh that gaim to hsUill xcbtaie.' 
Thus from E. dial. cobbU, to hobble 
(HaL), or walk clumsily, the designation 
may have been transferred to the unskilful 
mending of shoes. 

A plausible oriein, however, may be 
found in Sw. di^. klabba, properiy to 
daub, then to work unskilfully ; ilabbare, 
klabbsmed, a bungler. The / in these 
imitative forms is very moveable, as 
shown in dob and cob, tempered clay for 
building, and a change very similar to 
that from clobber io coblerjaay be seen 
in Du. vrrklomat, verkommelett, to be- 
numb, OB. acomelyd or aclomit^d.— 
Pr. Pm. 

□o1>w«b. A spider's web. E. atter-iop, 
a spider. Flem. kop, koppe, a spider, 
koppeit-gespin, spinne-vieeoe, a cobweb. 
W. Pryf-copyn, a spider (jSrj/— gnib, 
vermin). The form atiert^ seems to 
give the full meaning of the word, poison- 
bag or poison-poclt The Fris. iop is 
bubble, pustule, pock, that is, a pellicle 
inflated with air or liquid. T' viaerkopet, 
the water boils. — Outzen. Dan. kopper 
(pL), small pox ^cks) ; kop-ar, £. pock- 
arr, a pock mark. Fin. kuppa, a bubble, 
boil, pustule. 

AJccording to Ihre, the bee was known 
by the name of kopp in OSw., probably 
for the same reason as the spider, vir. 
from bearing a bag, only of honey instead 
of poison. The contrast between the bee 
and the spider as collectors, the one of 
sweets and the other of poisons, is one of 

louse, dim. of coekina, a sow, from some 
fancied resemblance. The wood-louse Is 
still called sow in parts of England ; in 
Essex sowbug. — Atkinson. When the 
Spaniards came to America, they trans' 

Sp. cockit 
oehina, a s< 


ferred the name to the animal producing 
the scarlet dye, which somewhat resem- 
bles a wood-louse in shape. 

Oook. I. The male of the domestic 
fowL From the cry represented by the 
Fr. coqutiicoq, coquertcot, Lang, cou- 
cmtricou. 'R<},VicTcm,kokot, 
a cock. Serv. kokot, the clucking of a 
hen, kokosch, a hen. Lilh. kukU, to cry, 
to howl ; kukauti, to cry as the cuckoo 
or the OwL , Magy. kaias, Esth. kuk, a. 
cock. Gr. tetxo&6as iont I^Soph. in Eus- 
tath,), the bird which cries cock !, the 

To Oock, applied to the eye, hat, tail, 
&c., signifies to stick abruptly up. Gael. 
coc-shron, a cocked nose. The origin is 
the sound of a quick sudden motion 
imitated by the syllable ccck. It. coccare, 
to clack, snap, click, crack ; coccarla a 
quaJeuno, to play a trick, put a jest upon 
one. — FL Hence cock oi a, gun (misun- 
derstood when translated by G. hahn), the 
part which snaps or clicks. 

To cock is then to start up with a sud- 
den action, to cause suddenly to project, 
to stick up. And as rapid snapping 
action is almost necessarily of a recipro- 
cating nature, the word is used to express 
ligzag movement or shape, and hence 
either prominent teeth or indentations. 
The cock of a balance is the needle which 
vibrates to and tro t>etween the cheeks. 
The cegol a wheel is a projecting tooth, 
while tie It cocca, Fr, cocke, is the notch 
or indentation of an arrow. 

3. A cock of hay. Probably from the 
notion of cocking or sticking up. Fin. 
kokko, a conifonn heap, a hut, beacon. 
A small heap of reaped com. Dan. kok, 
a heap, a pile. 

3. A boat ; cock-swain, the foreman of 
a boat's crew. It cocca, cucca, a cock- 
boat — FL Dan. kog, kaggt, OS. kuggi, 
s. s. The Fin. has iokka, the prow ^a 
vessel, perhaps the part which cocks or 
sticlu up, and hence the name may have 
passed to the entire vessel, as in the case 
of LaL puppis, properly the poop or after- 
part of the ship, or of bark, a ship, from 
ON. barki, throat, then the prow or front 
of a ship. 

Oookade. Fr. coquarde, a Spanish 
cap, also any cap worn proudly or peartly 
on the one side (Cot.), i. c. a cocked-hat, 
consisting originally of a hat with the 
broad flap looped up on one side. Then 
applied to the knot of ribbon with which 
the loop was ornamented. In Walloon 
the r IS lost as in English ; cock&d, a 
cockade. — Remade. 



Oook&hoop. Elated in spirits. A 
.letajihor taken from the sport of cock- 
throwing used on festive occasions, when 
a cock was set on an eminence to be 
thrown at by the guests. 
Now I am a frisker, all men on me look. 
What should 1 do but set iMkonthi hatp t 
Camden in Todd. 

I have good cause to set the cocke on the 
hope and make gaudye chere.' ' We may 
make our tryumphe, i. e. kepe our gaudyes, 
or let us sette the cocke on the hope and 
make good chere within doores.' — Palsgr, 
Acolastus in Hal, Du. hoop, heap. 

Cockatoo. According to Crawfurdcall- 

! in Malay kakattiwah, which in that 
language signifies a vice, a gripe. But is 
" lot more likely that the implement was 
. . named from its resemblance to the 
powerful beak of the bird ? 

Cockatrice. A fabulous animal, sup< 
posed to be hatched by a cock from the 
eggs of a viper, represented heraldically 
1^ a cock wth a dragon's tail. Sp. coea- 
triz, cocadris, cocodrillo, a crocodile. 
Cocairyse, basihscus, cocodrillus. — Pr, 
Pm. A manifest corruption of the name 
of the crocodile. 

To Cooker. See Cockney. 

Cooket.— Oockay. Fr. coquart, fool- 
ishly proud, cocket, malapert From the 
strutting pride of a cock. Coqueler, to 
chuck as a cock among hens ; to swagger 
or strowt it as a cock on his own dung- 
hill— Cot. 

Cookie. I. A weed among com. Fr. 
coquiole, Lith. kukalas, Pol. k^ol,kakol- 
nica, Gael, cogal. 

2. A shell, shell-tish ; cocklesnail, a 
snail with a shell as distinguished from 
a slug or snail without shell. Snail- 
shells are called in Northamptons. cocks, 
in Lincolns. ff}gs. Oxfords, guggles or 
guggleshells, Herts conks, and E. of E. 
conkers. ThoLgagkele, an egg. — Deutsch. 
Mund. ;. 341. Lat. cochlea, coftcha, 
Gr. >ox^ac, snail, snaitsbell, shellfish. 

The original sense is probably an egg- 
shell, which to a people in possession of 
Kultry would offer a type of a shell pecu- 
rly easy of designation. Thus the 
Swab, gacken, to cluck as a hen, gives 
rise in nursery language to gackele, an 
egg— Schmidt, in Swiss gf^gp, g^Si^t to 
i^ich our own country afibrds a parallel 
in the Craven goggy, an egg. In like 
manner Basque koSoratz, clucking of a 
hen ; koko (in nursery language), an egg; 
Mi^y. kukoritni, to crow,iK*i> (nursery), 
an ^b; It coccolare, to cluck; eocco, 
[nursery), an egg; Fr. coqueter, to 



cackle, to chuck ; eoque, an eggshell, 
shell, cockle, with the dim. coguilU, the 
shell of an e^, nut, snail, fish.— Cot 

To CocUe. Properly, like eogfU, 
goggl', joggle, shoggU, to shake or jerk 
up and down, then applied to a surface 
thrown into hollows and projections by 
partial shaldng, by unequal contraction, 
&c. Du. kokeUn, to juggle, to deceive 
the eye by rapid movements of the hands. 
E. dial, coggfe, to be shaky ; cockie/y, un- 
steady.— Hal A cockling sea Is one 
jerked up Into short waves by contnuy 

It made sucli a short eoctlingsea. B$ if It had 
been in a race whae two tides meet, for it ran 
every waf — and ibe ship was loued about like au 
^gshell, so that 1 never felt sucb UDceitain jerlis 
in my life. — Dampier in R. 

The ultimate origin, as in all these 
cases, is the representation of a broken 
sound, by forms like cackle, gaggle. Sec, 
then applied to signify a broken move- 
ment, and finally a configuration of anal- 
ogous character. 

As in E. we represent a broken sound 
by the farms cackle and crackle, so In Fr. 
we find recoquiller and recroguUler, to 
wriggle, writhe, turn inward on itself like 
a worn) or a gold or silver thread when it 
is broken ; recoquiller un livre, to rumple 
or turn up the leaves of a book. — Cot- If 
recoquiller stood by itself the common ex- 
planation from coquilie, a sbeU, as if it 
signified to throw into spirals, would be 
quite satisfactory, but it cannot be adopt- 
ed without throwing over the anolc^ 
with the English forms above mentioned, 
while it leaves the parallel form recro- 
quiller unaccounted for. 

Cockney. ~ Oocker. The original 
meaning of cockney is a child too ten- 
derly or delicately nurtured, one kept in 
the house and not hardened by out-of- 
doors life ; hence applied to citizens, as 
opposed to the hardier inhabitants of the 
country, and in modem times confined to 
the citizens of London. 

' Coknay, carifotus, delicius, mammo- 
trophus.' 'To bring up like a cocknaye 
— mlgHoter.' ' Delicias facere — to play 
the cockney.' ' Dodellner — to bring up 
wantonly as a cockney.'— Pi. Pm., and 
authorities cited in notes. ' Puer in de- 
liciis matrls nutritus, Anglice a cokenay.' 
— Hal. Cockney, niais, mignol. — Sher- 

The Du. kokelen, keukelen, to pamper 
(the ec]uivalent of E. cocker), Is explained 


less tut accidestal leiemblutce. Tha Fr- 
cogucUnsr, to dandle, ccKker, fedle, oaai- 
per, make a wanton of a cluU, leads us 
m the right direction. This word is pre- 
cisely of the same form and significance 
with dadeliner, to dandle, k^ luU, fedle, 
cocker, hug fondly, make a. waatos vi, 
[but primarily] to rock or joe up and 
down ; dodelitttiir, the rocker ofa cndle ; 
dondeliner de la t£te, to wag the head ; 
dodelineux (the same as coqueJinauc), 
fantastical, giddy-beaded. Tbe primitive 
meaning ol cocker ihtn is simply to rock 
the cradle, and hence to cherish an in^nt 
See Cockle, Cock- 
Cocoa-nut. Called coco by the Portu- 
guese in India on account of the monkey- 
Eke face at the base of the nut, from coca^ 
a bugbear, an ugly mask to frighten chil- 
dren. — De Barros, Asia, D^ III. Bit 
111. cvii. 

-coot. LaL coquo, coctitM, to prepara 
by fire, to cook, bake, boiL 

Hence concoquo, to boil together, to 
digest, and fig. to contrive, to plan, £. to 
concoct Decoctio, a decoction, what i> 
boiled away from anything- 

*Cod. A cushion, the cuahioo-like 

fruit of peas and beans, a sack with its 

contents. ON. koddi, a pillow ; Sw. kmd- 

dt, a pod. Bret. c$d, gSd, w. cdd, aud, 

bag or pouch. It. guscio, Fr. ^uka, 

!se, a pod or husk, whence II cosoho, 

•. coustin, a cushion or case Uu&d 

with sonwthing to make it bulge ouL 

The word seems to be one of a dass 
of similar forms, pod, pad, wad, fv/ad, 
squad, squash (unripe nod of a peft — 
Hal), G. watsck, quatsch, palsch, r^tre- 
senting in the first place the sound erf' pad- 
dling or dashing of something wet, thea 
signifying so much of a wet material as 
is thrown down at once, a s^iarate por> 
tion of something soft From the sense 
of a soft puddingy mass we pass to that of 
an inflated case, which may either con- 
tain seeds, as the pod or cod ai pease, or 
stuffiiiK of an elastic material. Tbe G. 
quatsck corresponds to K. tod as C. 
qucUsckein, to wabble, to B. quoddU at 
coddle, to boll gently. 

To Ooddl«. 1.— Codluiff. To coddU, 

(inSufTolk quoddle^ to boil gently, whence 
codlin, a young apple fit for boihng, green 
peas. — HaL Cedlyng, frute, pomme 
cuite. — Palsgr. A quodlin^, pomum 
coctile. — Coles. The word m the first 
instance represents the agitation of the 
boiling water. ON. quotla, abluo vel 




lavito, *qua* tractilo (Cudm.), to dabble 
or ptMldle ; Swab^ fuatttlM, to wabble ; 
Bav, kudem, to guggle. 

To Ooddls, 9. To pamper or treat 
delicately.. Fr. cadel, a casuing, starve- 
ling, whence cadtltr (to treat as a weakly 
chUd), lo cocker, pamper, fedle, make 
much o£ — Cot Lat eatulus. It. caUllo, 
Prov. cadel, Bohem. koU, a whelp ; kotiti, 
to whelp, bring forth young (of sheep, 
dogs, cau, &C.). 

.Cod*. — Oodioil Lai. codex, log, trunk 
of a tree, a book, book of accounts, 
the Romans writing on wooden tablets 
covered with wax. Codicillus, a small 
trunk of a tree; codicilU, writing tablets, 
a letter, memorial, written composition. 

Cod-flsh. From its targe c1ub<shaped 
head. Flem. koddt, a club— Kil. In the 
same way It. masM, a bunch, a codfish, 
fHaxxa, a club. One of the names of the 
fish is It. Ustuto, Fr. testu, from teste, 
head. — CoL 

Ood^er. A term of abuse for an in- 
finn old man. G. kotfot, to spit, kotzer, 
a Spittiw or spawling man or woman, 
also an oVd caugher. — Kuttner. So from 
Lith. krautii, to croak, to breathe with 
pain, svkrauMelis, a croaks, an old man. 
Hind, kahba, a cough, an old woman. 

Oomatery. Cr. n/iitn^pwy, a place 
for sleeping in, then applied to the place 
of final rest, a buriat-puce, from coifUiu, 

Ooaroe. Lat coereeo, to encompass, 
keep in, restrain ; arao, to inclose, con- 
fine ; arctus, close, narrow, confined. 

OoevaL Lat. cottvus {eon and ovum, 
duration of time, an age, era), of the same 

Ooflbe. Arab. caAwa or cakwi, coffee, 
fbimerly one of the names for wine. 
Texeira, who wrote in 1610, writes it 
kaodk. — Dozy. 

Ooffln'.— Ooffln. Gr. ri^.toc, Lat. copk- 
inus, a basket. It. cefano, ca/aro, any 
coffin, coffer, chest, hutch, or trunk. Fr. 
eoffre, a chest or coifer, the bulk or chest 
of the body. Bret kSf, k&v, the belly ; 
AS. cof, a cave, cove, receptacle. Swab. 
koher, a basket \X.coffa, a gabion or 
wicker basket. Fr. cofin, a cofiin, a great 
candle case or any such close and great 
basket of wicker. — Cot Fin. kopp^ a 
hollow case. See Cave. 

Cog.— Corel*. To coggU is to be 
shaky, to rock ; eogly, unsteady, rock- 
ing; cockersowu, unsteady in position, 
thnalenii^ to tumble over.— Jam e. 
diaL coggU, keggle, kkfcU, tickle, easily 

shaky ; Va jogger, joggle, , ^ „ 

A continued broken sound is represented 
by forms like cackle, gaggle, and thence 
cockle, goggle are m^e to signify inter- 
rupted or^temating movement EsChon. 
kokkoltama, ioegaiema, to stammer. The 
radical syllable ^df^i, cog, gog, &c., is 
itself used to signify the same kind of 
action, or a single element of the kind 
of which the action in question is com- 
posed, that is to say, a short, abrupt move- 
ment (often accompanied by a chck or 
snap), and hence a projection or indenta- 
tion. We may cite Gael gogack, nod- 
ding, wavering, reeling ; E. gogniire. 

rough ; Fr. choc, i 

brought to a sudden stop ; It. ^ 

snap, to move with a snap, and thence 

cocca, an indentation or notch, as E. cog 

(Sw. kugge), a projection or individu^ 

prominence on the circumference of a 

toothed wheel. 

With the addition of an initial s, E. 
sho^, to jolt, and skoggle, an icicle or pro- 
jection of ice ; ON. skaga, to project ; 
skl^i, a promontory. 

To cog la the sense of cheating is from 
the image of deceiving bj" rapid sleight 
of hand. Du. kokelen, to juggle ; It coc- 
carla ad una, to put a tricK upon one ) 
coccare, to laugh at, mock, scoff. Sp. 
cocar, to mock, make mocking or ridicul- 
ous gestures, to cajole, wheedle. E. eeg, 
gabber, flatter — Sherwood; lusingare,U3- 
ciar il pelo.— Torriano. 

Cogent. co^ (pcpk cogens), to 
impel, constrain, force. 

Cogitation. Lat. cogito, to ponder, 
turn over in the mind. 

Gognisanee. — Itecogiii«aitc«. — Be- 
coitnoitre. From Lat cognosco, cog- 
nitum, to know, arose Fr. eognoitre, 
connaitre, to know, OFr. cognotsance, 
cognisance, connusance, knowledge, no- 
tice, a badge or heraldic device by which 
one might be known. 

Connaissance in a legal sense is the 
right of a tribunal to take notice or cog- 

Again OFr, recognoitre, to take know- 
ledge of, to acknowledge, gives our legal 
reco^isance, or acknowledgment that 
one IS bound in a certain penalty to the 
crown if he fails to perform a certain act. 
Reconnoitre, in the military sense, to re- 
connoitre, is to take knowledge of the 
conditions of an object, to observe it with 
reference to the way in whidiit affects 
the observer. 

11 • 




Coif. A can for the head. Fr. eoiffe. 
It cuffia, Moa.Gr. vteli^a. Apparently 
from the East Arab, kufiyah, a head 

OoiL To coil a cable, to wind it round 
in the form of a ring, each fold of rope 
beiT^ called a coiL Fr. cueillir un cord- 
age, Ptg. colher hum cabo, to coil a cable ; 
colher, Fr. cueillir, Sp, eager, Lat. colli- 
gere, to gather, Sp. cogrr la ropa, to fold 

OoiL Noise, disturbance. Gael, coil- 
eid, a stir, movement, or noise ; perhaps 
from goil, boiling, vapour, fume, battle, 
rage, fury ; ^oileam, prating, vain tattle. 
The words signifying noise and disturb- 
ance are commonly taken from the agita- 

Coin. To coin money is to stamp 
money, from Lat. aineus, Fr. coin, quin, 
the steel die with which money is stamped, 
originally doubtless from the stamping 
having been effected by means of a 
wedge {Lat. cuueus, Fr. coin). Coin in 
OFr, was frequently used for the right of 
coining money. Sp. cu^, a wedge ; 
cuio, a die for coining, impression on 
the coin. Muratori endeavours to show 
that the word is really derived from the 
Gr. lUiiv, an image, whence the Lat. 
iconiare, in the sense of coining money. 
So from w. bath, a likeness, arian bath, 
coined money, batku, to make a likeness, 

Ooit. — Quoit. To coit, to toss, to 
throw. Of a conceited girl it is said, She 
coils up her head above her betters. — 
Forby. To coit a sione.^HaL The 
game of coils or quoits consists in tossing 
a metal disc (originally doubtless a stoncj 
at a mark. The quoit according to Hal. 
is sometimes called a ffjft'wfjAJn^, Coyte, 

Ktretuda ; coytyn, petriludo.— Pr. Pm. 
]. de katye schieten, certarc disco,saxeo, 
ferreo, aut riumbeo. — KiL 

Cob*. The carbonaceous cinder of 
coals left when the bituminous or gaseous 
blading portion has been driven off by 
heat Cooks, cinders ; a grindle-coke, a 
remnant of an old worn-down grindstone. 
Colke, the core of an apple. 

All erthe mar >vell likened be 

To a rounde appul on a. Ire, 

That pven amydde hath a alke: 

And so il may to an egges yolke, 

For as a dalk (hollow) » amydward 

The yolke of the e^e wher 

is belle I 

pi,) a; 

erkus 1 

Aniidde the enhe and nowhei elks. — Hal. v, 

Wall, chauke, germe de I'ceuf.— Gran<^. 
Qevel. ^Ik, yolk of egg, core of an 


apple or an ulcer. The coke is the htrie 
guarded by metal in the middle of % 
sheave through which the pin goes. — 
Webster. Du. kolk, a pit, hollow whirl- 
pool. The term colk or coke then appears 
'" signify a hollow, then the empty rem- 

nt of a thing when the virtue is taken 

t of it It may possibly be explained 
from the Gael, caoch, empty, blind, hol- 
low ; caochag, a deaf nut, nut without a 
kernel, the coke of a nut 

Ool-. See Con-. 

Golnudar. — Oollender. Sp. coladti, 
lie of ashes for bucking clothes ; coladere, 
a colander or sieve through which the lie 

a^ strained, a strainer ; colar, Lat colo, 

< strain liquids. 

Cold.— &}ol. GotK holds, cold. on. 
kola, to blow cold, to suffer from cold ; 
kollda, fever. Dan. kule (of the wiimI), 

' ;shen, to begin to blow. Q.kali, cold, 
kiikl, cool. Lap. kalot, to freeze, kalom, 
cold, frost 

In Lith. ssiUtas, cold, sailtas, warm, 
the opposite sensations are distinguished 
by a modiBcation of the vowel, while in 
Lat. gelidus, cold, calidus, hot, a similar 
relation in meaning is marked by a modi- 
fication of the ioit^ consonant 

The original image seems the disagree- 
able effect produced on the nerves by a 
harsh sound, whence the expression is 
extended to a similar effect on the other 
organs. Fin. kolia, sounding harshly as 
a rattle, rough, uneven, cold ; kelitt iltna^' 

cold air ; fcolian-lainen, roughish, cool ; 
kolistua, to become cold as the air, or 
rough as a road ; kolistus, making a 
crash, shattering. Esthon. kallisema, to 
rattle, make a harsh noise ; kollin, a rack- 
et ; kolle, noisy, frightful, ghastly ; koUo- 
mats, a bugbear. The effects of fear and 
cold closely resemble each other in de- 

Eressing the spirits and producing trem- 
ling. The Manuel des Pecchtfs says of 
Belshanar when he saw the handwriting 
on the wall ; 

Fin. kolkka, sounding loud as a bell, 
then causing trembling or terror, ghastly ; 
— ilma, a cold, raw day ; — miei, a hanh, 
severe man ; — korpi, a desolate wood. 
Compare ON. kald~lyndr, harsh, severe 
in disposition ; kalldo-^aman, bitt^ 
sport J kald-ambr, distressing labour. 

Collar. Lat. eollare (from eollum, the 
neck), a band for the neck. 

Collation. An entotainment Fr. 
collation, a repast ailer supper. It cpjo- 


Hone, coUttiene, coUtlo, an intermeal, a 
refection between regular meals ; break- 


Oolleft^«. — College. Lat. colUga, 
supposed to be from Ugo, to choose, one 
chosen at the same time with one, a com- 
rade, TheradicaliKirtofthewordhowever 
would be more satis&£torily explained if 
it couM be regarded as the equivalent 
of the ON. lag, society, companionship, 
whence sam-iag, companionship, part-, 
nership ; filagi, a money companion or 
partner, a fellow ; brod-lagi, fisk-lagi, a 
partner at meals, in tishing, «c. Colle- 
gium, a collie, society, corporation, 
guild, the relationship of one colle^ue to 

To OoUeot.— Collect. Lat. U^, lec- 
tum, to pick, to gather ; colligo, -ectum, 
to bring together, to collect, assemble. 
Collect, a prayer gathered out of Scripture. 

OoUisioiL Lat collisio {collido, -isum, 
to dash or strike together), the act of 
striking together. 

OoUop. A lump or slice of meat. 
From clop or eoip, rcp*senting the sound 
of a lump of something soft thrown on a 
flat surface. Du. klo;p, IL colpo, a blow. 
Colfi, a Wow, also a bit of anything. — 
Bailey. The two significations are very 
commonly expressed by the same term. 
Sp. golpe, a blow, also a fl.-ip, as the loose 
piece of cloth covering a pocket In like 
manner we have dab, a blow, and a lump 
of something soft ; ^pat with the hand, 
and a fat of butter ; G. klilsch, a clap, 
rap, tap, and a lump of something soft ; 
Sc. to Mad, to slap, to strike, and blad, 
blaud, a lump or slice ; to dad, to dash, 
to throw down, and dad, dawd, a lunch 
or large piece, especially of something 
eaUble. See Calt 

Collow. — C0II7. Smut, soot. To 
eolowe, make black with a cole, char- 
bonner. — Palsgr. in Way. Colled, be- 
colUd, smutted, blackened. — K. Horn. 
N. kola, to black or smut with coal ; 
kolut, smutted. — Aasen. Sw. dial, kolna, 
to become black 

Colly. A shepherd's dog, from having 
its tail cropped. Sw. kull-ug, kollig, with- 
out homs, wanting some memter that 
ought to be there.— RieU. Sc. to coll, to 

Ku the hair, to snuff the candle. In 
»se a shepherd's dog is often called 
MuUi, from muts, a stump ; kullmutx, 
kullarsch, a tailless hen. See Poll. 

Colon. — Oosuna. Colon (Cr. nuXoi', 
a limb or member) and comma (Gr. 
lApaa, a piece or chop, from ciirrw, I 
cut) were appUed respectively to the 


principal members of a sentence, and 
the briefest divisions of which it was 
compiosed. Jerome, in his pre&ce to the 
Prophets, says, ' Nemo cum prophetas 
versibus viderit esse descriptos metro eos 
existimet apud Hebrseos tigari — ; sed 

Suod in Demoslhene et in Tullio solet 
eri, ut i>er cola scribantur et commata.' 
— N. & Q. Deer. 19, 1868. The name 
is now given not to the divisions of the 
sentence, but to the marks by which 
divisions of the kind in question are 
separated in writing. 

• Colonel. Fr. colonel, Sp. coronel. 
Properly the captain of the leading com- 

Eany of a regiment, the company at the 
ead of the column. ' La compagnie 
colonelle, ou la colonelle est la premiere 
compagnie d'un regiment d'infanterie.' 
— Trevoux. 

Colossal. Lat. colossus, a statue of 
enormous magnitude. Such was the 
statue in honour of the sun erected at 

Colour. Lat color, a hue, tint, ap- 

Colt. A young horse. Dan. dial, klod, 
kloit, a colL Sw. knit, a young boar, a 
stout boy. 

Column. — Colonnade. Lat, celumna, 
Fr. colonne, a pillar. 

Comatose. Gr. nifui, heavy slumber, 
oppressive drowsiness. 

Com-. See Con-. 

Comb. ON. kambr, G. kamnt. 

Combe. A narrow valley, w. cwm. 

* . Com.ber. — Cumber, g. kummer, 
arrest, seizure, attachment of one's goods 
or person, rubbish, ruins, dirt of streets, 
trouble, distress ; Du. kommer, komber, 
trouble, distress. Mid.Lat. combri, ob- 
struction of the ways made by felling 
trees in a forest; combri, combra, a weir 
or dam for obstructing the current of a 
river. — Due. Fr. encombrer. It ingom- 
brare, to hinder, trouble, encumber ; des- 
combres, what has to be cleared away, 
rubbish, ruins. Tlie radical sense is im- 
pediment, hindrance. / cornier, I let or 
hynder.— Palsgr. GaeL cumraig, cum- 
raick, impede, incommode. Manxfwwr, 
cumree, to hinder, deter, delay ; cumrail, 
hindrance, stoppage. The question is 
whether the sense of rubbish is derived 
from rubbish being considered as a hin- 
drance or whether the development of 
thought does not lie in the opposite direc- 
tion. It is derived by Diez from Lat 
cumulus, Prov. comol,3. heap, Ptg. comere, 
combro, a mound, heap of earth, corre- 
sponding to which we have on. kumil, 




tumb, a cairn, tumulus, barrow, Sw, 
kummel, a heap of stones set up for a 
mark, ruins, rubbish. Again, a parallel 
form with cumber may be found in on. 
kumla, to disable. 'Var Aron sdrr ok 
kumlaSr mjcik,' Aaron was wounded and 
much disabled. Hiabnr kumla^, a bat- 
tered helmet, e. euwtbUd with cold, 
ciamped, stiffened ; comefyd, acomefyd, 
acomyrd, aeomind, for colde, eviratus, 
enervatuB. — Pr. Pm. Cembered and 
cloromed with calde. — MS. cited by Way. 
Du. vcrkommeUn, to be stiff with cold. 
See Oumsy. 
Combine. Lat bint, two together j 

uro, ustum, to bum j eamburo {con-uro). 

To Come. — Oomely. Goth, c-wiman, 
AS. cviimaM, (uman, C. kommeti, Du. 
ktnruu, to come. The Biglotton also 
explains the Du. komen, cadere, conve- 
nire, decere, quadiare. Dat comt wel, 
bene cadit, convenit, decet, quadrat In 
the same way to ia!^ was used in oe. 

It nothlng/fltoto thee 
To nuke fiur sembbnt where thou mnyesl blame. 
Cbaucef, R. R. 

G. ge/allen, to fall to a person's mind, 
to please. In this sense the verb come 
must be understood in the E. comely and 
the Du. komelick, conveniens, congniens, 
commodus, aptus. — KiL See Become. 

This application is marked by a slight 
modification of form in the as. cweman, 
bteaiemoK, to please, delight, satisfy, G. 
bequem, convenient, commodious, easy. 

Comedy. — Comic. Gr. tui/ufiia, a 
dramatic poem intended to take off or 
caricature personal or popular peculiar- 
ities ; lutucici relating to comedy. 

Comftt. Fr. co»/rc, confit (Lat. con- 
Jkere, con/cctum, to prepare), to preserve, 
confect, soak or steep in ; confitures, 
conifits, iunkets, all kind of sweetmeats. 
—Cot. ' 

Comfort. Fr. comforter (Lat. Jortis, 
strong), to solace, encourage, strengthen. 

Comfirey. A plant fonnerly in repute 
as a strengthener, whence it was called 
knit6aek (CoL in v. oreille d'&ne}, and in 
Lat. coHsolida, confirma, or consenia. — 
DieC Sup. E. com/rey seems a corruption 
of the second of these. 

Commft. See Colon. 

Ctnnmenca. It. cominciare, Fr. com- 
menctr. From ww and /wHiiifTf, Milanese 
Mwi, to begin. OSp. compemar, com- 


pegar. Sardin. iimimbentid, fircm iV- 
cem-initiare ; Sp. empaar, from tM-ini' 
tiare. — Diez. Menage. 

OommoBt. Lat comminiseor, -mtnhit 
sum, cemmenlor, to imagine, devise, to 
meditate, consider, remark uptm. 

Commerce. See Merchant 

Oommodiona. — Commodity. Lat 
cemniodui, convenient, suitably advan- 

Commodor*. Fr. cammoMdeur, a gft- 
vemor or commander ; Port commemda- 
ddr, from whence the term seems to have 

Commonalty. — Cim- 
muiie.-.Coiiimunioate, Lat commttmt, 
coimnon, general, Fr. communitai, the 
having of things in common, fellowship, 
Fr. communauti, the cmmnoo people ; 
Lat communico, to impart, give a afaare 
of, hold intercourse wIUl 

Compa'ot. Lat compactui, thickset, 
firm, from cautpingo, -actum, to put or 
join together ; pango, pactum, to dnve m, 

Com'paot. An agreement ; e^mpaeit- 
£0r, compactus, to agree w" ' 

gno, compagtUa. Mid.Lat compaiiiMm, 
association, fonned from coit aod pMUt, 
bread, in analogy with the ohg. gi-muue 
ar gi-Uip, board-fellow, from »ttu'(i,meat, 
or hip, bread. Goth. gaJiiaiia, fellow' 
disciple. Job. xi. i6, from hlaibs, bread. 
Compain, one who eats the same bread 
with one. — laubert Gloss, du MOieu de 

Oompara. Lat comparare, to couple 
things together for judgment, from com- 
Par, equal, and that from com and par, 
like, equal, a pair. But the meaning 
might equally be derived from the original 
sense of the ycrhparare, which seems to 
be to [lush forwards. Thus the Bimi^ 
parare is to push forwards, to get ready ; 
se-parare, to push apart, to sepaiste ; 
com-parare, to push together, to bring 
into comparison, or to prepare, to accn* 

Compaaa. Fr. compos, a compass, a 
circle, a round ; compasser, to compass, 
encircle, bwird, to turn round. — Cot To 
go about, from con and passus, a stepu 
A pair of compasses is an inscnunent for 
describing circles. The mariner's torn- 
pass is so called because it goes through 
the whole circle of possible vaiiatioiu of 
direction. To compass an object is to go 
about it or to con'-—" ■* 



paSr, to sympathise, saflbr vithi See 

Oonvandioua. Lat eomfendium, a 
saving, sparing, shortening, short cut 
The word seems to be formed in opposi- 
tion to dispendium, a spending, by the 
contrast between the particles con, to- 
gether, and ob, apart : an abstinence 
Simi spaidii^. Pendffjpenmm, to veigh, 
to pay. 

Oompemmte. Lat compeHsare, to 
weigh together or one against the other. 
Pmde, pMsutH, to weigh. 

Oompato. — Competent. Lat. fie/o, 
to seek, to aim at, to go to a place ; com- 
ptto, to seek togetherfor a thing, to com- 
pete ; also to come or meet t^ether, to 
be suitable, to have requisite strength. 

Oonq^. Lat. tompilo (con and pilo, 
to pillage : See PiU, Pill^), to spoil, 
plunder, to bring together from different 

Oomplaoeut. — OomplaU&nt. LaL 
timtplaeee. Ft. compliUre, -plaisant, to 
please, del^ht, be obsequious to. 

Compl^oon. Lat. compUxio, a com- 
bination, cotmection, physical constitu- 
tion, applied in modem E. to the colour 
of die sVi", as marking a healthy or un- 
healthy constitution. Fr. complixion, the 
makii^, temper, constitution of the body, 
also the disposition, affection, humours 
of the mind. — Cot 

Oomplici^. — AocompUoe. Lat 
eim^ieo, to fold or plait together ; com- 
pltx, Fr. complia, one bound up with, a 
partner in cnme. See -plic. 

To Oomply. — Oompument. To com- 
ply is properly to fulfil, to act in accord- 
ance with the wishes of another, from 
Lat complere, as supply, Fr. supplier, 
from suppUre. The It. has compiere, 
eemplire, compire, to accomplish, com- 
plete, also to use compliments, ceremo- 
nies, or kind offices and offers. — FL The 
E. comply also was fonnerly used in the 
latter sense, as by Hamlet speaking of 
the ceremonious Osric. ' He did comply 
with his dug before he sucked it' The 
addition of the preposition with is also 
an It idiom : compire con uno, to per' 
form one's duty by one ; — col sua dovere 
to do one's duty ; allapromessa, to per- 
form one's promise. Non posso compire 
con tutti alia volta, I cannot serve aJl at 
a time. — Altieri. Hence compimenti, 
complimtHti, obliging speeches, comph- 

Ooiq^Tclinid. See -prebend. 

Oomrade. Fr. camerade, a chamber- 
fol, a conqiany that beloi^ to one cbam- 



ber, tent, cabin.— Cot, Then applied to 
one of the company, a chamber-fellow. 
From It camera, a chamber. Sp. came- 
rada in both senses. - 

Oon-, col-, com-, cor-. The Lat. 
prep, cum, with, corresponding to Gr, 
cnri-, \vv, takes in composition the fore- 
going forms in accordance with the or- 
ganic nature of the following consonant. 
It signifies in general union or united 
action, and may be illustrated by Fin. 
koko, gen. k^on, a heap, the locative 
cases of which are used in the sense of 
the Lat. con, or E. together. Pane 
kokoon or ko'alla, literally, put in a heap, 
collect ; tulewat kokooH or idolle, they 
come together. 

To Con. To learn, to study, to take 
notice of. Ale-conntr, an inspector of 
ales. To con one thanks, Fr. savoir grd, 
to feel thahkfiil and to make the feeling 
known to the object of it 

AS. n 

search into, try. Cecunnian kwylc 

swi/toit hors kafde, to try which of 

them had the swiftest horse, fie cunnode 
tha mid his kaitda, he felt them with his 
hand. Goth, kunnan, to know ; ana- 
kunttan, to read ; gakunnan, to observe, 
to read ; kannjan, to make known. Sw. 
kunna, to be able ; kunnig, known, 
knowing, skilfiil, cunning; kanaa, to 
know, to feel, to be sensible. 

OonceaL Lat. celo, Goth, huljan, oe. 
to heU, hill, to cover, hide. 

Oonceot. Agreement According to 
Dici from concertare, to contend with, 
but the explanation of Calvera, which he 
mentions, is more satisfactory. The Lat 
has serere, to join together, interweave 
(whence serium, a wreath of flowers), and 
tropically to combine, compose, contrive. 
The compound conserere is used much in 
the same sense, to unite together in ac- 

speech ; consertio, a joining together. 
Hence It conserto, ia\y wrought and 
joined tf^ether, a harmonious consort, an 
agreement, ; conserlare, to concert or in- 
terlace with proportion, to agree and 
accord together, to sing, to tune or play 
in consort. — FL When the word conserto 
was thus applied to the accord of musical 
instruments, it agreed so closely both in 
sense and souna with concenlo, Lat. con- 
centus {cantus, melody, song), harmony, 
harmonious music, that the two seem to 
have been confounded together, and con- 
serio, borrowing the c of concento, became 
concerto, whence the Fr. and E. concert. 
In English again the word was con- 




founded with consort, from Lat comors, 
sortis, partaking, sharing, a colleague, 
partner, comrade. 

Bight bard il wm for wight which did it hear 
To read what manner niusick [hat mote be ; 
For all that pleasing was to living ear 
Waa there consortid in one hartnoiwe, 
Birds, voices, inslmments, winds, waters, all 
agree,— F. Q. in R. 

Muta di violoni, a set or consort of viob. 
— FL 

Conciliate. — Beconclle. Lat, con- 
cUio, to fiill or thicken woollen cloth, 
thence to bring together, to conjoin, to 
procure. It seems to be the equivalent 
of Gr. irvfiinXJM, to felt, from irUoc, wool, 
felt, as in so many other instances where 
p and c or k replace each other. 

Oondave. Lat. clavis, key ; conclave, 
an apartment under lock and key ; hence 
a party or council meeting and deliberat- 
ing in such an apartment, or in guarded 

Concord. Lat. cor, cordis, heart ; Con- 
cordia, union of hearts, agreement, and 
fig. agreement of notes, harmony. 

Oonouhine. Lat. concubina, from 
concutnbo, to he down together. Cf. Gr. 
TapsKMric, Clevel. laybeside. 

Condi^-. Lat. dignus, condignus, 
fitting, worthy. 

Condiment. LaL co«al':',-/«,toseason 

Oosdition. Lat. condo, condilum, to 
set together, to lay up in store, to arrange, 
dispose, establish ; conditio, the putting 
together, the nature, condition or cir- 
cumstances of a thing. 

Conduit. Fr. conduire, -duit, to con- 
duct, lead ; conduit, a watercourse, ~ 
gutter or trench whereby water is led 
a place. See -duce. 

Cone. Lat conus. Gr. .wwoc, a co; 

Fr. conil, connin, Du. konijn, G, kungde, 
kuade (KiL), kunigil, kunielin (Dief.}, 
ON. kunit^, w. coming. The name is 
said by Pliny and other writers to be 
originally Spanish, and through the Latin 
it seems to have spread to the Germanic 
and Celtic stocks. In several of the 
forms above cited the name seems to 
signify kin^ or little king, and thus was 
translated mio Boh. kraijk, a prince or 
little king, also a rabbit or coney. See 
Dief. Orig. Eur. 308. 

Confection. Lat conjicio, -fectum, to 
get together, compose, prepare, work ; 
confectio, a preparation. 

Oonf«H. \j>.\.Jaftor,fassitm,confiteor, 


-fessuMj to acknowledge, avo 
'-I manifest. 

Crn^eaL Lat^*/«, frost, severe cold; 
cottgilo, to become solidified by the actiMi 
of cold, 

OongrlomwatA. Lat. globus (corre- 
sponding to E. cluS), a b^, thick round 
body ; glomus, a ball of thread ; glemerc, 
conglomero, to roll or heap up into a 

Cong^roity. — Ineongmooc Lat iXH- 
grUB, to come together, to happen at tbe 
same time, to accord ; congruus, suitable^ 
agreeing, fit. 

Conjugal Lat. conjux, -Jugis, a con- 
sort, husband or wife, proper^ perhaps 
a yoke-fellow, from jugum, a yoke ; but 
ultimately from junge, to Join, 

Coi^uie. l,at. jurare, to swear; ant- 
Jurare, to combine together by an oath, 
■ ■ the E. application to bind by 

accent on the first syllable) to c6njure, to 
use enchantments, to esorcise the super- 
natural powers, and ultimately to use 
ju^ling tricks or sleight of hand. 

ConniTe. Lat canniveo, -next, to 
wink with the eyes, to take no notice of; 
nicto, to wink ; nicere manti, to beckon 
with the hand. G. nieken, Du. knicktn, 
to nod, to wink. For the rdation between 
nico or nicto and niveo comp. nix, tuvis, 
snow. The ultimate root is the repre- 
sentation of the sound of a snap oi ciack 
by the syllable knick, knip. G. knitken, 
Du. knippen, to snap, crack. The term 
is then applied to any short sharp move- 
ment Met de oogen knippen, kn^oo^n, 
to wink or twinkle with the eyes. 

Conqueror. Lat. quarere, to sedc, 
conquirere, to seek for, to seek out, obtain 
by seeking. Fr. conquerir, to get, pur- 
chase, acquire, and hence to get tbe vic- 

consider, reflect ; a figure, according to 
Festus, from the observation of ^jaSL 
siderd) the stars. 

Constable. The Master of the H01S& 
or great officer of the empire who had 
charge of the horses, was called comes 
staiuli, the count of the stable, camesta- 
bilis, conestabilis, &c. To this officer, in 
the kingdoms which sprang up out of tbe 
ruins of the empire, fell the commanii of 
the army and the ct^isance of military 
matters. ' Regalium prsepositus equo- 
rum, quern vu^o Comistabilem vocant' 
— Almoin in Due. ' Comitem stabuli 
sui quern conupte constabtUum a^ipdla- 


mus.' — Greg. Turon. in Due 'Corani 
comile Herefordiensi,qui secundum anti- 
quum jus coDstabularius esse dignoscitur 
regii eiercitfls.'— Math. Westm. ia Due 
The term was then applied to the com- 
mander of a. fortress or any detached 
body of troops, and in this sense the title 
still remains in the Constable of the 
Tower, the ConsUble of Chester Castle. 
The Constable then became the officer 
who commanded in any district on behalf 
of the king. ' In villis vero vel urbibus 
vel castellis qux regis subsunt dominio, 
in quibus constabularit ad tempus sta- 
tuuntur.' — ConciL Turon. A.D. 1 163 in 

Thus in England the term finally set- 
tled down as the designation of the pet^ 
officer who had the charge of the krag's 
peace in a separate parish or hamlet. 

Ooiurtaat. Lat. cartsto, to stand to- 
gether, stand firmly, to remain, endure. 

OonstemAtdon. Lat. sterna, itratum, 
, to scatter, strew, throw to the ground ; 
coiuUmo, to throw down, and fig. to 

Coiwtipation. Lat constipatio {con 
and stip0, to cram, pack closely, Or. 
aTii0J), a. crowding or pressing together. 

Ootuttrue.—Constniot. See Structure. 

Oonanlt. Lat. cansulo, -sultum, to de- 
liberate, lake advice. 

Contact —Contagion. — Oostdeuous. 
— Contiii««iit. See Tact, -tag. 

Contaminate, Lat contamino, to 
make foul, pollute, stain. 

Contemn. — Contempt. I.aL ttmno, 
contemno, to despise. 

Contemplate. Lat. contemplor (perf. 
p. conttmplalus), to survey, behold or 
gaie at st